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Department
Commerce
Course
COMMERCE 1BA3
Professor
Teal Mc Ateer
Semester
Fall

Description
2BA3 Lecture Notes, for sure on midterm Organizations are social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort - Social inventions – the who; we as humans get confused with the most important thing in an organization – the people. “Culture eats strategy for breakfast” - Common goals – the what; what is our intention? Slow down to speed up and see where you’re going - Group effort – the how; what people are we going to put where, who are we going to hire, etc. Micro- individual worker; mezzo – interaction between people; macro – the entire organization and how it interacts with the community The notion of prepotency – the level above is only potent or powerful if the level below is fully satisfied on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs The iceberg analogy – most of what’s going on is below the surface in the informal organization, not above in the formal organization. You must pay attention to what’s going on “under the table” What do managers do? (Mintzberg) - Informational roles – various ways managers are receiving and transmitting info o Monitor: as a situation-senser you’re consistently scanning the environment - internal and external o Disseminator: make choices about how to send info (facts and preferences) up and down o Spokesperson – sending info within the house - Interpersonal Roles – how managers establish and maintain interpersonal relatinships o Figurehead – symbolic for the org o Leader – managers that are doing higher-level mentorship o Liason – linking pins, maintaining and fostering horizontal relationships - Decisional roles o Entrepreneur – turn problems into opportunities o Disturbance handler – dealing with conflict o Resource allocator – deploying time, dollars, and bodies o Negotiator – negotiating up, across, and down What do managers do? (Luthans) - Routine communication – up, across, and down - Traditional management – have to know when to flip into task orientation - Networking – to become savvy, to become politic, to play under the water-line - HRM What do managers do? (Kotter) - Agenda setting – goal setting capability and time management - Networking – to become savvy, to become politic, to play under the water-line - Agenda implementation – not just have the objective, but obtaining it; what are your ways of getting others to move, and use other people Managerial minds (Simon and Isenberg) - Situational sensing (S+T=R) - Intuition – ability to gain idiosyncratic credits - Rapid mental processing/analyses – ability to perform well-learned mental tasks quickly - Synthesizing Components of perception: - Perceiver o Perceiver’s experience, needs, and emotions can affect their perception of the target - Target o Perception involves interpretation of the target o Ambiguous targets are susceptible to interpretation - Situation o Context (timing) can affect what one perceives Two parts to all assessments during perceptions 1. People form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and memberships in social categories 2. People form perceptions of others based on their memberships in social categories Five steps of the perceptual process: 1. Environmental stimuli – sensory input, intuition (sixth sense) a. Sensory overload can occur when there are too many stimuli for a person to process 2. Observation – everything is going on around us and we’re trying to sense of it 3. Perceptual selection (or attention) – what do you choose to select, what do you pay attention to, only a limited number of things (sensory inputs) can be detected a. External factors – eg. Size, intensity, contrast, etc. b. Internal factors – eg. Familiarity, source credibility, etc. 4. Perceptual organization/construction – what picture are you making of this target a. What is perceptually selected is due in part to what others are perceiving b. Perceptual grouping – eg. Proximity, similarity, etc. 5. Interpretation – where attribution theory lives; most important Attribution – the process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain people’s behaviours - Internal (dispositional) attribution – perception that outcomes are due to personality or intellect rather than situation or environment - External (situational) attribution – perception that outcomes are due to situation or environment rather than the person - Example: is high performance on the exam due to ability or easy questions? Attribution cues – 3 implicit questions guide our decisions as to whether we should attribute the behaviour to dispositional or situational causes: 1. Consistency cues – does the person engage in the behaviour regularly and consistently? a. Does the data provide info about an employee’s performance over time 2. Consensus cues – do most people engage in the behaviour, or is it unique to this person? a. This is info that provides an opportunity to compare across employees 3. Distinctiveness cues – does the person engage in the behaviour in many situations, or is it distinctive to one situation?) a. Info that allows you to compare across tasks Cultural intelligence: represents a person’s capability to function effectively in situations characterized by cultural diversity What jobs would require high CQ (cultural quotient)? - Being hired to work in diverse teams - Conduct international relationships - Public relations across borders - Hired for negotiation/conflict resolution skills across borders - Develop supplier relationship cross-border Cultural Intelligence - 4 sub-skills: 1. CQ-Strategy: how a person interprets and understands intercultural experiences (Have a plan) 2. CQ-Knowledge: a person’s understanding of how cultures are similar and different (did I go and do my plan) 3. CQ-Motivation: a person’s interest in experiencing other cultures and interacting with people from different cultures (how badly do you want it) 4. CQ-Behaviour: person’s capability to modify their own verbal and nonverbal behaviour so it is appropriate for different cultures (you’re doing it) Five factor model for personality: 1. Extraversion 2. Emotional stability 3. Agreeableness 4. Conscientiousness 5. Openness to experience Differences in Values: - Generational o Traditionalists o Baby boomers o Gen X o Millennials - Cultural o Work centrality – how does the human value work? Is who you are what you do for a living? o Power distance – the extent to which unequal power distribution is accepted o Uncertainty avoidance – the extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations o Masculinity/feminity – more masculine=higher differentiation on gender roles, more dominance by males, etc; more feminine=no glass ceiling, respect for pay equity, etc. o Individualism/collectivism – individualistic=value and encourage interdependence; collectivism=values interdependence o Long-term/short-term orientation – the ability to see macro and micro Equity Theory – the inputs that people perceive themselves as investing in a job and the outcomes that the job provides are compared against the inputs and outcomes of some other relevant person or group Motivation: the extent to which persistent effort is directed towards a goal - Effort: strength of a person’s work-related behaviour - Persistence (most important): how determined/hungry to are - Direction of effort: the quality of a person’s work (IKIWISI, I’ll know it when I see it) - Goals: the purpose or the objective of the effort Intrinsic motivation: motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and task Extrinsic motivation: motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task (contextual theory applies here) Notion of prepotency: the level above is only potent or powerful when the levels below it have been satisfied on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Theoretical anchor for Equity theory is cognitive dissonance Two employees: same inputs, same job, but one employee makes 10k more, what can they do? - Alter an input or alter an output - Cognitively distort an input or output - Leave the field - Take actions designed to change the inputs or outputs of the other employee (sabotage) - Find another more relevant other employee that’s more in a situation like them (education, experience, etc.) Goal-setting Theory: - Goal difficulty/challenge: notion that a more difficult goal leads to higher performance, but it cant be too difficult - Goal specificity: specific goals have a positive effect on motivation, rather than vague (poke swiss cheese, take bit out of apple) - Goal acceptance/Commitment: Pavlov and Skinner, no human will move unless they have to - Goal Feedback: the ability to compare current performance to the final (thermostat analogy) What should managers do to put goal-setting theory to use in their organizations? 1. Meet with subordinates on a regular basis to come up with goals 2. Have regular monitoring and progress meetings 3. Performance appraisal sessions 4. Repeat the MBO cycle What is MBO (Management by objectives)? - A managerial technique for improving motivation using goal setting principles (principles used by the organization) Contextual/Process Theories of Motivation: - Reinforcement Theory o Positive reinforcement: when a pleasant stimuli is applied to a worker after some behaviour, the stimuli is said to positively reinforce if the behaviour is likely to occur again o Negative reinforcement: when an unpleasant stimuli is removed after some behaviour, the removal of an unpleasant stimuli is said to have negatively reinforced effective job performance o Punishment: when an unpleasant event is applied after some behaviour o Extinction: the withdrawing of something positive ev
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