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Midterm

HTHSCI 3BB3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Pyridoxal Phosphate, Endosperm, Lipoprotein

19 pages194 viewsFall 2014

Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
HTHSCI 3BB3
Professor
Teresa Mccurdy
Study Guide
Midterm

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Nutrition Notes
Nutrition Matters
Nutrition-Related
-Cancer, Heart Disease, Stroke — Canada’s Nutrition-Related Deaths
-Cancer, Heart Disease, Stroke and Diabetes — US Nutrition-Related Deaths
Mediterranean Diet Pyramid
-Base every meal off of veggies, fruit and whole grains (plant based, not processed)
-Fish/seafood two times a week
-Short term diets don’t help
-Slow, sustainable, incremental changes will work
Leading Causes of Premature Death
Diseases caused by:
-feet (physical activity)
-forks (diet)
-fingers (smoking)
Impact of Nutrition in Different Countries
-A healthy diet can offset the risks of other bad behaviours (like smoking)
-Macronutrients (proteins carbs fats) supply energy — water is a macronutrient that doesn’t
supply energy
-In Canada, our priority is prevention of obesity and prevention of chronic diseases
Units of Energy
-One calorie (1/1000 of a Kcal) is the amount of heat it takes to raise one gram of water one
degree celsius
-One calorie is equal to 4.18 joules
-CARB: 4 Kcalories/gram
-LIPID: 9 Kcalories/gram
-PROTEIN: 4 Kcalories/gram
-ALCOHOL: 7 Kcalories/gram
Micronutrients
-only needed in small amounts — include vitamins and minerals
-they’re needed for co-factors and co-enzymes
-these don’t supply calories, but they allow body processes to occur
Genes vs. Lifestyle
-Obesity genes aren’t the main culprit behind rising obesity levels
-Diet and lifestyle are more likely to cause obesity than genetics
The Science of Nutrition
Nutritional Research Studies
-Experimental group (variable being tested is present)
-Control group (variable being tested is absent)
-Sometimes there isn’t an intervention
-Observational studies can include epidemiology, which looks at diet, health and disease
patterns in a population
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Nutrition Notes
Dietary Planning
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
-a set of nutrient reference values for vitamins, minerals, macronutrients and energy
-Four types
-EAR — estimated average requirements (50% of the population)
-RDA — recommended dietary allowance (based on EAR, but encompasses needs of
97% of the population)
-AI — adequate intake (value used if there is insufficient data to calculate RDA, our best
guess)
-UL — tolerable upper intake level (amount below which there is little chance of adverse
health effects)
Estimated Energy
Requirements (EER)
-Used to calculate
calories to maintain
stable weight in
healthy individual
-Based on gender,
weight, height and
activity level
Acceptable
Macronutrient
Distribution Rate
(AMDRs)
Recommendations:
-CARBS: 45-65%
-FAT: 20-35%
-PROTEIN: 10-35%
Example:
-2100kcal x 0.5% = 1050 kcal from carbs
-1050 kcal/4 kcal/gram = 263 grams of carbs
Food Labels
-5% or less, it’s low
-15% or more, it’s high
Mnemonic for Diet Planning
-Adequacy
-Balance
-Calorie control
-Nutrient Density
-Moderation
-Variety
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Nutrition Notes
Assessment of Nutritional Health
-Analysis of nutrients in dietary intake
-Anthopometric (BP, height, weight)
-Medical hx and lab measurements
Normal Blood Values of Nutritional Reference
Hematocrit (ml/100 ml)
-Men: 0.43 - 0.52
-Women: 0.37 - 0.46
Hemoglobin (g/L)
-Men: 140-174
-Women: 123-157
Ferritin 10-250 ug/L
Iron: 7-36 nmol/L
Assessing Nutrient Deficiencies
Inadequate Intake
-Dietary evaluation, Medical history, Physical exam and Lab tests
Decreased stores and tissue levels
-Lab tests, anthropometrics
Altered biochemical and physiological functions
-Lab tests
Physical signs and symptoms of deficiency
-Physical exam and anthropometrics
Canadian Healthy Eating Index (CHEI)
-Average CHEI score was 58.8%
-We want to increase this score by 20% by 2015
Review of Digestion and Metabolism
Digestion — the process of breaking food down to be absorbed by the body
Absorption — the process by which food moves into the body from GI
Transit time — the amount of time it takes for food to pass the length of the GI tract
- We want the nutrients to absorb slower, but transit time to be faster
Gut Microbiota
-obesity, cancer, inflammation, CVD and liver disease have all been linked with gut microbiota
-We can affect the bacteria in our body by what we eat (feed the good bacteria)
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