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Music 1A03 Test 3 Notes.doc

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Andrew Mitchell

Music 1A Test 3 Notes Overview Baroque (c. 1600 - c. 1750) - early Baroque composers concerned with expression of emotion in music; connection with occurrences in Renaissance (tone painting) - dissonance more prominent (on words such as: pain, despair, etc.) - strict conventions on 'prepared' dissonance no longer applicable Concertato music - music that has specific parts for instruments and voices; type of accompaniment/way to bring voices together: ** "basso continuo" = "continuos bass" = the act of playing a certain way (also known as “thorough ways”); very pervasive - harmonies improvised over bass - notation: "figured bass" solo music important New genres invented: **opera: theatrical presentation of a story sung in its entirety; very popular entertainment throughout 17th, 18th, 19th centuries; most prestigious secular form of music (since not accessible to all); influential to other composers (ex. Mozart) **recitative: style of singing resembling speech - stems from Humanism; interest in ancient Greek culture; **oratorio: musically very similar to opera, however differs in that plots are taken from the bible (Old Testament) and it is not staged/performed with costumes/sets/etc., purpose: Europe still Christian society, opera considered to indulgent/flamboyant (esp. during lent); initially Italian drama pg 91 - Monteverdi(EarlyBaroqueopera) libretto - words that are sung *Orpheus - son of Apollo; "best musician"; played the lyre; fell in love with Euridice, marries (*pg98); - *Tocatta: (no singing) opening music; starts energetically, loudly - *Prologue: (female voice) character music/intro; Strophic variation: textual structure similar; harmonies are the same, but details of melody are different Ritornello = little return; in vocal music, orchestra's music featured; also found in solo music concertos; often repeated; LG11 - uses basso continuo (harpsichord) Hemiola - measure (sub)division into three equal parts, and then two equal parts Venice - canals, tourist hotspot especially during carnival (b/n Christmas & Mardi Gras/ before lent = penitential season); Italian audience interested in soloists; recitative Music 1A Test 3 Notes becomes downplayed (used for conveying dialogue/narration), more rapidly delivered, less emotion **Aria= vocal solo with regular rhythm, meter, has rich orchestration (strings + basso continuo), very tuneful/memorable melody; function = allow characters to emote 1630 - later opera: opera structured as alternation of recitative & aria Also, opera became more business oriented: librettists used other topics (from ancient history-Caesar, etc. goofy plot, only using the character, not really historically accurate) LateBaroque Handel - German composer (*oratorios) born in Lutheran region (similar to Bach) where there was tolerance for elaborate music; fan of Italian opera, moved to Hamburg, then Italy; became skilled composer of Italian opera; went back to Germany, then England, where he established himself as an opera composer - public's tastes change (became more nationalistic), so Handel adjusted oratorios to be in English and involved the chorus more -- english oratorios = still used characters from Old Testament and had musical forms also found in opera Handel’s most famous work: **Me
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