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Music Midterm I.doc

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Carolyn Capretta

Music Midterm I 2014 January 29 st Classical era (1750-1800)-mozart->symphony No.40 in G minor 1 movement 19 century (1800-1900)- Chopin-> Mazurka in B-flat 20 century (1901-2000)- Leonard Bernstein-> tonight Melody-The a single line of note heard in succession as a coherent unit Rhythm- The Time. Rhythm is the ordering of music through time. Harmony-supporting the melody. sound created by multiple voices playing / singing together Note-is the smallest unit of music st nd Phrases- sentence? LOL the melody between your 1 breath and 2 Cadence(Latin, cadere, “to fall”)- a melody typically ends with a cadence; like a period at the end of a sentence Melodic motion refers to the shape or direction of a string of notes -Upward motion: ascending trajectory - Downward motion: Descending trajectory -Disjunct motion: motion by leaps (especially large leaps) ex: C->B->D -Conjunct motion: stepwise motion with notes very close to each other ex: C->D->E A melody’s overall shape is referred to as its contour, which si frequently arch shaped(rise and fall) Scale- a series of notes that moves stepwise and cover a complete span called -octave (it covers 8 notes.) Ex.: do re mi fa so la ti do Interval- the distance between each note F = 4 > th nd rd th -2 and 3 are narrow interval but 4th to 6 are wide Tonic- Start and end note. And is made from a pattern of whole step and half Standard Scale: are mostly whole steps with 2 strategically placed half steps. -Whole step: C-D-E -Half Step: E->F Key- the most important note of a scale and the central model on which a melody or piece is based. -Western music are usually based on one of 12 major and minor keys - Starting on tonic note C= music in the key of C -each possible tonic, there are 2 possible keys, one major and one minor Major key sounds: Happy, Bright Minor Key sounds: sad, dark Rhythm- is the ordering of music through time -most music fits within a regular time grid made up of beats - Beats are usually organized into group: - |12||12| -> 2 (Duple Meter) - |123||123| -> 3 (Triple Meter) - |1234||1234|-> 4 (Duple Meter) Grouping of beats is called “Meter”; Bar/ measure= each group of beat -usually the first beat is more important (strong-weak-weak) or (long-short-short) Tempo : the speed at which music is played Tonic Chord: the chord is based on the tonic Texture-thick and thin. Texture is based on the number and general relationship of musical lines or voices. -many voices: Thick -single voice: Thin Main types of textures: 1) Monophony-single unaccompanied melody; solo/ unison -->Thin 2) Polyphony-More than one voice or part plays a melody simultaneously-->Thick 3) Homophony- Polyphonic music in which all melodic parts move together at more or less the same pace. Timbre: the color of music. Timbre is the character of a sound. The same melody sounds very different when performed by a violin, a clarinet, or human voice. Even its the same pitch, same melody->sound different because of the Timber Dynamics: Loud to soft. The same music can be performed at many different volume(from very soft to very loud). --can happen suddenly and slowly Italian Terms: pp (pianissimo) : very soft p(piano)- soft mp(mezzo piano) -medium soft, speaking voice mf (mezzo forte)- medium loud, speaking voice f(forte) - loud, speaking loudly ff(fortissimo) very loud, yelling Cres (crescendo). - becoming louder Dim.(diminuendo)- becoming softer sfz(sforzando)- suddenly louder, accented Form: The Architecture of Music. A single melody is usually too short to constitute a complete work of music. Form is based on: - Repetition (A A) - Variation (A A’) - Contrast (A B) The way these subunits are put together, the structure of the whole, is musical form. ~Most common forms include AB(two-part form) and ABA (three-part form) Word- Music Relationships: how words shape what we hear. If there is a text to be sung, we must consider the relationship of the words to the music. How does the music capture the meaning and spirit of its text. - Program Music is some composers have even written detailed descriptions. Genre: great expectation. The category of a given work. A genre shapes our expectation of what we are likely to experience. It is base on who is playing. -consider in literature or film EX. Symphony, sonata, opera and song Lecture 3 Follows the Baroque Era (1600-
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