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Music 2F03 notes - whole course.pdf

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Department
Music
Course
MUSIC 2F03
Professor
Andrew Mitchell
Semester
Winter

Description
Musical Terminology (Ch. 1-4): Pitch: - letter names (A-G) - term that refers to the quality of a music note/sound; distinguishes a high sound to a low sound - discrete pitches Melody/tune: - consists of a succession/series of pitches - contains rhythms, but pitch is important too - most prominent/memorable aspect Key: - major/minor keys - term that is used to understand/make sense of how pitches are organized (how they’re put together) - Another definition: group of pitches (particular subset of pitches) - major keys = used when composers wants to express “positive emotions” - minor = more “negative” emotions - general rule of thumb, although there are exceptions - chromatic = use of other notes that are not in the key; adding an extra element to the music that wouldn’t be there; sounds more complicated, more unusual Scale: - do, rei, mi, fa, sol, la, ti, do.. - not made up in the ‘60s for the sound of music - very old, middle ages - used to teach the basics of western music - nonsense syllables Interval: - measurement/distance between one pitch and another th - 8 = octave - notes that are an octave apart have the same letter name - intervals have gained express associations; mass entertainment; so engrained in our culture - 1-5; very strong interval = fanfare; as are 1-4 - Fanfare = military, hunting, royalty connotations - 7-8 = very small interval, comes at the end of the scale. Tends to generate anticipation; can add tension if landing on the 7 , while not continuing to the 8th Tonic: - keys have names, by the “do” note - sense of arrival when “do” note arrives - very last note is the tonic - signals that the piece of music closes - by withholding the tonic, anticipation also occurs Tonal/Atonal: -­‐ tonal system = system that has a tonic note in a given piece of music th -­‐ if you write music without a tonic note, it is called atonal; lacks a key, began during the 20 century Melody – these affect the melody/gives connotations - contour (shape)= building of melodies; often arch shape; can have a static shape; will affect the emotive quality of music; As melody rises, sense of tension and anticipation - conjunct & disjunct melodies – Conjunct = smthl melodies, not moving very far; Disjunct = bigger jumps in interval, a lot of “avant garde” 20 century music is very disjunct; erratic jumping, tends to destabilize listener • much of the melody we listen to is conjunct. - Range • refers to distance between lowest note and highest note in a melody (overall range) • range can affect the emotive qualities of a melody • narrow ranges (simple children songs); does not move from its general point. Ex. Mary had a little lamb • wider ranges – can sound much more expansive, complex. Ex. Somewhere over the rainbow - cadence • feeling of rest/coming to an end of a section - theme & motive • both refer to segments of melodies that reoccur • theme is a longer melodic segment that recurs, while motives are shorter ones. • Motive can be as short as 2-3 notes; does not have to come back the same everytime; just has to be somewhat recognizable; can be very important in music (cohesive effect) • Themes = entire phrases of music that recurs - phrases • antecedent & consequent • music is divided into phrases a lot, analogous to sentences in language • music is organized in phrases • phrases are organized in pairs; there is an antecedent (unfinished/incomplete) and a consequent phrase (more complete) • Consequent phrase = land on a tonic to make it more complete Duration: - rhythm • general and specific meaning • specific rhythm, pattern (of long notes + short notes) of duration - beat (pulse) • regular, does not vary • “easiest” thing to pick up on (clap along with it) • can be arranged into larger groups -­‐ meter -> group of beats into larger groups • can also be called measures • simple (beats subdivided in ½), compound meter (divided into 3 parts) • can be duple (2 main beats), triple (3), quadruple (4) • duple simple – 1 and 2 and 1 … • triple simple – 1 and 2 and 3 and • quadruple simple – 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and • Duple simple: ex. Radetzky March (Strauss) – uniformity, discipline • Triple simple: ex. Blue Danube Waltz (Strauss) – Waltz music • Quadruple Simple: ex. Beethoven’s 6 symphony • Compound duple: ex. Bach gigue Tempo: • Refers to the overall speed of the music • How fast the beats are Harmony: • More than 1 sound @ the same time • Chords -> simultaneity of sounds • Triads (major/minor) -> chord that has 3 notes; most common harmonies Texture: • How individual parts relate to one another • Monophony -> singing together (community singing) o Gregorian Chants o One @ a time • Polyphony (many sounds) o Counterpoint (# of different parts of equal interest, competing for attention) o Homophony – one main melody that is very prominent, other parts are secondary. Attention is focused on main melody, much more straightforward. Ex. Beethoven Sonata “Pathetique”  Homorhythm – one main melody and an accompaniment part; all the parts are moving along at the same pace, similar rhythm. Ex. Bach Jesu; Church music Dynamics: Piano = soft Forte = loud Crescendo = PIZZA?! .. I mean getting louder Decrescendo = getting quieter Timbre: Tone colour – distinguish one instrument from another Orchestration/instrumentation – how the instruments are apportioned for any piece of music Musical Styles: • View textbook – Table 4.1 th th Romantic – composed of the early part of the 19 century; post romantic – later part of the 19 -­‐ full orchestra was very common -­‐ in film score, romantic style = orchestral style -­‐ Homophonic = predominant, one main melody; very clear what you are trying to listen to. -­‐ Memorable melodies are important in this style -­‐ Harmony is traditional, uses maj/minor chords + few other types of chords -­‐ Tonal music; based on a system of maj/min keys -­‐ Rhythm = strong pulse/regular meter; usually possible to get a sense of what the meter is Modern: developed in the 20 century th -­‐ avoids tunes; often disjunct -­‐ variety of texture -­‐ dissonant -­‐ irregular pulses and meter = avoidance of regularity makes people uncomfortable awks. -­‐ often small, colourful ensembles = move away from the big full orchestra Popular: Rock & roll of the 1950s + -­‐ central role for tunes; melody-dominated -­‐ traditional harmony -­‐ strong beat, syncopation (regularly accenting traditionally nonaccented beats) -­‐ electrical guitars, drums, synthesizers, vocal style is particular Webern – String Quartet – lack of tonal melody, aimless, disjoint, disoriented, no idea where it’s leading -­‐ dissonant; no major/minor harmony -­‐ lack of regular meter Sacrificial Dance – Stravinsky -­‐ idea of irregular meter is put into the foreground -­‐ a lot of very loud accent; lots of irregular places -­‐ full orchestra; effect is much more emphatic -­‐ great violence effect -­‐ primitive style; irregular meter & strong accents are primitive and unleash primitive emotions… I want to hold your hand – The Beatles: -­‐ regular, repeating melody = a lot of repetition -­‐ strong use of guitar & drums -­‐ consistent level of volume, texture, lack of variation In film scores, vocal music is rarely used because it kind of takes away from the dialogue th Beethoven – 5 symphony: -­‐ arrival points 01/17/2013 Film Production Technology: Most senior: -­‐ producer, in charge of overall process -­‐ business aspect -­‐ financing, major personnel -­‐ can have entire team of producers => referred to as line producer Senior Producer -> Executive Producer in TV Creative decisions – more likely in TV, not that many in movies ~ 1960s, directors are more important in creative decisions. Directors: -­‐ in charge of shooting the movie -­‐ recording the images -­‐ creative decisions (overall authority) -­‐ collaborates with composer over music Editor: -­‐ takes the shots + joins them up to create final version -­‐ music is written so it interacts with the editing -­‐ in charge of post production • whole process after shots have been taken • where music is added Answer Print: -­‐ essentially the final version -­‐ contains the music -­‐ test audiences, executives -­‐ changes are made to create Release Print Music Personnel and activities: Composers: -­‐ writes the music -­‐ score = actual written musical notation -­‐ compose = usually thinks of things before it is performed (distinct from improvisation) -­‐ generally scores are thought up in details -­‐ success of film scores depends on success of film First Cut – how the music should be put Locked Cut – 2 part of first cut Spotting Process – where music is added Orchestrator -­‐ advise on how it should be arranged -­‐ helpful if composer does not know how to score orchestras -­‐ details person Conductor – conducts orchestra Studio musicians – they play music Recording engineers: -­‐ recording session/studio session -­‐ synthesizer programmer Music Editor -­‐ works music into film -­‐ timing is correct -­‐ creates temp track = added to the film (pre-existing music) to give the director what it sounds like with music Scoring Mixture – helps composer decide which take to use + edits for continuity Music Exec – fills the role for music what the producer does; business aspect Music Supervisor – sometimes same as Music exec; similar roles Music 2F03: 01/21/2013 Film Production Terminology: Music Preparation Staff: -­‐ Copyists - -­‐ still needs to make parts; extract them from a score + create a score that the conductor can use -­‐ the part extractors – make the parts from the scores; separate job from copyists -­‐ librarians – actual printing of the score from the software and they bind them: ready for the musicians to play them Final dubbing session: -­‐ music people + sound effects/dialogue people -­‐ this is when all of the sound elements are discussed and levels are adjusted -­‐ tones down/up Trailer music: -­‐ trailers = advertisements that are played -­‐ music is added fairly late; trailers are out quite early (a year! In advance! Oh wow!) -­‐ typically the case that the music in a trailer is not a part of the final score. Other music that has been written ahead of time; may even be music that has be purchased from a company that specializes in trailer music -­‐ Prominent company – X-Ray Dog -­‐ Trailer music could be reused. Ex. War of the worlds & Fellowship of the rings trailers -­‐ Composed in a certain way, in an attempt to generate anticipation (?) Genre: -­‐ types of films -­‐ comedies, horrors, dramas etc Episodic plots/causal plots: -­‐ plot is the story, what people take in consciously -­‐ exposition = learn a bit about the characters, who they are, where they find themselves -­‐ complication = UH OH.. unleashes a chain of events -­‐ Climax – can have or not climatic music -­‐ Resolution of the climax -­‐ Episodic plots do not have much order, series of related events -­‐ The above were causal plots -­‐ How is the situation and the characters accompanied by music, what effect does that initial exposition have -­‐ Sometimes you can see how the character is depicted by looking at its music accompaniment -­‐ Even in episodic film, there is an overall order but just not as orderly as causal; succession of events that do not build directly from one to the next. Characters: -­‐ antagonist = bad guy, feel scorn for. -­‐ protagonist = main character, identify with. -­‐ Very specific choices to emphasize/deemphasize things -­‐ Tells story from a particular point of view, identify with one/group of characters at the expense of others. -­‐ Who’s story is focused on Cinematography: -­‐ art of filming moving pictures -­‐ specific film style; the look of the film -­‐ colours can be muted/vibrant, can be focused on darker colours -­‐ The Godfather – very rich dark colours, generally very crisp look, the music is very classically oriented, sense of history, seems steeped in tradition -­‐ The Adventures of Robin Hood – vibrant, interesting sounds, brass instruments Mise en scene: -­‐ how things are set up (ie. Actors, props etc) -­‐ costuming -­‐ how characters are placed within the frame (highlights how important they are) Shot: -­‐ an individual length of film that does not have interruptions -­‐ basic unit of film as an art -­‐ Pan: where the frame moves, the whole camera itself does not move, what the camera views is moving -­‐ Tracking shot: whole camera itself is moving, greater generation of moving -­‐ Movement of camera either creates a sense of momentum (if it is moving) or not (not moving) -­‐ Films can have a visual rhythm, like music it is an artform that moves overtime Cut: move from one shot to another -­‐ also generates moment and movement -­‐ increases the pace of a film -­‐ trailers often generate visual excitement, a sense of momentum. By increasing the movement of shots Cross-cutting: -­‐ where you are watching two events at the same time -­‐ alternating with one another. Scene: -­‐ series of shots that belong together -­‐ break between a scene can be subjective -­‐ a change in time period/place can be moving from one scene to another Act: -­‐ accumulation of scenes which has some reason to be thought of together as a set -­‐ usually there are 3-4 acts in total -­‐ where the acts begin/end can be a subjective exercise for the audience Montage: -­‐ where you have a moment in the film where you’re seeing a series of events that would, in real time, unfold in a greater span of time -­‐ in the film, those events are compressed, snap shots of various moments in that span of time -­‐ usually montages in Hollywood films do not have much dialogue/any dialogue at all. Diegetic music/source music: -­‐ diegetic element = things happening in the world of the film (ie. Restaurant sounds) -­‐ diegetic music = music that is taking place within the world of the film (a radio playing, someone is having a concert and music is being performed) -­‐ if the characters are in the scene could conceivably hear the music, then it is diegetic music Nondiegetic music/underscoring -­‐ music that seems to come from nowhere, not heard in the scene by the actors -­‐ WHERE IS THAT MUSIC COMING FROM?! -­‐ Underscoring – in which the film makers can directly engage the emotions between the film makers and the audience without the characters intervening in a way. Happening outside the world -­‐ Adapted score – music taken from pre-existing places (pop songs?) -­‐ Compilation score – used when silent films are discussed; music is not newly composed, gathered from different sources Cue: -­‐ some will not have music, but music will begin at a certain point then end at another. -­‐ Music cues can be various lengths, minimal cues which will affect the overall impression -­‐ Some can have many Wall-to-wall music: -­‐ films that have extensive underscoring -­‐ Gone with the wind – wall to wall music, lots of underscoring 01/22/2013 Opening Credits: -­‐ approach can vary; can kind of set the tone for the entire movie; introduce mood for the opening scene -­‐ one might question whether the themes that are being used in the opening credits are placed there so that it can give it some kind of weight -­‐ opening credits are sometimes accompanied by the movie’s themes -­‐ association of the themes, importance -­‐ Ex. One of the musical themes in Robin Hood that keeps coming back, is a theme that represents the Merry Men. -­‐ Music is helping to emphasize that the group of the Merry Men is an important unit; movie is not just about Robin Hood but his interactions with his friends. -­‐ 1930s-1940s – standard pattern that opening music has. Quite often, start with loud & dramatic/attention getting music. Then, there is a section in the middle that is more subdued. This is followed by again attention getting music (louder/more energetic). Threefold pattern with transitions. -­‐ This kind of threefold pattern with the subdued middle section is a very common pattern for the opening orchestral music of operas. Closing Credits: -­‐ music can be used -­‐ Is the music supposed to send people out on a high ( ie. Star wars), is the music reflective (introspective mood in the film?); does it connect with what happened previously in the film (either in the middle or at the end) To suggest time and place: -­‐ period music from a historical period, suggest to the audience when this movie is taking place/where -­‐ Ex. Jazz – New Orleans; Viennese Waltz – 19 century Europe; sometimes the visual images are not suggestive enough. Both oral & visual can place its time/location. To enhance the emotional impact of a scene (for the audience) -­‐ used by film makers to reflect what is happening in the story -­‐ effect on the audience -­‐ things might happen that the characters may not be aware of, emotion for the audience Pacing: -­‐ how music is sometimes used to make the scene is moving along faster than it is; or dragging it along -­‐ listening to music for 2 mins, entertain the mind, can make things go faster than it is. -­‐ Music can generate a sense of momentum and forward movement; times are moving faster -­‐ Slower music = slow down the effect Emphasis: -­‐ not a lot of music, all of the sudden there is music -­‐ underlining certain points -­‐ emphaticness; subdued then loud and forceful -­‐ Contrast: same gesture in music can have multiple effects depending on what happened before and after. To follow the action (mickey mousing) -­‐ can be quick or timed so that the accents of the music coincide with the footsteps of the person running or a fight scene (clash) -­‐ Mickey Mousing – very common in the early years of sound film. Since that time become seen as a cliché and not appropriate for dramatic serious films. To play against the action: -­‐ slow and ponderous can be played while there is very active motion, could have a very interesting effect. -­‐ Very energetic fast pace music could be playing if it is relatively slow/non-existent action -­‐ Visual rhythm & music rhythm are not coinciding Comedy: -­‐ used to be funny -­‐ playing against the action in which this could happen -­‐ irony, happy music is being played for a sad event and viceversa -­‐ tension could intensify Support structural units of the story: -­‐ where it begins and ends reinforce important structural units in the story -­‐ sometimes, we’re not conscious to the music. We follow the plot; music is there -­‐ helps with the goal of these mass market films, help people understand the story. “Filler” music?: -­‐ not reflecting the emotions of the characters, not aimed at getting an emotional reaction -­‐ just there to keep the emotion going -­‐ is there effect on the audience? Creating a sense of unity: -­‐ recurring themes -­‐ almost all music has some sort of repetition -­‐ repetition can have a powerful effect; if you hear a melody and you like it, the more you hear it, the more pleasurable it can be. -­‐ Sense when you watch the film, it all belongs together Identify characters and their personalities: -­‐ when composers use themes to identify characters -­‐ themes = objects/abstract concepts. Many times, characters -­‐ think of their background, personality, will implant these features into the music -­‐ help identify the characters throughout -­‐ who should they warm towards, be fearful of Removal and reintroduction of music: -­‐ can be powerful in its absence -­‐ can be used for emphasize by introducing music when it hasn’t been around for a while Wagner: -­‐ german composer of opera in the nineteenth century -­‐ significant person in music history, wrote influential operas -­‐ Distinct ideas on how operas should be composed -­‐ Gesamtkunstwerk – “total art work” -­‐ Felt that operas should be a kind of synthesis of the arts, no one element is expendable, each one should express drama (emotional core/heart of the story) equally well. -­‐ Leitmotivs – applied by “analysts” music theme or motif that is associated with some element in the story. The theme is transformed throughout the opera to reflect the changing circumstances of the character/thing that the motif is associated with. Short themes that are transformed in complicated ways, must take out the written notation to analyze it. -­‐ In Hollywood films, motifs or themes are used in this way of telling a story through music; often much more straight forward and audible, recognizable theme -­‐ Wagner – didn’t want people to see the orchestra. So they can listen to the music etc etc. Wagner was crazy. Done. -­‐ Acting>Singing. All had to be developed, wanted audience to be apart of the world. 01/24/2013 Thomas Edison (1847-1931) -­‐ “I wanted to do for the eye what the phonograph did for the ear” -­‐ American Inventor; central figure in the development of motion picture technology -­‐ Kinetoscope (1894) = just an image; no sound -­‐ Kinetophone (1895) = same thing, also connected with a phonograph so much will play! Not synchronized with dialogue etc. -­‐ Vitascope (1895) = projection onto a wall or a screen Auguste and Louis Lumiere: -­‐ moving picture projection (1895) -­‐ music added afterwards Early Silent Film Music: -­‐ one with music went by faster -­‐ music is kind of conveying a narrative -­‐ something to occupy your ears = engage a sense -­‐ moving pictures were omg. Quite remarkable; attracted a lot of attention. -­‐ Music is a part of the experience Why did music become common in film screenings? -­‐ help to drown out other noises that occur in the theatre -­‐ music draws people in Live Music: -­‐ piano music was common = many people knew how to play it; wide range -­‐ organ and orchestras increasingly common as silent film era progressed -­‐ film nights = live performances, comedy nights, multiple films -­‐ musicians were around for the evening entertainments; easy to draw upon -­‐ improvisation was very common, making up the music on the spots, not following any notated score -­‐ Cue sheets – notes; instead of improvising, gives suggestions to people as to what music is being used -­‐ Anthologies – groups of excerpts; sections of music appropriate for romantic moments The Theatre Organ: -­‐ pipe organ = developed for theatre/ cinema performances; sounds moved thorugh pipes. Developed in the united states by Wurlitzer -­‐ developed for film accompaniment -­‐ heavy vibrato; wavering sound -­‐ can make many different sounds (can sound like flutes, strings, percussion, bells) -­‐ can have full range of volume; piano is wonderful because there’s a lot of different notes but no range of sounds ): -­‐ Wurtlizer – leading maker of theatre organs (most famous, radio city hall organ) Silent Film Scores: -­‐ The Assassination of the Duke of Guise (1908) • Camille Saint-Saens (1835-1921) = French composers; carnival of the animals • Depicted a renaissance assassination. • 15-20 mins long; leitmotif technique (particular themes for particular characters) • late romantic style. -­‐ Mid teens; what we think of as a feature film becomes established as a typical length in American film making (2 hours+) -­‐ The Birth of a Nation (1915) • very controversial • depicts the civil war period (epic film!) • ku klux klan = positive light • black people = slaves; savages • of course it was a hit • over three hours long; establish longer film; epic film • DW Griffith = director • Influential for its music, techniques used • Helps to popularize film as a unique artform • Joseph Carl Breil – composer of this movie; Ch 7, lots of detail about this movie (pg 81+, extensive description of what happens in the score) • Classical music; folk tunes; tune “turkey in the straw” – the old folks at home • Original music + borrowing of pre-existing music (folk, popular) Introduction of Silent Pictures: -­‐ the “silent” film era lasts approximately 30 years (c. 1895-1927) • late 1890s-1920s; attempts made to find a way to get recorded sounds coordinate with the images • does not take off commercially for narrated films until the late 1920s. • a lot of stakeholders in the film industry against coordinated sound; affected the way of life of a lot of people. Very significant factor. • No extraneous noises affecting the movie • Have to learn dialogue; think of your character’s voice (takes a lot of time; practice) • Silent = does not have to worry about the sounds occurring when you film. • Some did not know how to use their voices; some have thick accents (tough sell for domestic audiences) • Made lots of money to ship the movie overseas, does not need to change the movie because no dialogue. Pshyeah. -­‐ Sound films have a bad reputation; were experiments to coordinate with images • number of problems; poor coordination of sound & image • sound & images do not match up; affect could be distraction and frustration to audiences -­‐ philosophical reasons as well • live music adds a human element than when you’re just watching a recorded performance • critics are theorizing about film; felt that film was a very unique art and one of the unique things is that there is no dialogue (images and maybe music) Adding Sound to Picture: -­‐ Chronophone (1904) – France • Phonograph (record) coordinated with moving images • poor sound quality and synchronization -­‐ Vitaphone – USA • phonograph – more synchronous than chronophone • Don Juan (1925) – Warner Brothers o Music by William Axt o no dialogue, only underscoring The Jazz Singer: -­‐ mostly no dialogue; only a few scenes with some -­‐ Vitaphone -­‐ Orchestral music + popular songs of the time, sung by a solo singer -­‐ Songs were recorded live -­‐ Can see him speak; first time that people have seen the very affective sound coordination in dialogue between oral & visual elements. -­‐ Very apropro; history moment – You ain’t heard nothing yet -­‐ Jazz = not really jazz, American pop music of this era. -­‐ Coordinated mouth moments and music 01/29/2013 Midterm: -­‐ aware of the general chronology The Jazz Singer (1927) -­‐ Al Jolston -­‐ Some coordinated, recorded dialogue -­‐ A rapid decline in interest in “silent” films occurs after the release of this movie. -­‐ Silent film era = theatre musicians are readily employed; with the almost instantaneous removal of this need, a whole of group of musicians were unemployed; certain actors became unemployed too. Significant culture shift -­‐ Style of acting/singing that was cultivated in live theatre (made to be broad so the whole theatre can see/hear) -­‐ In film/recording, much more intimate (microphone is right there) -­‐ Style of singing + acting does not need to be as broad. -­‐ Abrupt shift (hybrid silent/dialogue movies) -­‐ 1930s – shit becomes less exaggerated. Reasons vitaphone didn’t continue to be used very long: -­‐ technology used in The Jazz Singer; even though it was very successful, it did not remain the way in which sound was coordinated with image in cinema -­‐ sound disks were very fragile; could only be used a few times and then were unusable (very expensive, inconvenient) -­‐ recording difficulties = problem with vitaphones (not specific). Dialogue or room sounds had to be recorded in real time as the images were being filmed. Because of that, the projector’s noise had to muted or it would be picked up. Vitaphone recording equipment (image recording) to be put in a sound proof box with a window. The problem is that the cameraperson had to be in the box and the boxes were sound proof + airtight. The cameras got very hot and it become uncomfortable for the cameraman Sound on film ultimately more successful: -­‐ movietone (was used to watch the news in the beginning) -­‐ associated with the Fox Studios. -­‐ Warner Brothers = Vitaphone activity; didn’t suffer much, used sound on film too -­‐ Warner Brothers: before the Jazz Singer, was almost at the brink of closing but the movie helped revive it. Types of Sound Films (late 1920s, early 1930s) -­‐ Underscoring: • very little or no dialogue • a silent film, except the music is not being produced live in the theatre (recorded music) • Charlie Chaplin (1889-1977) = silent films with recorded music. • City Lights (1931): how well music is coordinated; no dialogue does not impede the movie Dracula: -­‐ Phillip Glass: composed a score for the movie years after it was made. -­‐ The film can be watched without any music and with the newly composed score. Cartoons: -­‐ very little or no dialogue -­‐ Musical: -­‐ possible to record the music as it is being performed in the scene since it is not separated from the image -­‐ late 1920s, so many musicals that by the early 1930s, people are sick. Revue – series of musical numbers without any plot. 01/31/2013 Material to the end of today’s class. Film (Dracula) uses limitations very effectively -­‐ we see Dracula introduced and his assistants -­‐ the silence is effective at creating suspense, silence = uncomfortable. -­‐ Glass added a score later on -­‐ Can be watched with and without music. -­‐ Music goes by significantly faster (ie. When that first hand goes out) -­‐ Uses film music to change pacing of the experience King Kong (1933) -­‐ steiner -­‐ v. present score -­‐ not in the first part -­‐ once it is in the film, it is there for most of it -­‐ score that makes use of leitmotifs -­‐ themes = pg 120 -­‐ beauty (ann) in love – very sweeping, big range, searching quality (feelings of desire and yearning) -­‐ native theme, mixed with ann theme – great sacrifice for kong; starts similarly -­‐ all themes have similar qualities – trying to comment on connections to characters -­‐ themes have cohesions -­‐ native theme – barbaric; syncopation; associated with jazz. -­‐ Music adds to the humour -­‐ Sacrificial music = dissonant, active, good coordination. -­‐ Music to mask to generate fear in audience -­‐ Music for comedy, empathy, delineate structure 02/04/2013 King Kong (1933) -­‐ Steiner -­‐ influential Hollywood score -­‐ initial scene with king kong = panic filled, UH OH -­‐ scenes with kong tends to soften later on; reinforces empathy with kong. -­‐ Music = helps audience make sense of the story Classic Hollywood Film Score (1930s-1940s) -­‐ extensive use of music = does not mean there’s constant scoring -­‐ exploitation of full range of orchestral colours; various sounds to be effective -­‐ reliance upon the melody-dominate romantic style -­‐ several themes; tons of association. Some of the principle themes will be played in the opening title and the credits; important to have lots of repetition -­‐ musical support for dramatic moods, settings, characters, and action -­‐ frequent borrowing of familiar melodies (American folk tunes etc) -­‐ unity through leitmotifs (characters mostly) and thematic transformation = shows changes of character Reasons for style of classic hollywood score: -­‐ motivated in part by an attempt to find a mass market product with wide appeal; romantic music was quite quant to the audience, but was warm and inviting, not very current • movie industry underwent a decline due to the depression, in constructing these scores, thought of something that would have wide appeal (music that everyone understood, not specific to a particular demographic) -­‐ avoided full exploration of current music trends to provide escapist entertainment • the expressivity of romantic music appeals directly to emotions • evoke the past, before life became shit • appealed to the emotions in a clear cut way • sense of fantasy -­‐ many Hollywood composers came from Europe and were well versed in romanticism • many were from Vienna -­‐ Wagnerian opera an appropriate model for dramatic cinema • with the use of leitmotifs -­‐ romantic style well established for silent films -­‐ meaning is readily communicated -­‐ popularity of tuneful melody The Adventures of Robin Hood (1936) -­‐ score by Eric Wolfgang Korngold -­‐ very colourful score; orchestral music -­‐ uses various instrument groups in the orchestra (some reliance of strings); lots of brass. Sounds very vibrant & interesting -­‐ visually very vibrant, colour movie. Tons of rich colours and lavish costumes. -­‐ No great darkness, very light hearted, energetic -­‐ Merry Men theme = helpers; importance is emphasized, first theme heard in the entire movie. Very prominent in the film -­‐ Quadruple meter. -­‐ Scores make music authentic; create sense of fantasy and nostalgia -­‐ Music cue: chimes, minor key -­‐ Music is moving at the same pace as they move; music is a bit bigger and filled with more tension than the scene. -­‐ Robin’s Theme = ¼ intervals. 4ths are intervals that suggest trumpet fanfare. Traditional hero theme, much slower. Plays in different ways. When it is first heard, it is played quickly (when he first appears). 02/05/2012 From Textbook: Robin Hood: -­‐ full symphonic orchestration, emphasizing brass and percussion -­‐ loud dynamics -­‐ passages of quick notes -­‐ irregular and hard notes -­‐ occasional motivic references -­‐ use of leitmotifs -­‐ robin & marian love theme -> strong resemblance to robin hood theme; also similar contour to King Richard theme -­‐ Merry Men Theme; Robin Hood Theme, King Richard Theme, Little John theme, Love theme (1/6 interval) 02/11/2012 Robin hood ambusing people in the force: -­‐ music builds in excitement & comes to conclusive end when Robin lands on the rock -­‐ music enforces Robin as central character, most heroic, brave, important -­‐ merry men theme – sharp minor when the bad guys approach, more dramatic & suspenseful Casablanca – 1942/1943 -­‐ Steiner: • came out of the middle of WWII/ about WWII • very accurate of the time -­‐ Rick – main character • runs nightclub in Casablanca • meeting place for people trying to escape Europe, can purchase special papers • facilitates this through nightclub but seems very 3 party, not wanting to be heroic, no fire in personality -­‐ Ilsa – former lover, left him, becomes miserable/bitter -­‐ Music is used similar to Robin hood but relies more on source music -­‐ Music taking place in the scenes because of nightclub -­‐ Significant underscoring -­‐ Leitmotifs – pg 172 • Main theme, most heard, from a real song “as time goes by” love theme Passage of time is an important idea: -­‐ long time between their first love affair but as soon as he sees her, emotions come back Isla – married to vector -> heroic • leader of the resistance • spent time in concentration camp • fighting the germans Laszlo’s Theme: -­‐ moves by gradual ascending steps -­‐ stately -­‐ hymn like -­‐ homophonic = parts move together -­‐ heroic quality -> national anthems, church hymns -­‐ meant to admire -­‐ not passionate, solid, no love Lots of pre-existing tunes: -­‐ “Marseilles” -> French National Anthem -­‐ use as a theme is very overdone in movies, but it has a good balance in the film because it not only signifier for French Army/characters -­‐ fighting against tyranny Deutschland Uber Alles -­‐ german national army -­‐ theme -­‐ represents germans Patron’s eye view – 1 time st -­‐ camera goes to backroom • gambling • can’t hear the music from the club • sees Rick, who’s playing chess with himself • no music accompanying first shots of Rick • emotionally very cold, so no music • increases as the movie progresses • music lands sense of humility Blue Parrot: -­‐ shady owner -­‐ opposing Rival -­‐ vague middle eastern music It had to be You: -­‐ active song -­‐ sttive café, lots of people, lots of things going on Ilsa’s 1 appearance: -­‐ no music initially -­‐ as soon as she comes in, music starts softly -­‐ contrasts the other music we’ve heard played before -­‐ softer, more passionate -­‐ matches entrance of primary female love interest -­‐ song being played is “Parlez moi d’amour” 02/12/2013 Casablanca: -­‐ lots of source music Knock on wood: -­‐ who’s unlucky, we’re unlucky -­‐ Rick gives “transport out of Casablanca” letters -­‐ Very valuable, stolen from Germans Piano – hiding place for letters of transit -­‐ represents the past & the future Underscoring not used for Rick until Ilsa shows up; establishes perspectives Laszlo & Ilsa: -­‐ conversation about rick -> as time goes by plays -­‐ about Laszlo -> Laszlo’s Theme -­‐ As soon as Laszlo leaves, goes to As Time goes by theme very vigorously Marseilles: Freedom; fighting against tyranny -­‐ Counterpart (duel) between Marseilles & german anthem 1940s – Fantasia -> Disney -­‐ scores of musical compositions -­‐ images provided to accompany them -­‐ reverse of traditional movie -­‐ 1 piece of music: Rite of Spring -­‐ percussion, fierce, depicted human sacrifice in the original ballet Images provided are early evolution of life, from single celled organisms Exploding volcanoes – strong percussion 02/14/2013 1940s: -­‐ lavish romantic style continues to be written -­‐ film studios aim to create mass entertainment to attract broad audience 50s-60s: -­‐ public begins to be sift into different groups (different tastes) Generation gap: -­‐ younger people are not interested in the same things their parents are 1940s – films are darker in tone: -­‐ more serious -­‐ Casablanca & Citizen Kane (1941) – fairly dark Citizen Kane: -­‐ Bernard Herrmann -­‐ Known for incorporation of modern styles -­‐ Early example of this approach -­‐ Visual approach + camera angles (very extreme) is unique; use of light & dark is very artfully done -­‐ Music is also of a “modernist” style -­‐ Very austere and dissonant in places, sounds harsh. -­‐ Music is sparsely used, reserved use of music -­‐ Sparse approach gives seriousness Opening Scene: -­‐ very first shot (title), starts in silence – very stark -­‐ ROSEBUD BITCHES. -­‐ Very dark music -­‐ Sled = rosebud -­‐ Beginning = rosebud theme -­‐ Leitmotifs = power theme is more ominous than rosebud theme -­‐ Power theme – strange interval, unusual sounding. Very dissonant (devil’s interval) uh oh.. spaghettios. -­‐ Rosebud theme – minor key, sad -­‐ Rosebud & power theme are shaped similarly, commentary between rosebud and power. -­‐ Moving from one theme to another sounds logically, which is why they’re similar Kane plot: -­‐ poor family, then becomes very rich! Sends son off to Thatcher to learn -­‐ music contributes to severity -­‐ there is some warmth Scene 1: -­‐ journalist going to thatcher’s library to find out what happened to kane’s life -­‐ opening theme was a funeral march, symbol of death & judgement -­‐ happy music is played when it opens up to the flashback of kane with his family -­‐ zoom in on sled, rosebud motif -­‐ subdued music, expressionless look on the mother’s face, restrain on the music is well timed Music in Film Noir: -­‐ view textbook -­‐ minimum cues -­‐ small ensembles -­‐ low pitched instruments (bass clarinet); lower string registers = nefarious -­‐ unusual, strange sounds -­‐ angular disjunct melodies -­‐ use of jazz Jazz: -­‐ scary music -­‐ urban music Laura: -­‐ best known film noir -­‐ Raksin – composer -­‐ Prominent Laura theme – played during opening credits -­‐ Jazzy style, not hardcore -­‐ Brass clarinets, bells = pacing the apartment -­‐ American nationalist style = aaron Copeland; heroism Best Years of Our lives: -­‐ came out after ww2, 3 soldiers coming home and their experiences trying to integrate back into normal life 02/25/2013 1940s: American nationalist style -­‐ melodies that are created out of large interval jumps -­‐ 4ths & 5ths – heroic qualities; heroic characters Best Years of our lives: -­‐ music communication rather than facial features -­‐ happy music -­‐ fairly active music helps to enliven/excite the scenes -­‐ visually dull Singing in the rain: -­‐ Arthur freed -­‐ MGM studios -­‐ Best regarded producers of film musicals -­‐ Wrote lyrics for a number of songs in musicals -­‐ Conversion of silent to talking films -­‐ Many were written by freed (back in the 1920s-1930s) -­‐ Popular music -­‐ Tin pan area of NY -­‐ Quite light hearted in tone -­‐ Not very realistic, people do not break into song. Our lives are not high school musical. -­‐ Musicals are more honest because the artificiality is more obvious 18 century opera: -­‐ numbers opera, different styles of music -­‐ stop and reflect what happened in the plot -­‐ learn information of advancement of plot in the restives = characters will sing but will sing in the a speech like manner (sing talk?!). Plot moving -­‐ similar to what happens in the musicals (songs do not really do anything for the plot, but tells you their emotions their thoughts – so all of les miserable?) Musicals -­‐ appreciate that things are phony -­‐ nondiegetic & diegetic (in the story/source) music -­‐ this distinction is very blurry. Not clear whether this occurs in the film or this is some kind of symbolic interpretation -­‐ music is brought to the foreground -­‐ musical numbers = really the focus of the moment, less consistently found in other movies Singing in the rain: -­‐ insincere music -­‐ when music starts, audience sounds are completely removed -­‐ close up + this thing, draws you in and are focused on what he is saying -­‐ Switch from underscoring to source music = draws us into past music. Drawn into the past world using more source sounds 02/26/2013 Singing in the rain: -­‐ fanfare -> his start as an actor -­‐ active music -> showing his life as a stunt man -­‐ montage – status of music changes; sound effect elements + visual scenes -­‐ source music – recorded source music (Lina lip-synching Kathy’s recorded voice) -­‐ no ambient sound at all = music is now underscoring -­‐ final transition in montage is the final finished film. Film goes black and white (bad sound quality) -­‐ character in broadway melody (Don) = how he rises up and then sees nightclub dancer where he was attracted to before. OMG. ALLUSIONS. -­‐ Music shapes plot -­‐ Kiss = climax of scene. Music builds up to it. -­‐ Mozart’s opera = Don Giovanni The Lights of NY – early vitaphone 1950s – trends: -­‐ television is becoming more prominent, more common -­‐ generation gap -­‐ Cinerama – curved screen, surrounding by images -­‐ Wide screen – wider than tall. Very wide panoramas. Military films, or outdoor scenes of mountain vistas. -­‐ Epic films (biblical themes – Ben Hur etc), very grand lavish scores -­‐ Ben Hur – unusual instrumentation, composers try to be more authentic, african drums, mandolin -­‐ Move away from lavish, symphonic score -­‐ Not into later 1970s that large scale symphonic (orchestral) scores make a big return -­‐ Jazz = depends a lot of improvisation, particular instrumentation (sax, percussion, keyboard), 1950s – bad (bad parts of town, crimes, … people of a certain colour?) -­‐ Jazz style – a streetcar named desire (N’aaaaaaawlins); rough neighbourhood, nasty stuff… stellaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa. -­‐ Sexual desire UNF UNF UNF. Blanche & Stanley. Throbbing jazz, strong physical desire. Stella & Stanley. 02/28/2012 Midterm: Robin Hood (+Classic Film stuff) -> Psycho (Ch. 20) Ch. 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 20 1950s: Singin’ in the rain (1952) -­‐ instrumental underscoring distinct from the actual music numbers General Trends: -­‐ destabilizing trends (classic Hollywood score is now fragmented into different styles) – fuelled by decline in audiences. -­‐ 3D technology, Cinerama, widescreen, large scale epics (Ben Hur) -­‐ generation gap, fragmentation -­‐ Jazz: • Streetcar Named Desire – scored by North o Jazz – used to present lust & desire; involving the character of Stanley = Saxophone used to represent this lust o This score was too scandalous o Scene – Stanley has a huge temper flareup, attacked his wife. Great change of heart and then tries to beg for forgiveness o Original version – number of cuts that show Stella’s face; transfixed by her passion; trance like state o Music was changed – reconcile = innocent style of music o More Recent – has the original editing + score = more consistent o String music = pure emotions; flutes o Original = duet between sax & flute; counterpoint o Saxophone = sex unnnnnnffff o Changes to score – restructure stella’s descent; string orchestration rather than flutes/sax; music is more pure, less physical, suggests a kind of morality – stella & Stanley is a good thing • The Man with the Golden Arm – Bernstein o Jazz is used to represent criminality rather than sexuality o Used to express drug use, heroin whut whut o Drummer in a jazz band; double entendre o Extended musical cue of this jazz o Same music from opening will be used in crucial scene = main chara taking heroin; represents his craving for the drug o Trumpet sounds whenever the drugs are brought out and placed -­‐ Popular Music (Rock n Roll) • Blackboard Jungle (1955) o Rock around the Clock o Blues + country (mix of black & white music) o Embraced by the youth; generation gap -­‐ Modernist avant-garde music • Forbidden Planet o Electronic music (Barron couple) o Avant-garde music scene o Very cutting edge o Were first hired to make computer or spaceship sounds o Blurs the line between music & sound effects o Stockhausen 03/04/2013 Ch.11-20 for midterm -­‐ only responsible for the ones on the course outline. Sounds we may not consider to be music (clicking of keys) – could be conceived in a musical way Opening credits of Forbidden Planet: -­‐ when Barron’s name comes up = indicated as composing electrical tonalities, not music -­‐ if it is music or sound effects? -­‐ Sound of spaceship is indistinguishable from the rest of the music; unusual, not within frame of reference Forbidden Planet: -­‐ Krell music; sounds similar to the underscoring in the film -­‐ representing futuristic/advanced form of musical expression = mere mortals cannot grasp it -­‐ as they walk down hallway, regular pattern that is reminded of footsteps -­‐ music stops as he shoots laser at door, silence in source music to point out importance of moment. Use of silence = emphasis that point -­‐ Romantic scene – music is not conventional romantic music, since it is not a conventional romantic scene. Music is odd sound effect. Everytime they kiss, upward rise in pitch (hmmm perhaps an upward rise in something else?) -­‐ Film’s climax = people are being attacked, alien has a bunch of old equipment and the doctor has been using it. The equipment has released his subconscious as a force, and has been attacking people • Music will increase in pitch • Increases in loudness • Use sound effects not simply to represent reality of the scene but also as musical ways to build tension throughout the scene -­‐ pioneering sci-fi film, first Hollywood film to use a completely electronic score -­‐ after 1950s, sci-fi films will use strange sounds, rely quite a lot of electronic instruments. Trend that continues until the mid 1970s, where orchestral scores become more common in space movies Psycho (1960) -­‐ Hitchcock (1899-1980) • made movies during silent film era • directed first British talking film -­‐ Score by Herrmann (1911-1975) • wrote the score for Citizen Kane in the 1940s • studied at Julliard – very high level musical background • quit because he thought Julliard was too conservative, wanted to be more avant- garde • claims to fame – introduction of “noire”/modernist technique in scores • unusual instrumentation -­‐ Influenced by The Rite of Spring by Stravinsky -­‐ Makes use of string orchestra = only uses string instruments of the violin family -­‐ Black & white = made with quite a low budget and wanted to show blood in the film. Showing red gooey blood will be too shocking, so chocolate syrup was used (no difference in b&w) -­‐ Theremin – electronic instrument that was prominent in the 1950s, heard in this score – sounds like a human voice, often played at a high pitch – particularly associated with scifi & horror in the 1950s -­‐ Ostinato – short musical phrase that repeats over and over and over again. Repetitive effect, can be very powerful. Can create tension because we usually hear development in music (changing, and building itself). You keep hearing these patterns and expecting things, but you never get them -­‐ Rite of Spring – ballet, theme: human sacrifice. Virginal sacrifice at the end of the ballet. Kind of like how in psycho, a young woman dies too. SPOILER ALERT. -­‐ Much less music than in a classic Hollywood era film. Number of moments where there is music when there is no dialogue -­‐ Leitmotifs = for the most part, these motifs are not associated with individual characters. Tend to be associated with other things, such as “flight”, “money”. Music is somewhat distant from individuals (dispassionate effect) -­‐ Musical cues play at a constant level for an extended number of time during scene. No careful choreography with film & music -­‐ Moral ambiguity – we identify with Marion, who steals money so that she could be with her boyfriend. Music has vague quality. We really have no idea who’s the good/bad characters. Music does not rtheal this.nd -­‐ Very dissonant – 7 and 2 intervals, puts audience on edge. 03/05/2013 Psycho: -­‐ leitmotifs -­‐ used differently -­‐ not associated with characters -­‐ associated with objects/states of mind/factors -­‐ less focused on the characters -­‐ marion dies, music changes dramatically with appearance of Norman Bates (becomes st focus of attention) 1 part: -­‐ music dominated by themes -­‐ ostinato pattern -­‐ Rite of Spring -­‐ Musical phrase repeated over & over, doesn’t change -­‐ When Norman is introduced, music is more irrational, formless, less structured -­‐ Listener is put much more on edge, much less at ease -­‐ Some of the themes from the beginning show up when Marion is referred to in the 2 nd half Money Theme: -­‐ repetitive pattern, whole thing repeats a lot -­‐ important element -­‐ leaves with 40k -­‐ first time we hear it -> her bedroom, camera focuses on envelope Transition Theme: -­‐ very first music after opening credits -­‐ doesn’t seem to connect with anything in the plot -­‐ no real association, tense theme, keeping us on edge, transition in scenes -­‐ in every scene it’s played, character is looking/searching/seeking -­‐ when she’s searching for a car -­‐ when sam is searching for her -­‐ eyes/looking are an important motif for this movie -­‐ closeup on Marion’s eyes after she dies Murder Theme: -­‐ dithonant, even more than the others -­‐ 7 intervals -­‐ extremely dissonant -­‐ minor 2 also dissonant Loud: -­‐ lots of intensities, violent, harsh -­‐ first Hollywood film to show a toilet -­‐ rate at which theme is playing coincides with editing, cuts, flailing, scene shots Shower scene: -­‐ very loud screeching theme, silence before hand & after is also very effective -­‐ this style of cue is cliché now but scary at the time Norman’s Theme: -­‐ aka Mother’s theme -­‐ played in low register, very angular, disjunct -­‐ dissonant -­‐ very short => 3 big chords, that’s it -­‐ usually combined with other weird sounds Clean up after Marion’s body scene: -­‐ some parts have music, some do not -­‐ 10 minutes long as he mops bathroom & body -­‐ music used sporadically Flight theme: -­‐ marion fleeing car lot -­‐ opening credits music -­‐ different sound elements with music -­‐ marion smirks as she’s driving away from phoenix-> takes pleasure in having stolen money -­‐ earlier she was tense/unsure -­‐ voiceover => marion is imagining a conversation taking place Music contributes to parallels 03/07/13 Psycho: -­‐ opening credits -> aggressive music -­‐ flight motif -­‐ Transition theme -> quieter, slow moving -­‐ Marion drives away -> flight music; intense -­‐ Murder of Marion -> aggressive, most aggressive & dissonant in the entire score (murder theme) -­‐ Overall form of music -> how are the cues following a pattern, if at all? -­‐ Marion sees the money -> accented, storytelling -­‐ The original score doesn’t have accents, never changing -> it’s a bit too dramatic for the beginning since nothing happens after; but when you think of it in the long term, it sets up bigger things in the film -­‐ Important that musical cues are consistent -­‐ When marion is driving in her car & it starts to rain, the windshield wipers are moving exactly in time with the music -­‐ Cadence in music, stopping of cue, long note -> signals to audience that something new is going to happen -­‐ Scene -> sam & lila are in the motel room looking around; music isn’t accenting each of her steps to the house but the pitch is increasing in accent -­‐ Musical cue of opening door -> signifies big event -­‐ Music helps distance us from the characters but we are meant to sympathize with marion -­‐ “sweetest” music is Sam + Marion at the beginning -­‐ Norman cleaning up • 10 min scene • initial cleaning up -> music • wrapping body -> no music (music stops here) • keep cleaning up -> Mother theme as he gathers clothes/things • last check -> no music as he puts money in trunk • car into swamp -> no music • music starts & stops with those parts 03/11/2013 1960s: -­‐ diversification from film score -­‐ abolishment of Hays Code in 1966 => feature of classic film era (30s-50s) -­‐ very few instances of classic film score left
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