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MUSIC 1AA3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Yvonne Loriod, Maraca, Whole Tone Scale


Department
Music
Course Code
MUSIC 1AA3
Professor
Dave Gerry
Study Guide
Final

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Chapter 14 - Antonín Dvořák’s Symphony (From the New World)
The New World Symphony
Antonín Dvořák, a Czech composer, composed one of the most famous pieces of
American classical music
Composed while Dvořák was director of the National Conservatory of Music
(1892–95) in New York City
Dvořák was famous as a nationalist composer (of Bohemian music)
DVORAK’S GRANDSON WAS A PROF AT MAC
Nationalism in Music
Dvořák believed a new form of American music should be founded on Native
American and African American music; he thought these two traditions were
identical
Main theme of the slow movement of the symphony was later transformed into
the hymn “Goin’ Home”
Dvořák traveled and spent several weeks in a Czech community in rural Iowa
Main experience of America was centered on New York City
Antonín Dvořák (1841–1904)
Born near Prague in 1841
Accomplished violist and violinist; started studying organ, theory, and
composition in 1857
Wrote music in the international classical tradition (symphonies, concertos,
operas) that often included folk melodies
Publication of the first set of Slavonic Dances (1878) established his fame
Visited London, the location of the premieres of several major works; also
traveled to Russia
Stayed in the United States from 1892 to 1895
Director of Prague Conservatory from 1901 to 1904
Best known for his nine symphonies and cello concerto
Antonín Dvořák in America
Already world famous when he arrived in September 1892
Known for composing music with folk idioms, such as the Moravian Duets and
Slavonic Dances
People who met him were impressed with his modesty
In his spare time, enjoyed hobbies such as raising pigeons and watching
locomotives
Dvořák and Nationalism
Dvořák was invited to conduct a gala concert at the 1893 World’s Columbian
Exposition in Chicago (for the “Czech Day”)
Folk themes and other nationalist elements were essential to the success of his
music
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Nationalism refers to a composer’s expression of the identity of a place, people,
or country
oImportant element of Romanticism
Dvořák read an article called “Negro Music” published in December 1892, which
included descriptions of black music and six notated examples, among them
“Swing Low, Sweet Chariot”
Through one of the African American students at the conservatory (Harry T.
Burleigh), Dvořák became acquainted with African American spirituals
Dvořák also encountered performances by Native Americans
Dvořák began the symphony in December 1892 and dated it May 24, 1893;
revisions continued until its premiere in December 1893
Comments by Dvořák concerning American music (“music of the Negroes and
the Indians”) and its influence on his symphony appeared in the Century
Magazine and the New York Herald
While in the United States, Dvořák also produced chamber and vocal music,
including the American String Quartet
What Is American Music?
The “Americanness” of the New World Symphony has been subject to much
debate
Literary associations with Longfellow’s Song of Hiawatha in the second and third
movements, according to Dvořák
Not program music like Berlioz’s Fantastic Symphony, but Dvořák wanted the
audience to know these associations
Question of American musical identity became more pressing in the twentieth
century for composers such as Charles Ives, Aaron Copland, and Duke Ellington
“American” characteristics of the work largely related to rhythm and melody
Musical Elements (won’t be asked to define)
Syncopation
oA strong note comes on a weak beat
oCharacteristic feature of later African American music such as ragtime and
jazz
Pentatonic scale
oFive-note scale that omits the leading tone
oUsed around the world and in Anglo-American ballad melodies
oFeatured in the English horn solo in the slow movement
Lowered seventh note
oUsed especially in themes in minor keys
oAssociated by one critic with both “negro” and “Oriental” music
The Shape of the Symphony (know a little bit)
Traditional shape, with four movements (fast-slow-scherzo-fast) like Beethoven’s
Fifth Symphony and many others
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Later movements include thematic recurrence and transformation, techniques
drawn from Beethoven or Wagner (the leitmotif)
Themes (know a little bit)
Many of the themes are similar, built from the same basic musical ideas
Thematic similarities help to unify the forty- minute-long work
Dotted rhythm (long-short-short-long)
oSimple melodic motif (rising minor third)
oHarmonic idea (sounds like a lowered seventh in place of leading tone)
How Did It Go? (know a little bit)
Accounts of the first performance offer conflicting pictures of audience response,
but reaction to the Saturday performance was demonstratively enthusiastic
Opinion differed as to the symphony’s “American” quality; some critics argued
the symphony was not American but rather characteristic of Dvořák
Dvořák’s secretary, J. J. Kovařík, later claimed that Dvořák added “From the New
World” on the title page only as an afterthought
The New World Symphony Then and Now (know a little bit)
Performances in Boston and other cities followed the premiere
Popularity has continued ever since
The National Conservatory in New York eventually faded in the 1920s
A distinctively national style of American music emerged in the 1920s and 1930s
In an article published before his departure from the United States, Dvořák
encouraged Americans to seek music around themselves, in everyday life; later
composers such as Ives incorporated such sounds into their music
Music of African Americans became the most prominent form of twentieth-
century popular music in blues and jazz
The New World Symphony is a landmark of Romantic nationalism, using
elements of the European musical tradition to create an American portrait
Chapter 15 - Igor Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring
Life of Igor Stravinsky
One of the most important twentieth-century composers
Lived in several countries and wrote in several major styles, including
neoclassicism and serialism
Maintained a distinctive style: acerbic, colorful, and Russian
Raised in St. Petersburg by a musical family
After the success of his ballet scores for Diaghilev, starting with Fireworks in
1909 and Firebird in 1910, spent many years in Paris and became a French citizen
Firebird is written in the late Romantic language of Tchaikovsky and Rimsky-
Korsakov
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