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Political Science 1G06 Midterm Questions part 2

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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLSCI 1G06
Professor
Todd Alway

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QUESTION #5 12/8/2013 3:40:00 PM 5. You are part of a group of high-level American foreign policy advisors to the 2016 Republican administration of Jeb Bush. Certain members of the new administration, frustrated with the slow pace of political change in parts of the Middle East, have been pressing the President to facilitate “regime change” – i.e. use force, if necessary, to create Liberal Democracies in the region. Their argument is based on the notion that this will be a valuable service: not just for American interests, but also for the cause of global peace. Democracy, after all, is strongly correlated with peace. What advice will you offer? What, if anything, is the relationship between democracy and peace? Is Democratic Peace Theory compelling? Intro:  1. Introduce the problem: o You are part of a group of high-level American foreign policy advisors to the 2016 Republican administration of Jeb Bush. o Certain members of the new administration, frustrated with the slow pace of political change in parts of the Middle East, have been pressing the President to facilitate “regime change” –  i.e. use force, if necessary, to create Liberal Democracies in the region. o Their argument is based on the notion that this will be a valuable service: not just for American interests, but also for the cause of global peace.  2. Personal Advice:  3. Describe relationship between democracy and peace  4. Is Democratic Peace Theory compelling? QUESTION #6 12/8/2013 3:40:00 PM 6. Why do Conservatives maintain that “if change is not necessary then it is necessary not to change”? Discuss the defense of tradition in Conservative thought. Intro:  1. Describe the Conservatives o Definition: o In some senses it is difficult to define Conservatism as a theory o Implies the desire to conserve something o “Keep society as it is” o But what exactly is to be conserved? o There is a commonality in its view of the value of tradition o But why is tradition valuable?  2. Why do Conservatives maintain that “if change is not necessary then it is necessary not to change?” (WITHIN SOCIETY) o What is society?:  Society is better seen as a living organism than as a mere collection of individuals  Individuals form part of a greater interdependent whole  There are many different types of connections between individuals and groups  i.e. the social organism is complex  Because the differing interests and desires of these groups must be carefully reconciled with one another for social peace, society is also fragile  This being the case, society cannot be simply disassembled and reassembled at will, in whatever form that a particular individual might desire o Social Change?  Society evolves and so must government in turn  “A society that cannot change cannot conserve itself”  However, the type of change Burke advocates is measured change  Reform, not revolution – modification, not replacement  Change that will not leave the accumulated wisdom of society behind  3. Discuss the defense of tradition in Conservative thought. o We need to balance freedom with duty – so that we don’t use our freedom to destroy the social order o In other words, what we need are institutions that will create and teach us self-restraint o The most important restraint can be provided through a respect for the past – for tradition o There are at least 3 Reasons why a revolutionary plan to overthrow tradition and reconstruct society will likely not work as planned:  1. Individual reason is fallible and limited - it is impossible to know in advance how a project that looks good in theory will look in practice  2. Society possess an organic wisdom, the collective reason of millions, which is greater than the wisdom of the few  Something only becomes a traditional practice if it works in practice to manage the tensions that have arisen in society  3. Reason only partially guides our actual behavior – we are equally governed by our passions and desires as by pure reason  CONCLUSION: o Are Revolutions ever socially beneficial?  For Conservatives, only in very limited circumstances are revolutions likely to produce more benefits than costs  Where rights are constantly violated and there is no course for restoring rights from within the present political environment QUESTION #7 12/8/2013 3:40:00 PM 7. The modern global economy is characterized by both great wealth and great poverty. Certain states have high per capita incomes, developed infrastructures, and the international influence that comes along with this. Other states suffer through extreme destitution, economic vulnerability, and a seeming inability to benefit from the global economic system. How does dependency theory explain this divide? According to the theory, why are some states able to develop economically while others are underdeveloped? In light of your discussion of dependency theory, what type of policy might lead to development? What other types of development policies have been used in the attempt to solve the problem of underdevelopment? Have they been successful? INTRO:  1. Global economy is characterized by both great wealth and great poverty (within the states) o Statistics:  “The income gap between the world’s richest and poorest countries was 3:1 in 1820, 35:1 by 1950, 74:1 by 1997, and by 2002 it was 82:1”  A total of 2.8 Billion people live on less than $2.50/day  Official Development Assistance from OECD states: 0.52% GNI 1960; 0.31% 2011  Pearson Commission 1969 recommends 0.7% o Consider:  “Poor states” are not a homogeneous bloc  Different types of LDCs have been more/less successful at developing economically  Some have stagnated or even declined economically (parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, Caribbean)  Others have been at least partially successful at developing  Newly Industrialized Economies (South Korea, Taiwan, China)  2. How does dependency theory explain this divide? o Democratic Peace theory (see the article by Rosato, from whom this discussion is taken):  According to proponents of this theory, a simple study of the empirical evidence reveals the following pattern: Democracies do not go to war against other democracies  Democracies do go to war against non-Democracies, but not against each other o What is the dependency theory?:  According to Dependency theory, the economic development of European states only occurred because of the economic underdevelopment of non-European states  The question is, just how pervasive is the underdevelopment mechanism in history  Does the Atlantic triangle of the 16thcentury repeat itself in subsequent centuries  According to Dependency theorists like Andre Gunder Frank, the same exploitative mechanism is in place  So what is the Solution? o Satellites must break the chains connecting them to the world capitalist market and go off on their own autonomous direction  3. According to the theory, why are some states able to develop economically while others are underdeveloped? o How has the less developed world as a whole been faring under “globalization?”  Most countries (but not all) have given up the goal of autonomous development  Most have embraced globalization and all that entails  But whether development is happening under globalization depends in part upon how you define and measure development o With respect to Development, there are 3 major issues we will focus on:  1. The terms Poverty and Inequality are not always referring to the same condition  The World Bank usually refers to poverty as an absolute measure  A monetary measure of $1.25/day  In an absolute sense, Poverty appears to be declining worldwide  Inequality, by contrast, is usually treated as a relative measure  Inequality can increase even while absolute poverty decreases  By some measures, even while absolute poverty has declined, inequality between developed and developing countries continues to increase  2. Second complication: How do you measure inequality between countries?  Do you weight according to population or by country?  Doing so produces different results  So just what globalization has been doing for the development prospects of Less Developed Countries depends upon the statistic that you are looking at  3. Is Economic Development synonymous with Development?  Does a dollar figure best capture what development is?  Economic development may lead to a decline in other areas of human development (environment, political freedom, gender equality)  United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) – Human Development Indicators  Development must refer to more than just an economic sum, but also to outcomes in the political, social, and cultural realms  4. In light of your discussion of dependency theory, what type of policy might lead to development? o There were a variety of approaches that newly independent states used as they emerged from colonial rule:  1. Import Substitution Industrialization as a Development Policy  A state needs to focus on replacing those manufactured goods that it used to import with manufactured goods produced within the state  The state must isolate itself from international markets if it wants to develop o The Lesson drawn from this episode of development policy by the mainstream development community o Was that isolating a state from the international economy does not appear to be a successful long-term strategy for development  5. What other types of development policies have been used in the attempt to solve the problem of underdevelopment? Have they been successful? o Aside from Import Substitution Industrialization as a Development Policy, there is one other important development policies:  1. Export-oriented growth as a development strategy  Some states made the decision to emulate the Japanese example and focus on EXPORT industries rather than focusing on replacing imports  The key to economic development was to insert the state into international markets - on favourable terms  To rely upon the comparative advantage that cheap labour provides  Remarkably successful – South Korea, Taiwan, China  Moreover, the type of economic growth was significant  There was a rapid change in export composition – what these countries were exporting o Why were EOI states successful?  Any answer cannot overlook the role of the state in this process  “The lesson is not less government or more government, but good government.” QUESTION #8 12/8/2013 3:40:00 PM 8. According to Scholte, “Much if not most existing analysis of globalisation is flawed because it is redundant, failing to generate new understanding that is not attainable with other concepts.” Discuss some of the problems associated with defining globalization? Intro:  POINT 1. Define Globalization o Those who talk about globalization (in terms of rapid movements of capital, goods, ideas, etc.) as undermining sovereignty are frequently focusing only on specific control elements of the state o According to some the Real question is whether the sovereign authority of the state o its recognition as the highest source of LEGAL power – has been undermined  POINT 2. Discuss the 7 different problems associated with defining what exactly globalization is: o 1. Increase in international trade and investment?  International trade and investment have increased enormously in the last 30 years  However, trade and financial flows are not a unique characteristic of the late 20century  By some measures (trade as percentage of GDP, capital flows/GDP), the world was more internationally connected in 1913 than it was until the 1990s  Moreover, trade can take place between national economies without indicating any socially significant interpenetration  An inter-national economy is not the same thing as a global economy o 2. Increasing power of Multinational Corporations?  Some of the largest economic agents on the planet are not states but Multinational Corporations  Measured by revenue (Fortune Global 500) at number 22 is Wal-Mart, with revenue of close to $400 Billion, with several other corporations close behind  Revenue Larger than the GDP of all but 21 states  Larger than the most significant international organizations  Moreover, the absolute number of MNCs has been increasing rapidly  However, MNCs are not historically unique, nor is their power as individual actors greater now than historically  East India Company, Hudson’s Bay Corporation, etc.  Some of the key International Organization  However, MNCs are not historically unique, nor is their power as individual actors greater now than historically  East India Company, Hudson’s Bay Corporation, etc o 3. A neo-Liberal project designed to create a free-trade world?  Some of the key Internationa
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