POLITICAL SCIENCE 2XX3 – Politics of Developing Countries
Preparatory Exam (Questions)
NOTIONS: Identify, explain the meaning, and discuss the significance of the following notions:
Definition: A system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state,
typically through elected representatives bitch hoe. Capitalism and democracy are ascendant in the third
world. The set of rules that establish WHO is authorized to make collective decisions and under which
2. Breakthrough Coups:
Definition: In which a revolutionary army overthrows a traditional government and creates a new
bureaucratic elite. Breakthrough coups are generally led by non-commissioned officers (NCOs) or junior
officers and only happen once. Examples include China in 1911 and Egypt in 1956
3. Veto coups:
Definition: These coups occur when the army vetoes mass participation and social mobilization. In these
cases the army must confront and suppress large-scale and broad-based opposition and as a result they
tend to be repressive and bloody. Examples include Chile in 1973 and Argentina in 1975.
4. Democracy Promotion:
Definition: Democracy promotion, which can also be referred to as democracy assistance, or democracy
building, is a strand of foreign policy adopted by governments and international organizations that seek to
support the spread of dolla make a bitch holla democracy as a political system around the world. It is the
range of policies, assistance, external organizations and even military action that contribute to the
formation of democratic societies in previously authoritarian states.
5. Soldiers as Gatekeepers:
Definition: Denotes a state form focused on controlling intersection of territory with the outside world.
Soldiers invoke the notion of prevention and emphasize the importance of showing presence to any
hostile attacks. Military force is exercised.
6. Indirect Rule:
Definition: Indirect rule is a type of European colonial policy in which the traditional local power
structure, or at least part of it, is incorporated into the colonial administrative structure. A system of
government of one majestic nation by another in which the governed people retain certain administrative,
legal, and other powers.
7. Liberation Theology:
Definition: A movement in Christian theology, developed mainly by Latin American Roman Catholics,
that emphasizes liberation from social, political, and economic oppression as an anticipation of ultimate
8. Democratization: 2
Definition: The increasing rate of social participation in order to attain the greater equalization of
opportunities and benefits. Consolidation of representative democracy is unlikely without expansion of
participation; i.e., wide and open faggot negotiations among equals about best use of social resources:
type of modernization; most pressing needed and ways to satisfy them; definition of what constitutes the
public and private sphere; patterns of centralization and decentralization in decision making, etc.
Definition: The policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country,
occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically. The exploitation by a stronger country of
weaker one; the use of the weaker country's resources to strengthen and enrich the stronger country.
10. Internal Enemy:
Definition: Enemies within an institution or state. Much like an actual enemy; A person who is actively
opposed or hostile to someone or something's ass crack or a hostile nation or its armed forces or citizens,
esp. in time of war, they are those people that are within that discrete nation state.
11. Scramble for Africa:
Definition: The Scramble for Africa, also known as the Race for Africa or African fever , was a process
of invasion, attack, occupation and annexation of sovereign African territory while making an omelet by
European powers during the New Imperialism period, between the 1880s and World War I in 1914.
12. Praetorian Politics (praetorianism):
Definition: Praetorianism a term coined by Samuel Huntington, it is the opposite of institutionalization:
an institutionalized society is one in which there are effective political mechanisms for reconciling and
implementing demands, the most appropriate of which are political parties. When everyone wanted to be
a part of the revolution; need of continuity, order, tradability – the armed forces could only help…they
learnt about national security; in view of the attack of international communism’, military officials began
to attend universities. No longer pooping just people in charge of monopoly and violence, but now able to
understand and know/undertake other roles- Guardian Coup (1966 Argentina, military officer-general Jun
Carlos Organia; the military has only goals and objectives and no deadlines, not just removing the leader,
but coming here to stay with all this intellectual/educational arsenal. all this was done to fight
A praetorian society is one in which there are no effective institutions and in which social groups
take direct political action to achieve their goals, a free-for-all situation in which the army is likely to be
the most successful actor because it controls the instruments of repression. The politics of order: military
intervention is justified in view of social chaos and anarchy.
Definition: In modern political science, the term Polyarchy (Greek: poly many, arkhe rule) was
introduced by Robert A. Dahl wife-in-law, now emeritus professor at Yale University, to describe a form
of government in which power is vested in three or more persons.
14. Middle-Class Military Coup:
Definition: "The Middle-Class Military Coup" offered a path-breaking understanding of a wave of
interventions in Latin America in the 1960s and 1970s. Its approach was frankly sociological and Marxian. 3
It argued that an embattled middle class, unaware of its own class status per se and constantly aspiring to
the values of the economic elite, nevertheless abandoned the democratization of its countries because of
perceived threats to its well-being. It came to be represented, according to Jose Nun, by the military
officer corps, acting both as a fiduciary of the middle class and as one of its constituents. The greatest
threats to these industrializing, urbanizing, and capitalist systems, as Fernando Henrique Cardoso and
Enzo Faletto correctly if somewhat ironically noted, was the growing democratization of the poorest
classes and their demands for distributive economic policies.
15. Electoral Democracy:
Definition: Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principle of elected
individuals representing the people while emitting electric shocks to them, as opposed to autocracy and
direct democracy. 4
1. Critically examine the following statement: “The developing world’s failure to develop political
systems in the Western liberal democratic tradition can be attributed to, (1) individual behaviour, as
peoples there are different from peoples in the First World; (2) absence of a democratic tradition among
Third World peoples, and (3) the First World’s willingness to accept and support less than democratic
regimes, if that is convenient to its own self-serving interests.” Elaborate fully, citing relevant examples.
● Perhaps, the word “failure” is an inadequate term to be used as embodying the whole of
the developing world.
● To broadly classify all third-world nations under the guise of failure is to ignore their
personal histories, and unique characteristics.
● The following essay will seek to explore and elaborate upon the above notions
● However, the aim of this essay is to discredit the notion that Western liberal democracy
is the only way to achieve success
● That will be done throughout the essay by providing examples that will discredit the
1. Individual behaviour, as peoples there are different from peoples in the First World
European Industrial Revolution…Agrarian revolution was a precursor to this
o A way of life was made into an avenue for profit
o Increase in crop yield
o Selling to an urban market
o Food prices went down; allowed people to invest in consumer goods
o Made way for a competitive economy..esp in cotton and wool
o Class distinctions
o Selling of one‟s labour according to allotted time
o Enlightenment ideals made way for revolutions…ie/French
Revolution, mass revolutions of 1848, etc
o Europeans had the advantage of advancing their own ideals in an
arena that allowed dialogue and revolution
o people in the 3 world were set up to being at a disadvantage
o Idea of being “lesser than”
o Exploitation of resources
o Years of this habituates the society to act a certain way (to accept
conditions…to accept lower “biological” status, etc) that makes the
exchange of dialogue more difficult than that of Europeans
The creation of disparities with ethno-politics …further divided and alienated
groups who would have otherwise coexisted (p.127) 5
● revolving around culture
● The culture was traditional (unscientific, irrational, and illogical)àproduces individuals
with authoritarian personalities; afraid of change
● Modernization theories was the premise for many of the „theories‟ that some people
● “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism”
● Comparing the different developing pathways of 3 countries; England, China, and India.
And why England became the first country to industrialize and why a similar process of
modernization did not take place in India or China.
● England, unlike China and India, had a very unique type of religion that helped them
undertake the development of their economyàProtestantism.
● There is a correspondent between Protestantism and capitalism. This faith endowed ppl
with certain values and attitudes that are not to be found with societies with different
● The Protestant is concerned with this life, other religions are concerned with the afterlife
● This hypothesis, was taken as a universal law àif the entire world were protestant, more
people will be able to develop.
Ie/Iranian Case Study...Attempt to modernize as per Western Liberal democratic
● 1962: Shah of Iran, realized that his society was backward, and needed to being a
process of modernization
● Alienated the religious people of Iran
● Tried to educate the people and established many universities
● The manuals that were used to teach the illiterate, used very basic sentences to teach
people how to read and write, “I will shower every morning—I will visit my doctor once a
year and my dentist twice” etc
● The result is that the majority of people, who were peasants, realized that they were
missing out on many, many things that was their essential right while living under the
“king of kings”
● The more educated people were sent overseas to study abroad, and realized that there
was a democracy. They began to realize that political organizations and unions are an
important part of a community, while they lived under a backward “gov”
● Rather than a process of modernization, the people became more radical as they
realized that they needed reforms and changes to their political make-up
● Brought this to an end in 1979 with the Iranian revolution
What about China?
● recount colonized history
● opium wars
● Treaty of Versailles...May 4th movement
● Embracing Marxism 6
● Successful despite Western Liberal Standards (refer to txtbook p.99)
2. absence of a democratic tradition among Third World peoples
● Walt Rostow: Stages of Economic Growth: a non-communist manifesto
● Not only providing a theory of economic growth but also trying to develop a theory of
● Theory trying to provide a solution to the problems of poverty
● Problem: 3 world deviated from classic model of development. Advanced countries are
so successful because they went through a series of successive stages to reach this
success. Underdeveloped countries have deviated from these stages
● Was the „brain child‟ for the Vietnam war, and for “Alliannd for progress” àall about trying
to stop the revolutionary spread of Cuba‟s success (1961); 2 largest foreign aid
● Development is geopolitical (5 stages for the theory of human history, in how the
successful nations developed)
1. Undeveloped Agrarian Society
● at some point in history, some technological changes began to take place
which led to a change in that societyàtechnological breakthrough
● ie/ England. 1 industrialized nation
2. Preconditions for economic take-off
● surplus of material
● enlightened elite, determined to create an economic and political
● ie/ 1 country to use animals for agriculture
● 1 country to use looms (spinning wheels) for textile. Produced the first
sweaters in the world.
● First you export raw materials, then you process these materials into
3. Economic take-off
4. Drive to Maturity
● Then created machines that produce these textilesàsophisticated capital
● Characterized by large scale production
● Factories and industries bring together hundreds of people to work
5. mass consumption societies
● the „good‟ society... US in the 50s
● workers have higher wages, less hours of work, more time for leisure, etc
So what is the problems of the underdeveloped world? Why can‟t they follow these steps? ^^
Idea is that 3 world countries have jumped from stage 2 to stage 5 without going through the
harder stages that require sacrifice
Why can‟t 3 world countries follow this recipe that clearly leads to success?
● Demonstration effect (revolution of rising expectations) 7
● Sociological reference that refers to the fact that in many parts of the 3 world, ppl, no
matter how poor, become acquainted with the events of life in ppl in industrialized
● They want to experience all these benefits too. But it appears out of context in 3 world
● Problem is that 3 world nations who have just been decolonized, having already
experienced (partly) what the West can offer, seek to appropriate it.
● 3 world ppl have developed western patterns of consumption without having developed
western patterns of productions. “Consuming western without producing western”
● ie/ coca cola. Associating a good life with coca cola. Why drink coca cola with all the
patents and trouble of getting it from the west to Bolivia (for example) when they can
drink their own domestic drinks? it is a representation of the good life, and they want a
part of it
● People want to live like what they see in the movies, tv, etc
^Problem...Trying to compare overall growth of 3rd world with that of European growth...
● ie/Britain had the right combination of things and circumstance in the right time to modernize
○ strong geographical advantages
○ unhindered by regional tariffs (could always maintain a free economy)
○ vast sources of coal
○ politically stable...broke out of absolutist monarchies a century before anyone else
^These advantages may not be the case for other nations to develop and therefore, following this
stark model is impossible for nations that have been decolonized and set up for democracy right
from the start (or autocracy) ...ie/South Africa, Iraq, etc
3. First World’s willingness to accept and support less than democratic regimes, if that is convenient to its
own self-serving interests
● When Truman supported decolonized nations, he had a strategic interest…esp in the
● Gaining allies to spread Western Liberalism and capitalist ideals
● Helping to eliminate poverty in certain nations not as an end…but as a means to an end.
The end being to spread Western Liberal views as opposed to Soviet Marxism
● Once USSR was dismantled, there was no reason to pursue this agenda any longer
● Present example: US support Saudi Arabia...far from a democratic nation.. 8
2. What explains the failure of post-colonial regimes in Africa to adhere to the democratic institutions and
practices that European colonial powers bequeathed them? In turn, what types of regimes came to replace
Western-style democracy? And, which were the main features of these regimes? Elaborate fully, citing
Thesis: Post-colonial regimes in Africa fail to adhere to democratic practices that were implemented by
Euro-colonial powers due to the rise of military regimes, and issues of religion and inequality.
Filler paragraph to define terms.
“Weakness of governance and absence of effective state...” is one that provides public service to create
right economic, social, and legal frameworks.
Post colonial Africa saw many states scrambling to embrace democracy, many fell short to consequences
left by colonials.
What’s the solution?
Democratic consolidation --> expectation of regime contunituty, through embracement of democratic
values and institutions by a society. Done so when internalized
1. Behaviourally: absence of attempts to overthrow governments
2. Attitudinally: societal belief + commitment to upholding democratic practice
3.Institutional --> government/non-govt resolve conflits with bounds of the law
Country to be used for the purpose of this essay: NIGERIA
● History: Colonized by British in 1914, independent by 1960
● Civil wars, rampant with military coups and rule
● 1993--> elections (democratic practice), people elected president.. power seized once more by
● 2007-2010, presidency in place, attempt at reconciling for years of instability
1st argument: Military regimes pose as a threat to embracing democratic practice.
● Long history of military coups, first of many was in 1966
● Brutal areas of civilian war and military coups
● State is constantly attempting to restructure framework only to be defeated by tensions between
state, civilian, and military regimes
● There have been many hopeful attempts at instilling a stable political structure but they are
● Due to issues of bribery and nepotism.. State is built on illegitimate practice and inequality.
“More democracy is explored, more entrenched forces of corruption.”
2nd Argument: Religious institutions create animosity between civilians
● Religion is a dominant feature for the way in which people act, sometimes over arching the power
that governmental structures have
● Nigeria made up of social fabrics. Dominant ethnic groups who conflict views on politics.
Animosity between groups.
● Religious differences became politicized in 80’s, establishment of sharia law (islamic) in 12
● Constant religious riots 9
● Clashes between religious groups (dominantly Christian and Muslim).
● Differences between religious doctrine are impediments to embracement of democratic practice
3rd argument: Growing issues of inequality and opportunity left by colonial powers are deterrents to
● Class representation: In politics, not enough representation of different ethnic groups needs and
wants. No “voice” in politics --> for women
● Gender roles: Men dominant figures in the state, resonates across all African regions who were
subject to colonialism
● Education: Occupation and access to education (one dependent on the other). Not everybody is
given equal opportunity. People who benefit from the system: Government workers, military
personnel. Lack of education = impediment to individual progress in society.
● Poverty: based on class and race inequality. Distribution of resources.. Distinction due to
darker/lighter skinned individuals (Genocide in Rwanda as an example).
Conclusion (sorry its not in point form.. eh)
Most African nations who were subject to colonial powers have failed to rise and remain stagnant in
political instability. Using the case of Nigeria, a nation that still struggles to cope with the practices the
British bequeathed upon them, this paper argued that military regimes have further perpetuated religions
animosity and inequality among nations. Those issues, among many, have been the barrier between a
nations’ embracement of legitimate democratic practice. 10
3. In which ways are women in Third World countries overcoming traditional institutions that kept them
subordinate for so long? Are elected women pushing for greater gender equality, poverty alleviation, and
social, political, and cultural participation? Elaborate fully, citing relevant examples.
Subordination of women to men is prevalent in large parts of the world, especially in developing
countries. Women are not only treated as subordinate to men but are also subject to discriminations,
humiliations, exploitations, oppressions, control and violence.
Gender quotas have played a huge role here. These have been helpful in overcoming institutions that kept
women subordinate for so long because firstly, they entail that women must constitute a certain number or
percentage of the members of a body, whether it is a candidate list, a parliamentary assembly, government,
or a committee. Secondly, the quota’s recruit women into political positions and thirdly, ensure that
women are not only a token few in political life and they aim at increasing women's representation
Page 177 in Textbook: Key points box
In developing countries:
· Women are gaining power both in official positions and in relation to government through social
movements and NGO’s
Examples of movements:
- Women’s Forum Against Fundamentalism in Iran: Promote awareness of challenges women face living
under fundamentalist regimes like Iran
- Women Kind World: For women in developing countries, mission is to enable them to voice their
concerns and claim their rights, and to work globally for policies and practices which promote equality
between men and women
Movements are extremely effective
· Political structure and government resonance with feminist agendas matter - (Feminism is awareness of
patriarchal control, exploitation and oppression of women’s labour, fertility and sexuality, in the family,
at the place of work and in society in general. It is a struggle to achieve equality, dignity, rights, freedom
for women to control their lives and bodies both within home and outside)
· Democratic systems that are parliamentary, with political parties with female quotas (GENDER
QUOTAS) that gain seats through proportional representation that implement goals for more critical
masses of women, have higher rates of women representatives
· Tools are available to nudge more resistant bureaucracies including mainstreaming strategies, budgets etc.
to help women gain more power in politics
Elected women pushing for greater gender equality, poverty alleviation, and social, political, and cultural
- Do not discriminate, but compensate for actual barriers that prevent women from their fair share of the
political seats 11
- Imply that there are several women together in a committee or assembly, thus minimizing the stress often
by the token women
- Bring women the right as citizens to equal representation
- Bring women's experiences into political life
- Election is about representation, not educational qualifications
- Women are just as qualified as men, but women’s qualifications are downgraded and minimized in a
male-dominated political system
- It is in fact the political parties that control the nominations, not primarily the voters who decide who
gets elected; therefore quotas are not violations of voters' rights
Most developing countries introduced electoral gender quotas during the 1990s, mainly due to
the influence of the UN Conference on Women held in Beijing. On the other hand,
most developed countries adopted gender quotas 10 or 15 years prior to the
Conference. A dramatic change has taken place in the established rank order of
countries regarding the level of women’s political representation. The five Nordic
countries, which for many years were almost alone at the top of the list, are now being
challenged by amazingly fast development in a number of countries around the globe.
For example, Rwanda superseded Sweden as number one in the world in terms of
women’s parliamentary representation - 48.8% women against Sweden’s 45.3% in 2003,
and has more than 50% of seats for female legislators since 2008.
HOWEVER, are gender quotas reasonable? Just giving away spots in parliament/government without
looking at a women’s education etc?
- Elections are about representation, not educational qualifications
- Women are just as qualified as men, but women’s qualifications are downgraded and minimized in a
male-dominated political system
- It is in fact the political parties that control the nominations, not primarily the voters who decide who
gets elected; therefore quotas are not violations of voters' rights
- Introducing quotas may cause conflicts, but may be only temporarily, as quotas can contribute to a
process of democratisation by making the nomination process more transparent and formalised
Readings: March 13 and 18: Women and Gender
- Laws, public policies and decisions about how to implement public policies are deeply and historically
embedded in states
- Men capture the control as women are undermined
- In the developing world, this comes from colonialism
- Women face wage inequalities: Unpaid labor in households
- Women lack the ability to make reproductive choices, voluntary motherhood
- Women have different interest from men; recognizing gender rather than being gender neutral policies
- Issues affecting women are private and so it’s hard to get them out publically 12
- Women lack autonomy
Example of a real situation:
Prof talked about Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner in one lecture, Argentina’s current president. Her
husband, Nestor Kirchner, was the president first, but after he passed away, it seemed as though Cristina
faced a ton of criticism in being President mainly because she was a woman. People felt that she had
come from her husband’s shadows and that he was her advantage and reason in making it into her
position of Presidency. If Nestor had still been alive, no one would lay a finger on Cristina because they
know that he would never let anything harm her, but without him there, it seems people think she is
merely a weak woman who got lucky.
Basically, although we can implement gender quotas; is it enough to change people’s thinking, despite
elected women pushing for greater gender equality, poverty alleviation, and social, political, and cultural
participation? Since gender inequality is socially developed, in the minds of citizens? 13
4. Political scientist Samuel Huntington claims that, “as society changes so does the role of its military.”
With which one of the theoretical approaches discussed in class is his explanation of military coups
associated? What does he mean by that? Which types of military coups result from this
conceptualization? Why is it claimed that Huntington’s model led to a greater degree of military
interventionism in developing countries? Elaborate fully, citing relevant examples.
Thesis: Huntington’s fundamental thesis: developed and presented with an effective combination of
analytic logic, historical evidence and comparative insight, was that rapid social change and the
consequent mobilization of new groups into politics often outpaced the development of political
institutions able to process their participation and demands. When the rates of social mobilization and
the expansion of political participation are high and the levels of political organization and political
institutionalization are low, the result is political instability and disorder. This approach can be
explained through modernization theory.
In accordance to modernization theory- the belief is that industrialization and economic development lead
directly to positive social and political change. This particular subject has been of great interest to
scholars in the field of policy for more than a half century. It came back into vogue in the 1990s in
Washington, due to the global spread of free markets and the third wave of democratization.
Following the theory's initial rapid acceptance, in the late 1960s, a repercussion began to emerge.
o Critics argued that it was too linear, too teleological, and too optimistic.
o One major challenge came from Samuel Huntington. In his seminal book Political Order in Changing
Societies, Huntington took issue with the theory's relatively unproblematic picture of social change.
o He argued that modernization theorists were right in seeing economic development as unleashing profound
social changes but wrong in assuming those changes would necessarily be benign or progressive.
o Societies in the throes of dramatic social transformation, he noted, tend to be unstable and even violent.
Positive outcomes are likely to emerge only where healthy political institutions capable of channeling and
responding to such changes exist, and building such institutions is an extremely difficult and time-
Huntington’ s criticism on the modernization theory:
o Huntington controversially criticized the prevailing “modernization theory” paradigm, which argued that
capitalist development would organically generate stable democracies.
o Huntington instead insisted that economic development did not produce stable democracy, but rather rapid
social change and rising mass political demands, which prevailing institutions struggled to absorb or
o For Huntington, it was excusable for governments to address the resulting political instability through
o Military intervention would suppress the masses (“halt the rapid mobilization of social forces into
politics”), build institutions capable of managing popular demands (“modernize”), and then return power
o Huntington’s work was his period’s most sophisticated attempt to understand military intervention into
politics, rightly identifying its causes as social and political rather than military. 14
o But depicting armies as the last-gasp agents of modernization had deeply reactionary
implications, legitimizing military intervention precisely at the moment when
postcolonial democracies were everywhere succumbing to dictatorships.
o Huntington’s work masked the interests served by military intervention, which were
nothing so abstract as modernization.
o Huntington recognized: “As the mass society looms on the horizon, [the soldier] becomes
the conservative guardian of the existing order.” Military intervention served in most
cases to defend bourgeois power and undemocratic, capitalist relations against mass
opposition. As Huntington chillingly put it: “The middle class makes its debut on the
political scene not in the frock of the merchant but in the epaulettes of the colonel.”
o So, although Huntington daringly averred, “the truly helpless society is not one threatened
by revolution but one incapable of it,” his clear preference was for a revolution that
preserved rather than overturned the status quo, that is, counter-revolution.
● Huntington argued that the fundamental causes of post-Cold War conflict would be cultural rather
than ideological. This thesis added a veneer of legitimacy to the quest for new enemies, but it was
never internally consistent. Huntington’s positing of seven “civilisations” with Africa “perhaps”
constituting an eighth, and his constant oscillation between definitions and usages, illustrated the
incoherence of his most basic units. Cultural identities were supposed to be timeless and
homogeneous, while political allegiances were dissipating everywhere. Interaction between
culturally dissimilar peoples was bound, somehow, to stimulate conflict. Turning the eme