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Political Science
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Nibaldo Galleguillos

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1 POLITICAL SCIENCE 2XX3 – Politics of Developing Countries Preparatory Exam (Questions) NOTIONS: Identify, explain the meaning, and discuss the significance of the following notions: 1. Democracy: Definition: A system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives bitch hoe. Capitalism and democracy are ascendant in the third world. The set of rules that establish WHO is authorized to make collective decisions and under which PROCEDURES. 2. Breakthrough Coups: Definition: In which a revolutionary army overthrows a traditional government and creates a new bureaucratic elite. Breakthrough coups are generally led by non-commissioned officers (NCOs) or junior officers and only happen once. Examples include China in 1911 and Egypt in 1956 3. Veto coups: Definition: These coups occur when the army vetoes mass participation and social mobilization. In these cases the army must confront and suppress large-scale and broad-based opposition and as a result they tend to be repressive and bloody. Examples include Chile in 1973 and Argentina in 1975. 4. Democracy Promotion: Definition: Democracy promotion, which can also be referred to as democracy assistance, or democracy building, is a strand of foreign policy adopted by governments and international organizations that seek to support the spread of dolla make a bitch holla democracy as a political system around the world. It is the range of policies, assistance, external organizations and even military action that contribute to the formation of democratic societies in previously authoritarian states. 5. Soldiers as Gatekeepers: Definition: Denotes a state form focused on controlling intersection of territory with the outside world. Soldiers invoke the notion of prevention and emphasize the importance of showing presence to any hostile attacks. Military force is exercised. 6. Indirect Rule: Definition: Indirect rule is a type of European colonial policy in which the traditional local power structure, or at least part of it, is incorporated into the colonial administrative structure. A system of government of one majestic nation by another in which the governed people retain certain administrative, legal, and other powers. 7. Liberation Theology: Definition: A movement in Christian theology, developed mainly by Latin American Roman Catholics, that emphasizes liberation from social, political, and economic oppression as an anticipation of ultimate salvation. 8. Democratization: 2 Definition: The increasing rate of social participation in order to attain the greater equalization of opportunities and benefits. Consolidation of representative democracy is unlikely without expansion of participation; i.e., wide and open faggot negotiations among equals about best use of social resources: type of modernization; most pressing needed and ways to satisfy them; definition of what constitutes the public and private sphere; patterns of centralization and decentralization in decision making, etc. 9. Colonialism: Definition: The policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically. The exploitation by a stronger country of weaker one; the use of the weaker country's resources to strengthen and enrich the stronger country. 10. Internal Enemy: Definition: Enemies within an institution or state. Much like an actual enemy; A person who is actively opposed or hostile to someone or something's ass crack or a hostile nation or its armed forces or citizens, esp. in time of war, they are those people that are within that discrete nation state. 11. Scramble for Africa: Definition: The Scramble for Africa, also known as the Race for Africa or African fever , was a process of invasion, attack, occupation and annexation of sovereign African territory while making an omelet by European powers during the New Imperialism period, between the 1880s and World War I in 1914. 12. Praetorian Politics (praetorianism): Definition: Praetorianism a term coined by Samuel Huntington, it is the opposite of institutionalization: an institutionalized society is one in which there are effective political mechanisms for reconciling and implementing demands, the most appropriate of which are political parties. When everyone wanted to be a part of the revolution; need of continuity, order, tradability – the armed forces could only help…they learnt about national security; in view of the attack of international communism’, military officials began to attend universities. No longer pooping just people in charge of monopoly and violence, but now able to understand and know/undertake other roles- Guardian Coup (1966 Argentina, military officer-general Jun Carlos Organia; the military has only goals and objectives and no deadlines, not just removing the leader, but coming here to stay with all this intellectual/educational arsenal. all this was done to fight international communism) A praetorian society is one in which there are no effective institutions and in which social groups take direct political action to achieve their goals, a free-for-all situation in which the army is likely to be the most successful actor because it controls the instruments of repression. The politics of order: military intervention is justified in view of social chaos and anarchy. 13. Polyarchy: Definition: In modern political science, the term Polyarchy (Greek: poly many, arkhe rule) was introduced by Robert A. Dahl wife-in-law, now emeritus professor at Yale University, to describe a form of government in which power is vested in three or more persons. 14. Middle-Class Military Coup: Definition: "The Middle-Class Military Coup" offered a path-breaking understanding of a wave of interventions in Latin America in the 1960s and 1970s. Its approach was frankly sociological and Marxian. 3 It argued that an embattled middle class, unaware of its own class status per se and constantly aspiring to the values of the economic elite, nevertheless abandoned the democratization of its countries because of perceived threats to its well-being. It came to be represented, according to Jose Nun, by the military officer corps, acting both as a fiduciary of the middle class and as one of its constituents. The greatest threats to these industrializing, urbanizing, and capitalist systems, as Fernando Henrique Cardoso and Enzo Faletto correctly if somewhat ironically noted, was the growing democratization of the poorest classes and their demands for distributive economic policies. 15. Electoral Democracy: Definition: Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principle of elected individuals representing the people while emitting electric shocks to them, as opposed to autocracy and direct democracy. 4 ESSAY QUESTIONS 1. Critically examine the following statement: “The developing world’s failure to develop political systems in the Western liberal democratic tradition can be attributed to, (1) individual behaviour, as peoples there are different from peoples in the First World; (2) absence of a democratic tradition among Third World peoples, and (3) the First World’s willingness to accept and support less than democratic regimes, if that is convenient to its own self-serving interests.” Elaborate fully, citing relevant examples. Thesis: ● Perhaps, the word “failure” is an inadequate term to be used as embodying the whole of the developing world. ● To broadly classify all third-world nations under the guise of failure is to ignore their personal histories, and unique characteristics. ● The following essay will seek to explore and elaborate upon the above notions ● However, the aim of this essay is to discredit the notion that Western liberal democracy is the only way to achieve success ● That will be done throughout the essay by providing examples that will discredit the above notions Main Arguments: 1. Individual behaviour, as peoples there are different from peoples in the First World History European Industrial Revolution…Agrarian revolution was a precursor to this o A way of life was made into an avenue for profit o Increase in crop yield o Selling to an urban market o Food prices went down; allowed people to invest in consumer goods o Made way for a competitive economy..esp in cotton and wool o Class distinctions o Selling of one‟s labour according to allotted time o Enlightenment ideals made way for revolutions…ie/French Revolution, mass revolutions of 1848, etc o Europeans had the advantage of advancing their own ideals in an arena that allowed dialogue and revolution Colonialism (p.36) o people in the 3 world were set up to being at a disadvantage o Idea of being “lesser than” o Exploitation of resources o Years of this habituates the society to act a certain way (to accept conditions…to accept lower “biological” status, etc) that makes the exchange of dialogue more difficult than that of Europeans The creation of disparities with ethno-politics …further divided and alienated groups who would have otherwise coexisted (p.127) 5 Modernization Theories ● revolving around culture ● The culture was traditional (unscientific, irrational, and illogical)àproduces individuals with authoritarian personalities; afraid of change ● Modernization theories was the premise for many of the „theories‟ that some people developed afterword Max Weber ● “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism” ● Comparing the different developing pathways of 3 countries; England, China, and India. And why England became the first country to industrialize and why a similar process of modernization did not take place in India or China. ● England, unlike China and India, had a very unique type of religion that helped them undertake the development of their economyàProtestantism. ● There is a correspondent between Protestantism and capitalism. This faith endowed ppl with certain values and attitudes that are not to be found with societies with different religions ● The Protestant is concerned with this life, other religions are concerned with the afterlife ● This hypothesis, was taken as a universal law àif the entire world were protestant, more people will be able to develop. Ie/Iranian Case Study...Attempt to modernize as per Western Liberal democratic tradition…backfired ● 1962: Shah of Iran, realized that his society was backward, and needed to being a process of modernization ● Alienated the religious people of Iran ● Tried to educate the people and established many universities ● The manuals that were used to teach the illiterate, used very basic sentences to teach people how to read and write, “I will shower every morning—I will visit my doctor once a year and my dentist twice” etc ● The result is that the majority of people, who were peasants, realized that they were missing out on many, many things that was their essential right while living under the “king of kings” ● The more educated people were sent overseas to study abroad, and realized that there was a democracy. They began to realize that political organizations and unions are an important part of a community, while they lived under a backward “gov” ● Rather than a process of modernization, the people became more radical as they realized that they needed reforms and changes to their political make-up ● Brought this to an end in 1979 with the Iranian revolution What about China? ● recount colonized history ● opium wars ● Treaty of Versailles...May 4th movement ● Embracing Marxism 6 ● Successful despite Western Liberal Standards (refer to txtbook p.99) 2. absence of a democratic tradition among Third World peoples ● Walt Rostow: Stages of Economic Growth: a non-communist manifesto ● Not only providing a theory of economic growth but also trying to develop a theory of modern history ● Theory trying to provide a solution to the problems of poverty ● Problem: 3 world deviated from classic model of development. Advanced countries are so successful because they went through a series of successive stages to reach this success. Underdeveloped countries have deviated from these stages ● Was the „brain child‟ for the Vietnam war, and for “Alliannd for progress” àall about trying to stop the revolutionary spread of Cuba‟s success (1961); 2 largest foreign aid program ● Development is geopolitical (5 stages for the theory of human history, in how the successful nations developed) 1. Undeveloped Agrarian Society ● at some point in history, some technological changes began to take place which led to a change in that societyàtechnological breakthrough st ● ie/ England. 1 industrialized nation 2. Preconditions for economic take-off ● surplus of material ● enlightened elite, determined to create an economic and political orginization ● ie/ 1 country to use animals for agriculture st ● 1 country to use looms (spinning wheels) for textile. Produced the first sweaters in the world. ● First you export raw materials, then you process these materials into goods 3. Economic take-off 4. Drive to Maturity ● Then created machines that produce these textilesàsophisticated capital goods ● Characterized by large scale production ● Factories and industries bring together hundreds of people to work 5. mass consumption societies ● the „good‟ society... US in the 50s ● workers have higher wages, less hours of work, more time for leisure, etc So what is the problems of the underdeveloped world? Why can‟t they follow these steps? ^^ rd Idea is that 3 world countries have jumped from stage 2 to stage 5 without going through the harder stages that require sacrifice Why can‟t 3 world countries follow this recipe that clearly leads to success? Causes: ● Demonstration effect (revolution of rising expectations) 7 rd ● Sociological reference that refers to the fact that in many parts of the 3 world, ppl, no matter how poor, become acquainted with the events of life in ppl in industrialized societies rd ● They want to experience all these benefits too. But it appears out of context in 3 world countries ● Problem is that 3 world nations who have just been decolonized, having already experienced (partly) what the West can offer, seek to appropriate it. ● 3 world ppl have developed western patterns of consumption without having developed western patterns of productions. “Consuming western without producing western” ● ie/ coca cola. Associating a good life with coca cola. Why drink coca cola with all the patents and trouble of getting it from the west to Bolivia (for example) when they can drink their own domestic drinks? it is a representation of the good life, and they want a part of it ● People want to live like what they see in the movies, tv, etc ^Problem...Trying to compare overall growth of 3rd world with that of European growth... ● ie/Britain had the right combination of things and circumstance in the right time to modernize ○ strong geographical advantages ○ unhindered by regional tariffs (could always maintain a free economy) ○ vast sources of coal ○ politically stable...broke out of absolutist monarchies a century before anyone else ^These advantages may not be the case for other nations to develop and therefore, following this stark model is impossible for nations that have been decolonized and set up for democracy right from the start (or autocracy) ...ie/South Africa, Iraq, etc 3. First World’s willingness to accept and support less than democratic regimes, if that is convenient to its own self-serving interests ● When Truman supported decolonized nations, he had a strategic interest…esp in the Cold war ● Gaining allies to spread Western Liberalism and capitalist ideals ● Helping to eliminate poverty in certain nations not as an end…but as a means to an end. The end being to spread Western Liberal views as opposed to Soviet Marxism ● Once USSR was dismantled, there was no reason to pursue this agenda any longer ● Present example: US support Saudi Arabia...far from a democratic nation.. 8 2. What explains the failure of post-colonial regimes in Africa to adhere to the democratic institutions and practices that European colonial powers bequeathed them? In turn, what types of regimes came to replace Western-style democracy? And, which were the main features of these regimes? Elaborate fully, citing relevant examples. Thesis: Post-colonial regimes in Africa fail to adhere to democratic practices that were implemented by Euro-colonial powers due to the rise of military regimes, and issues of religion and inequality. Main Arguments: Filler paragraph to define terms. “Weakness of governance and absence of effective state...” is one that provides public service to create right economic, social, and legal frameworks. Post colonial Africa saw many states scrambling to embrace democracy, many fell short to consequences left by colonials. What’s the solution? Democratic consolidation --> expectation of regime contunituty, through embracement of democratic values and institutions by a society. Done so when internalized 1. Behaviourally: absence of attempts to overthrow governments 2. Attitudinally: societal belief + commitment to upholding democratic practice 3.Institutional --> government/non-govt resolve conflits with bounds of the law Country to be used for the purpose of this essay: NIGERIA ● History: Colonized by British in 1914, independent by 1960 ● Civil wars, rampant with military coups and rule ● 1993--> elections (democratic practice), people elected president.. power seized once more by coup ● 2007-2010, presidency in place, attempt at reconciling for years of instability 1st argument: Military regimes pose as a threat to embracing democratic practice. ● Long history of military coups, first of many was in 1966 ● Brutal areas of civilian war and military coups ● State is constantly attempting to restructure framework only to be defeated by tensions between state, civilian, and military regimes ● There have been many hopeful attempts at instilling a stable political structure but they are premature ● Due to issues of bribery and nepotism.. State is built on illegitimate practice and inequality. “More democracy is explored, more entrenched forces of corruption.” 2nd Argument: Religious institutions create animosity between civilians ● Religion is a dominant feature for the way in which people act, sometimes over arching the power that governmental structures have ● Nigeria made up of social fabrics. Dominant ethnic groups who conflict views on politics. Animosity between groups. ● Religious differences became politicized in 80’s, establishment of sharia law (islamic) in 12 northern states ● Constant religious riots 9 ● Clashes between religious groups (dominantly Christian and Muslim). ● Differences between religious doctrine are impediments to embracement of democratic practice 3rd argument: Growing issues of inequality and opportunity left by colonial powers are deterrents to political practice ● Class representation: In politics, not enough representation of different ethnic groups needs and wants. No “voice” in politics --> for women ● Gender roles: Men dominant figures in the state, resonates across all African regions who were subject to colonialism ● Education: Occupation and access to education (one dependent on the other). Not everybody is given equal opportunity. People who benefit from the system: Government workers, military personnel. Lack of education = impediment to individual progress in society. ● Poverty: based on class and race inequality. Distribution of resources.. Distinction due to darker/lighter skinned individuals (Genocide in Rwanda as an example). Conclusion (sorry its not in point form.. eh) Most African nations who were subject to colonial powers have failed to rise and remain stagnant in political instability. Using the case of Nigeria, a nation that still struggles to cope with the practices the British bequeathed upon them, this paper argued that military regimes have further perpetuated religions animosity and inequality among nations. Those issues, among many, have been the barrier between a nations’ embracement of legitimate democratic practice. 10 3. In which ways are women in Third World countries overcoming traditional institutions that kept them subordinate for so long? Are elected women pushing for greater gender equality, poverty alleviation, and social, political, and cultural participation? Elaborate fully, citing relevant examples. Introduction/Thesis: Subordination of women to men is prevalent in large parts of the world, especially in developing countries. Women are not only treated as subordinate to men but are also subject to discriminations, humiliations, exploitations, oppressions, control and violence. Gender quotas have played a huge role here. These have been helpful in overcoming institutions that kept women subordinate for so long because firstly, they entail that women must constitute a certain number or percentage of the members of a body, whether it is a candidate list, a parliamentary assembly, government, or a committee. Secondly, the quota’s recruit women into political positions and thirdly, ensure that women are not only a token few in political life and they aim at increasing women's representation Main Arguments: Page 177 in Textbook: Key points box In developing countries: · Women are gaining power both in official positions and in relation to government through social movements and NGO’s Examples of movements: - Women’s Forum Against Fundamentalism in Iran: Promote awareness of challenges women face living under fundamentalist regimes like Iran - Women Kind World: For women in developing countries, mission is to enable them to voice their concerns and claim their rights, and to work globally for policies and practices which promote equality between men and women Movements are extremely effective · Political structure and government resonance with feminist agendas matter - (Feminism is awareness of patriarchal control, exploitation and oppression of women’s labour, fertility and sexuality, in the family, at the place of work and in society in general. It is a struggle to achieve equality, dignity, rights, freedom for women to control their lives and bodies both within home and outside) · Democratic systems that are parliamentary, with political parties with female quotas (GENDER QUOTAS) that gain seats through proportional representation that implement goals for more critical masses of women, have higher rates of women representatives · Tools are available to nudge more resistant bureaucracies including mainstreaming strategies, budgets etc. to help women gain more power in politics Elected women pushing for greater gender equality, poverty alleviation, and social, political, and cultural participation Gender Quotas: - Do not discriminate, but compensate for actual barriers that prevent women from their fair share of the political seats 11 - Imply that there are several women together in a committee or assembly, thus minimizing the stress often experience by the token women - Bring women the right as citizens to equal representation - Bring women's experiences into political life - Election is about representation, not educational qualifications - Women are just as qualified as men, but women’s qualifications are downgraded and minimized in a male-dominated political system - It is in fact the political parties that control the nominations, not primarily the voters who decide who gets elected; therefore quotas are not violations of voters' rights Most developing countries introduced electoral gender quotas during the 1990s, mainly due to the influence of the UN Conference on Women held in Beijing. On the other hand, most developed countries adopted gender quotas 10 or 15 years prior to the Conference. A dramatic change has taken place in the established rank order of countries regarding the level of women’s political representation. The five Nordic countries, which for many years were almost alone at the top of the list, are now being challenged by amazingly fast development in a number of countries around the globe. For example, Rwanda superseded Sweden as number one in the world in terms of women’s parliamentary representation - 48.8% women against Sweden’s 45.3% in 2003, and has more than 50% of seats for female legislators since 2008. HOWEVER, are gender quotas reasonable? Just giving away spots in parliament/government without looking at a women’s education etc? - Elections are about representation, not educational qualifications - Women are just as qualified as men, but women’s qualifications are downgraded and minimized in a male-dominated political system - It is in fact the political parties that control the nominations, not primarily the voters who decide who gets elected; therefore quotas are not violations of voters' rights - Introducing quotas may cause conflicts, but may be only temporarily, as quotas can contribute to a process of democratisation by making the nomination process more transparent and formalised Conclusion: Additional Notes: Readings: March 13 and 18: Women and Gender - Laws, public policies and decisions about how to implement public policies are deeply and historically embedded in states - Men capture the control as women are undermined - In the developing world, this comes from colonialism - Women face wage inequalities: Unpaid labor in households - Women lack the ability to make reproductive choices, voluntary motherhood - Women have different interest from men; recognizing gender rather than being gender neutral policies are needed - Issues affecting women are private and so it’s hard to get them out publically 12 - Women lack autonomy Example of a real situation: Prof talked about Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner in one lecture, Argentina’s current president. Her husband, Nestor Kirchner, was the president first, but after he passed away, it seemed as though Cristina faced a ton of criticism in being President mainly because she was a woman. People felt that she had come from her husband’s shadows and that he was her advantage and reason in making it into her position of Presidency. If Nestor had still been alive, no one would lay a finger on Cristina because they know that he would never let anything harm her, but without him there, it seems people think she is merely a weak woman who got lucky. Basically, although we can implement gender quotas; is it enough to change people’s thinking, despite elected women pushing for greater gender equality, poverty alleviation, and social, political, and cultural participation? Since gender inequality is socially developed, in the minds of citizens? 13 4. Political scientist Samuel Huntington claims that, “as society changes so does the role of its military.” With which one of the theoretical approaches discussed in class is his explanation of military coups associated? What does he mean by that? Which types of military coups result from this conceptualization? Why is it claimed that Huntington’s model led to a greater degree of military interventionism in developing countries? Elaborate fully, citing relevant examples. Thesis: Huntington’s fundamental thesis: developed and presented with an effective combination of analytic logic, historical evidence and comparative insight, was that rapid social change and the consequent mobilization of new groups into politics often outpaced the development of political institutions able to process their participation and demands. When the rates of social mobilization and the expansion of political participation are high and the levels of political organization and political institutionalization are low, the result is political instability and disorder. This approach can be explained through modernization theory. Main Arguments: In accordance to modernization theory- the belief is that industrialization and economic development lead directly to positive social and political change. This particular subject has been of great interest to scholars in the field of policy for more than a half century. It came back into vogue in the 1990s in Washington, due to the global spread of free markets and the third wave of democratization. Following the theory's initial rapid acceptance, in the late 1960s, a repercussion began to emerge. o Critics argued that it was too linear, too teleological, and too optimistic. o One major challenge came from Samuel Huntington. In his seminal book Political Order in Changing Societies, Huntington took issue with the theory's relatively unproblematic picture of social change. o He argued that modernization theorists were right in seeing economic development as unleashing profound social changes but wrong in assuming those changes would necessarily be benign or progressive. o Societies in the throes of dramatic social transformation, he noted, tend to be unstable and even violent. Positive outcomes are likely to emerge only where healthy political institutions capable of channeling and responding to such changes exist, and building such institutions is an extremely difficult and time- consuming task. Huntington’ s criticism on the modernization theory: o Huntington controversially criticized the prevailing “modernization theory” paradigm, which argued that capitalist development would organically generate stable democracies. o Huntington instead insisted that economic development did not produce stable democracy, but rather rapid social change and rising mass political demands, which prevailing institutions struggled to absorb or contain. o For Huntington, it was excusable for governments to address the resulting political instability through authoritarian rule. o Military intervention would suppress the masses (“halt the rapid mobilization of social forces into politics”), build institutions capable of managing popular demands (“modernize”), and then return power to civilians. o Huntington’s work was his period’s most sophisticated attempt to understand military intervention into politics, rightly identifying its causes as social and political rather than military. 14 o But depicting armies as the last-gasp agents of modernization had deeply reactionary implications, legitimizing military intervention precisely at the moment when postcolonial democracies were everywhere succumbing to dictatorships. o Huntington’s work masked the interests served by military intervention, which were nothing so abstract as modernization. o Huntington recognized: “As the mass society looms on the horizon, [the soldier] becomes the conservative guardian of the existing order.” Military intervention served in most cases to defend bourgeois power and undemocratic, capitalist relations against mass opposition. As Huntington chillingly put it: “The middle class makes its debut on the political scene not in the frock of the merchant but in the epaulettes of the colonel.” o So, although Huntington daringly averred, “the truly helpless society is not one threatened by revolution but one incapable of it,” his clear preference was for a revolution that preserved rather than overturned the status quo, that is, counter-revolution. ● Huntington argued that the fundamental causes of post-Cold War conflict would be cultural rather than ideological. This thesis added a veneer of legitimacy to the quest for new enemies, but it was never internally consistent. Huntington’s positing of seven “civilisations” with Africa “perhaps” constituting an eighth, and his constant oscillation between definitions and usages, illustrated the incoherence of his most basic units. Cultural identities were supposed to be timeless and homogeneous, while political allegiances were dissipating everywhere. Interaction between culturally dissimilar peoples was bound, somehow, to stimulate conflict. Turning the eme
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