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Psych 1X03 ALL Web Modules for EXAM
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 1X03
Professor
Joe Kim
Semester
Fall

Description
Psych1X03WebModules LevelsofAnalysis-WM#1 Psychology - comes from the greek word ‘psyche’ meaning ‘soul’ Aristotle and Plato asked ‘where does knowledge come from’ Mueller proposed: - certain parts of the body are attached to specific parts of the brain for specific functions - learned which regions controlled things like heart rate, breathing and procesing of reflexes Wilhelm Wundt - opened the first lab for the study of psychology - 1881 launched first scientific journal devoted to publishing psychological research - founded American Psychological Association CaseStudy-Depression LEVELS OF ANALYSIS PsychologicalLOA - how emotions, memories, and patterns of thinking relate to how Michael is feeling Biological - structure and function of brain - effect of NT and hormones - genetic effects of behavior Environmental - how social, cultural and learning interactions influence behavior - changing external influences may bring positive change PerspectivesinPsychology BehavioralPerspective John B. Watson - argued that the mind is a black box that takes ‘input’ and makes ‘output’ - understanding environmental influences on behavior - scientific methods should NOT be used BF Skinner - mental events are impossible to measure - everything we want to know can be measured by behavior - behavior modification: behavior will repeat if there is a positive outcome. and vice versa Cognitive - proper scientific methods are necessary to understand behavior - models: abstract representations of how the mind functions, can be used to make testable predictions. - multiple experiments are required to test models - provide framework for describing data, useful until somthing better comes along Psych1X03WebModules BiologicalPerspectiveandReductionism - reductionism: all human behavior can be explained by reducing the problem to the biology of the brain. - Francis Crick - neuroimaging: looking at the brain ❖ non-invasive ❖ Structural MRI - physical makeup of brain ❖ Functional MRI - what the brain is actually doing EvolutionaryandDevelopmentalPerspectives - how genetic and environmental factors contribute to changes over a lifespan - larger periods of time (thousands/millions of years) - often study infants Socio-culturalPerspective - how individuals are influenced by culture and interactions with other people 1. influence of individual on a group 2. group on an individual 3. group on another group ETHICS - ie Milgram Experiment BACKtoCaseStudy... behavioral - what behaviors are associated with depression? how can they be altered? ❖ learned helplessness in animals is similar to humans RESEARCHMETHODS-WM#2 Theory:general set of ideas about the way the world works hypothesis:makes a specific prediction about variables involved in the theory. ResearchMethods:determine the way in which the hypothesis will be tested. Collectdata:take measurements of the outcomes of the test Analyzedata:understand data and discover trends. ReportFindings:publish articles in scholarly journals. ReviseTheories:incorporate new info into our understanding of the world. PARADIGMSHIFT:In 1543, Copernicus challenged the thought that the earth was the center of the universe ✦dramatic change in our way of thinking AnecdotalEvidence:evidence gathered from others or self experience Testing a hypothesis: Psych1X03WebModules ✦single experience might not be representative ✦personal experience might not represent others ✦cannot be sure that result is due to ____ alone Experiment:scientific tool used to measure the effect of one variable on another Independantvariable:variable manipulated by the scientist DependantVariable:variable being observed by the scientist IV: amount of enzyme present DV: amount of cell growth IV: amount of exercise DV: amount of lean muscle mass ExperimentalGroup:receives a manipulation of the IV ControlGroup:does not. • ideally experimental group participants and control group participants should be as similar as possible • they should differ only in terms of the IV WIthin-Subjectsdesign ➡ tests the same subject repeatedly as the IV is manipulated ➡ minimizes the effect of external variables on the dependant measure ➡ canbeexpensiveandtimeconsuming ➡ practiceeffect:improved performance over the course of an experiment due to more experience (can reduce control of experiment) Between-SubjectsDesign - one group acts as the control group, other as the experimental group - confoundingvariable:influence the results of the experiment even though they are not the variable being studied. SelectingSubjects: ➡ results from very specific groups of participants cannot be generalized to other groups ➡ sample:small group selected representative of the population ➡ Randomsample:reduces chance of bias, yet difficult to achieve ➡ Randomassignment:assigning subjects to either group at random to reduce bias. *PlaceboEffect: individual exhibits a response to a treatment that has no related therapeutic effect. form of subject bias which can intentionally or unintentionally influence results. ❖can influence even physiological factors such as health Psych1X03WebModules *Participant Bias: when a participants actions in an experiment influence the results outside of the manipulations of the experimenter. controlling the placebo effect.... mocktreatment:giving everyone a drink regardless if they belong to experimental group or control group blinding:when participants do not know whether they belong to the experimental or control group, or which treatment they are receiving. ExperimenterBias • if they know the hypothesis they are trying to test, they might influence the results that they are hoping to get • actions made by the experimenter intentionally or not to promote the outcome they hope to receive. • can be reduced if experimenter does not know whether participants belong to experimental group or control group. DoubleBlindStudies:experiments in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know which group each participant belongs to. DescriptiveStatistics - presents information about data at a glance - includes mean, median and mode ✦Histogram:type of graph used to report the # of times or frequency that groups of values appear in a data set ✦FrequencyDistribution:type of graph illustrating how frequently values appear in the data set. ie the line that connects the bars. ✦NormalDistribution:smooth, symmetrical bell-shaped curve with a peak ✦Mean:add all values, divide by number of values ❖susceptible to influence of outliers: exterme pts, distant from others. ✦Median:the centre value in a data set when the set is arranged numerically ❖advantage: cannot be pulled in one direction by an outlier ✦Mode:most typical response (most frequent value) Measures of central tendency don’t tell us the values other than the central ones. MeasuresofVariability ➡ second type of descriptive statistic reviews spread and distribution of a data set ➡ StandardDeviation:average distance of each data point from the mean. ❖larger SD: more spread out ❖smaller SD: smaller spread how big must the difference between groups be before its considered important?... InferentialStatistics Psych1X03WebModules ✦use results from samples to make inferences about overall, underlying populations. ✦t-test: used to compare difference b/w data from experimental and control grup ✦calculates probability that both samples were drawn from a single population. ❖p-value: expresses the probability. ❖not significant: greater than 5% probability of obtaining the data by chance ❖significant: less than 5% probability. StatisticalSignificance:when the difference between two groups is due to some true difference between the properties of the 2 groups and notsimply because of random variation. ie a low p-value! CASE STUDY - energy drinks - Eric used Between subject experimental design - random sample selection - double blind experiment (to avoid biases) - all participants did the test first - used descriptive stats - mean, SD, histogram and inferential statistics (t-test) - p=0.44 mean his study has no conclusive evidence. ObservationalStudies:observe effect of variables of interest without performing any explicit manipulation Correlation:measure of the strength of the relationship between 2 variables. ❖correlation coefficient: r ❖r=+1 - perfect positive correlation (diagonal line going up) ❖r=-1 - perfect negative correlation (diagonal line going down) ❖r = 0 - no relation whatsoever b/w two variables ❖closer they get to one, the stronger the relationship is *** Correlation does not equal CAUSATION ❖cant use a correlation to state that one variable is causing an effect on another variable ❖confounding variables could also have an effect on the correlation. ClassicalConditioning-WM#3 We learn not to do or to do things based on the results... ie we only touch a hot stove once. ClassicalConditioning:allows us to associate two related events ➡ the learning of a contingency between a particular signal and a later event that are paired in time and/or space InstrumentalConditioning:allows us to associate actions and their consequences Psych1X03WebModules Ivan Pavlov: 1890s/1900s ❖foundation for classical conditioning ❖“pavlovian conditioning” ❖interested in digestion, discovered dogs would salivate before they even ate ❖ran experiments with signals to dogs - ❖conditionalreflex- dogs were conditioned to respond to things like sounds before they got food ❖contingent relationship: the presentation of one stimulus reliably leads to the presentation of another. ie lightning when a contingent relationship is learned, an individual can respond to the signal before the event even occurs. Example:lemons - preparatory salivation - prepares the body for digestion. Example2:antelopes ✦learns to flee a variety of cues that may signal an attack from a predator, not just seeing it. ie sounds, smells and sights ✦critical to the animals survival UnconditionedStimulus(US) ✦creates a response without any previous learning ✦no training necessary ✦always triggers a response in the absence of any learning Unconditionalresponse(UR) ✦always follows a US ✦occurs naturally prior to any learning ✦ ie eating lemons ConditionedStimulus(CS) ✦paired with the unconditioned stimulus to produce a learned contingency. ✦‘preparatory’ signal to help an organism anticipate a biological event CS---contingency-->US CS typically appears before US. - previously neutral stimulus that is paired with a US stimulus to create a response on its own. Psych1X03WebModules ConditionedResponse(CR) - the response that occurs once the contingency between the CS and US has been learned Acquisition: the process by which a contingency between a CS and US is learned ✦normally, contingencies are learned slowly ✦most of the learning happens during the early trials ✦negatively accelerated increasing function ➡ special cases where 1 trial is sufficient: ❖rats are constantly searching for food sources, avoid unfamiliar foods (neophobia) ❖only consume new food in small quantities, therefore they can easily pinpoint what food would cause their illness ❖they learn the contingency b/w food and sickness in a single trial Extinction lasting effects: as long as the conditional stimulus continues to be a reliable cue for the unconditional stimulus, the contingency will remain. As soon as the CS is not a reliable cue, the conditional response will eventually fade. Extinction: presenting the CS alone, repeatedly over many trials, without the US which it was paired with before. At first, the CS will elicit a conditional response (CR) but over time it will become weaker. is the previously learned contingency unlearned? Or is the old learned contingency competing with a new inhibitory response that is learned to the same CS… IF the contingency is unlearned, we would expect that after extinction, retraining b/w the CS and US would lead to acquisition of the CR at approx the same rate as original training. IF extinction leads to new learning, this suggests that two learned processes sit side by side: - original learned response to CS - new inhibitory learned response to CS - we would expect that retraining b/w CS and US would occur at a faster rate compared to original training. Spontaneous Recovery - suggests that extinction involves a new inhibitory learned response. - Following a rest period, if the CS is presented oonce more it elicits a CR! Psych1X03WebModules - This suggests that original learned association b/w CS and US is NOT unlearned. Instead extinction seems to promote an inhibitory response that competes with the original learned contingency In the real world, the conditional stimulus might not be identical everytime its presented - WWII the sound of a bomb would be different each time however it stil produced a CR. Stimulus Generalization: classical conditioning of learned responses to a variety of different stimuli. - stimuli similar to the CS will also produce a response. - Even if you were bitten by a black dog, the sight of other dogs might still elicit the same fear response. Galvanic skin response measure: measures conditional fear response in humans. - in animals this is measured by freezing behavior. Fear still occurs in frequencies near 500, but they reduce as you go further away from the original. In the case of dogs: the closer to the original breed, the more likely you will have a CR You can test how successful the therapy has been by exposing you to several test subjects along the generalization gradient, if successful the gradient will become flatter. Psych1X03WebModules Stimulus Discrimination - opposite to generalization. Restricts the range of CS that can elicit a response. - You could eliminate the fear of one type of dog along the gradient with the original dog breed fear remaining intact. - By alternating trials in which the original CS is paired with the US eliciting fear, and then the second CS occurs without the same US causing the fear, their will be specific discrimination of the CR to the original CS. CS+ predicts the presence of an unconditional stimulus CS- predicts the absence of the unconditional stimulus - its important for an antelope to know a range of CS- stimuli that indicate it is safe to look for food. When a CS+ and CS- are presented at the same time, the CR will occur somewhere in between the two. Generalization: provides flexibility and efficiency Discrimination: refines the learning process. Phobia: an exaggerated, intense and persistent fear of certain situations, activities, things or people. - could be from a tramatic experience - long lasting fear elicited by stimuli that remind someone of the original event. - a CS doesn’t need to happen for a CR, just something similar. for example: a story of a snake, without actually being bitten by one. Implosive Therapy - individual is encouraged to confront the CS that evokes their anxiety. - this way, CS is presented without associated US. - a germophobe may be asked to sit with their hands in dirt, and accept that sickness and danger will not follow. - can be a tramatic type of therapy Systematic Desensitization - gradual exposure to the feared stimulus - begin with extinguishing stimuli at the far end of the gradient, gradually working their way towards the middle. - this method may be more accessible to most patients Homeostasis - made more efficient through classical conditioning Compensatory response: a process which counteracts a challenge to homeostasis US - ingestion of sugar, increase in blood sugar UR - insulin release CS - sweet taste of drink CR - insulin release Psych1X03WebModules **eventually the flavor cues alone will elicit a response of insulin release coke vs diet coke.. ➡ everytime we drink diet coke, we still still experience the sweet taste. ➡ even though the drink might not have sugar, the insulin is still conditioned to release. ➡ the body compensated by being more hungry to make use of the extra insulin. ➡ so we actually eat more with the diet drinks... DRUGS: US - various naturally occurring effects of the drug - decrease in pain sensitivity. the drug effects are a challenge to homeostasis, the body responds with compensatory mechanisms that function to counteract the drug effects. UR - counter-adaptations - increased pain sensitivity. CS - over time, environmental cues become paired with the drug effects and a contingency occurs. for example: location of drug taking, things used to administer the drug. CR - once a contingency occurs, mere presentation of environmental cues will trigger a CR, ie compensatory actions - increased pain sensitivity. drug preparatory response: a morphine addict who is confronted with an empty syringe may suddenly experience extreme discomfort, pain and nausea - opposite to the drug effect. TEXTBOOK-CHAPTER3:LEARNING Learning: relatively enduring changes in mechanisms of behavior due to experiences 3 key concepts: ❖mechanisms of behavior ❖learning involves change that is relatively enduring ❖learning is a process based on practice 1.Mechanisms of Behavior Two reasons to consider more than just behavior - both involve distinction b/w learning and performance a)Learning is distinct from merely performance of or changes in behaviors. Learning is often context specific and goes beyond natural responses to stimuli ❖EXAMPLE: teach dog tricks with incentive for performing well, yet they don’t perform when you go to show your friends their skills. - could be because the dog is tired Psych1X03WebModules - could be because they aren’t hungry... - they didn’t ‘unlearn’ the trick their behavior changed because other reasons b)Latent Learning: acquiring associations that are not immediately expressed, or else only in certain contexts. highlights importance of specific mechanisms of learning ❖EXAMPLE: one group of mice has food at the end of a maze, next group does not. group 1 reaches the end quickly, group two wanders around. Group three don’t have food for the first 10 trials and wander, then once food arrives they go get it. - suggests that they learned the route while wandering, but didn’t have a preference to finish the maze without the food InstrumentalConditioning-WM#4 Learning of a contingency b/w behavior and consequence ex: if you touch a hot stove you WILL get burned... - specific behavior leads to specific consequence CaseStudy:mike wants students to show up on time for tutorial so he offers those on time a chance to pick from a deck of cards. Every 5 tutorials, the person who can make the best poker hand gets a $10 gift certificate to the book store. Early theorists appealed to mental processes (not readily measured) ✦early work was done with animals as subjects EdwardLThorndike ➡ studied cats in a puzzle box ➡ focused on overt behavior and not mental elements ➡ box had a door that would open by doing a certain behavior like pulling on a rope ➡ small box of food was outside the box for motivation PREDICTIONS --> - at first the cat behaves randomly as it tried to escape - eventually it would pull on the rope by accident - after that it would escape immediately RESULTS ---> - frequency of random behaviors gradually decreased over time. - over several trials there were a decreasing # of behaviors in relation to the # of increasing successful behaviors. - there was never a distinct ‘a-ha!’ moment Psych1X03WebModules Rope pulling behavior - “stamped in” random behaviors - “stamped out” Lawofeffect: - behaviors with positive consequences are stamped in and performed more frequently - behaviors that produce an annoying or unpleasant effect will be stamped out and performed LESS frequently Reinforcer-any stimulus stimulus which when presented after a response leads to a change in the rate of that response. can be + or - RewardTraining: - presentation of a postiive reinforcer after a response to increase behavior Punishmenttraining: - presentation of a negative reinforcer after a response to decrease behavior ✦punishment can be a ethical conversation ✦should it be used by parents? ✦the parental authority figure could be classically conditioned to become a signal for pain and distress for the child OmissionTraining: - removing a positive reinforcer, decrease in behavior being reinforcer. - we would want to avoid this. ie taking the tv away to reduce teasing which is enjoyable. desire is for the kid to stop teasing - EX: timeout procedure. Psych1X03WebModules ❖child will often stop unwanted response. ➡ punishment and omission training lead to the same result but in very different methods EscapeTraining: - the response is followed by the removal of a negative reinforcer. - learner is motivated to have this reinforcer be removed. - by a change in response they are hoping that the negative reinforcer will be avoided. - EX: grumpy landlord with sensitive hearing. landlord bangs on the ceiling with the broom to turn it off. landlord learns that he can avoid the negative reinforcer (music) by banging on the roof with the broom ➡ consequence needs to immediately follow the response for effective instrumental conditioning response needs to be followed by the consequence in order for the contingency to be learned that it comes from that specific behavior or response. this applies to ALL types of instrumental conditioning ICAcquisition: ✦the process of acquisition leads to learning the contingency b/w a response and its consequences. ✦in studies of ic acquisition, they are interested in measuring the rate of response to the new behavior. polygraphmachine:paper flows through machine at constant rate, pen draws straight line. each response made by the subject makes the pen move up a notch leading to a pattern of acquisition. - we can now use computers to measure the same thing horizontal line: no response Psych1X03WebModules pattern of responding depends on subject, complexity of behavior, type of reinforcement used etc.. RESPONSE-->REINFORCEMENT S-delta(S-) ❖indicates when the contingent relationship is notvalid ❖EXAMPLE: grandma’shouseis the S-delta. ie they won’t get dessert for eating veggies. EXAMPLE 2 - pigeon pecks keyhole to get food - above the keyhole is green light and speaker - when green light is on, relationship is valid - SD - when clicking sound is on, relationship is null - S-delta SimilartoClassicalConditioning: - there’s also a generalizationgradientfor Instrumental. SDGeneralizationgradient - the bird will respond with pecking the keyhole to the green light, and lights of a similar wavelength as well. -Extinction exists too! - if the behavior no longer gets a reward for something it used to, the contingency will be weakened. DIFFERENCEB/WCSandSD CS: - paired with a US, elicits a response by reflex - response is involuntaryand automatic SD: - paired with a response-reinforcer outcome, but SD itself does not reflexively elicit the response. - SD sets the occasionfor a response by signaling when the relationship is valid. - VOLUNTARY Psych1X03WebModules Reinforcement: - continuous: all the examples we looked at above - partial: more realistic to life. not all good deeds get rewards, and not all bad ones get punished... PARTIAL:can have reinforcement delivery based on either total responses or time. FIXED ✦Ratio: # of responses made by a subject, which determines when reinforcement is given. ❖EX: pigeons - FR-1schedule, is rewarded for each response - FR-10which is reward after every 10th pecking response. ➡ there is a limit to how stingy the schedule can be. ➡ Ratio strain - when the schedule is too stingy, and the subject stops responding. ➡ Humanexample: getting paid $30 for every 3 shirts you make ➡ ‘pause and run pattern’: following reinforcement they will pause with inactivity before next response. - you might pause before the next round of shirts... ✦Interval:time since last response that was reinforced. ❖EX: pigeons - FI-1minute schedule gets reward for first pecking response after a one minute period, - FI-10minute schedule gets reward for the first pecking response after a 10 minute period. could potentially get 6 rewards in one hour. ➡ humanexample:weekly quiz. response ramps up right before the quiz, and pauses right after. ➡ produces a scallop, lull periods followed by pick-up and peak. ➡ subject doesn’t want to miss the reinforcement window, but there’s no direct reinforcement for responding well beforehand. VARIABLE Psych1X03WebModules contrast to fixed schedules, rewards are given following a variable amount of workor time ✦Ratio ❖EX: pigeons - VR-10schedule, pigeon must peck average of 10 times to get food reward, but exact #of pecks that yields a reward changes across trials. ➡ Human Example: slot machine. after a random # of plays on a pre- set mean, you WIN! this random reward is reinforced by the occasional win. ➡ supports constantand highresponse rates. (you never know when you might win) ➡ slope reflects the average # of responses required before reinforcement is given. ➡ more frequent reinforcement = higher response rate. ✦Interval - VI-10schedule, first resposne following an average of 10 minutes will be reinforced, but exact length of time between rewards changes across trials. on average 10 mins must pass before a pecking response is reinforced. ➡ you could receive reinforcement at anytime, though you have an idea of how often. ➡ steady response rate, ensuring no missing out. ➡ more frequent reinforcement = higher response. • Generally, partial reinforcement produces stronger behaviors than continuous. • this is because on CRF, once reinforcement stops, learner will be aware of abrupt change and decrease responding. • on a PRF, once reinforcement stops, its not obvious that a change has happened. PARTIALISGOOD:Ideally, train ppl on partial, not continuous. a kid who gets candy for every good behavior is more likely to stop if they dont get no candy that one that gets candy some of the time. Psych1X03WebModules PROBLEM SOLVING - WM #5 Intelligence:the cognitive ability of an individual to learn from experience, reason well, and remember important information and cope with the demands of daily living. - involves the ability to perform cognitive tasks - ability to learn from experience and adapt Deductivereasoning: -concrete conclusion based on a general idea. - Example: if its going to rain, the ground will soon be wet. Inductivereasoning - generate a general idea given some concrete information - if you come outside and the ground is wet, you could use inductive reasoning to decide that it rained overnight. functionalfixedness:difficulty seeing alternative uses for common objects Reliability:measures the extent to which repeated testing produces consistent results - a reliable test produces the same result if one person takes it multiple times ✦important for intelligence tests because psychologists believe intelligence is a static internal quality. Validity:measures the extent to which a test is actually measuring what the researcher claims to be measuring - a valid test measures only the trait it is supposed to be measuring ✦in a university course... do the assessments measure your understanding of course material or are they testing your ability to memorize information? FrancisGalton-modern study of intelligence - recorded how quickly subjects responded to sensory motor tasks. increased reaction time = higher intelligence. may not have been valid but it was reliable. AlfredBinet:produced first intelligence scale with everyday tasks. - he assumed all tasks required reasoning. CharlesSpearman:believed in a single type of intelligence. he observed that most people who performed well on classical intelligence tasks performed well on all kinds of other tasks. Psych1X03WebModules ➡ advocated one generalized intelligence which he named “G” ➡ he believed that only persons with a certain level of G should be able to vote and other things... remains controversial today HowardGardner:multiple intelligence theory ➡ verbal - verbal ➡ mathematical - logical ➡ rhythmic - musical ➡ spatial - visual ➡ kinesthetic - bodily ➡ interpersonal ➡ intrapersonal ➡ naturalistic • each trait exists independant of one another • the debate over single or multiple levels of intelligence continues today DavidWechsler:most common intelligence test - Wechsler adult intelligence scale - Weschler intelligence scale for children - these scales produce an intelligence quotient ✦Standardized tests produce an intelligence quotient. (IQ) ✦someone who achieves the mean will be assigned a score of 100 ✦standard deviation of 15 ✦your specific IQ is relative to the performance of the rest of population Does a persons intelligence result from genes or the environment? - nature/nurture. no real answer, because both are ESSENTIAL - we can use correlation studies - twin studies: strong IQ correlations in identical twins, a bit lower for fraternal. suggests a geneticcorrelation. - IQ correlation remains highin twins raised in different environments. - both genetics AND environments play a role, the influence of each is debated. FlynnEffect: - raw IQ scores have been on the rise since 1932. - the raw score corresponding to the standard 100 has been on the rise - increased quality of school? increased access to information/technology? - no one knows whyyyyyyyyyy PiagetandIntelligenceDevelopment - children are active learners. by manipulating and exploring their environment they add new information to what they know. Psych1X03WebModules - SCHEMA:a mental framework for interpreting the world around us. - children do not have fully formed schemas. - assimilation:manipulating incoming info so it makes sense. - accomodation:modifying existing schemas to fit incompatible information. FOUR STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Sensorimotor-->Preoperational-->concreteoperational-->formaloperational - piaget claims that although children can pass through stages at different rates they MUST go through them in this sequential order. Sensorimotor:0-2years - purposefully engage with the world, recognize that they can affect change on their environment - move around, pull a string on a mobile, rattle a toy, cry to get attention - milestone:object permanence. Realizing that objects can continue to exist even when they can’t see them anymore - when parents leave the room they still exist. Preoperational:2-7years - challenges to master: ❖egocentricism - difficulty understanding world from another perspective. unable to see someone else’s point of view. ❖seriation - ability to logically order series of objects. (shortest to longest sticks). ❖reversible relationships - do you have a brother? yep. does your brother have a sister? nope. ❖conservation - difficulty realizing quantities/sizes. ie if you pour two glasses of milk into different size cups they will pick the one that looks like it has more (the narrow one) even if they saw the milk originally in the same size glasses ConcreteOperational:7-11years - schemas are still concrete based on their experiences with the world - unable to think in abstract ways FormalOperational:11+years - all further cognition - truly understand theoretical world of fantasy games and abstract things Piaget criticism: - children sometimes develop skills out of order - ppl argue that the tasks he asks them to do relies on their language abilities - theories are still important tho ConfirmationBias: - tendency to seek out information that directly supports your hypothesis. - often feels like the ideal strategy, its nice to be confirmed - however the best way to know that your right is to find evidence saying you were wrong (look other than positive affirmation) Psych1X03WebModules - EXAMPLE: doctor making a diagnosis. makes an initial diagnosis after hearing symptoms. then, she collects more information from the patient after that to confirm her original hypothesis - victim of confirmation bias! AvailabilityHeuristic:mental shortcut used to solve a problem quickly and correctly -rely on quick info that might not be accurate - large jackpot winners are more publicized so we think that lotto winners always get a grand prize when really they DONT RepresentativeHeuristic ✦our tendency to assume that what we are seeing is representative of the larger category we have in our mind. -EXAMPLE: a guy in a suit reading listening to classical music ❖farmer or english teacher? ❖statistically, he’s more likely to be a farmer than english teacher based on numbers ❖we think they are an english prof because of how they look and act ❖we rely more on what we might think a prof would look like rather than acting on statistics EXAMP
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