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religion final exam notes.docx

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Religious Studies
Joe Larose

Avalokiteshvara: (Buddhism) One of the bodhisattvas (enlightenment beings) who embodies compassion of all beings. She is one of the most popular and universally good bodhisattvas. There are various names for her like Kannon and Karunamaya. Wherever Mahayana Buddhism spread, texts of her local deeds were often spread through stories, arts, and popular texts. Covenant: Binding agreement between God and his people (promise). For example, God chose Israel as his people. He agreed to protect and guide them, in return they have to follow God’s commandments. The Dao: (Daoism)Also known as “The Way”.Although it cannot be spoken or adequately defined, it is said to be a mysterious power that is the source of all creation that flows and functions without the will or purpose of a creator god. In China, all humans were said to share the common Dao, which is the harmony that governs the universe. Dharmasutra: (Hinduism) It is the first four texts in the Dharmasutra tradition. It focuses on the idea of Dharma, which is a personal guide that Hindu’s strive to live by. It contains the rules of conduct and rites as practiced in Vedic schools and discusses duties of people, rites and duties of kings, judicial matters and even personal practices. Donative Inscription: Writings that were engraved on various surfaces that represent gifts that were given. They were inscribed on shrine walls, railings and gateways. These inscriptions include records of installation of religious images, which were often inscribed on images themselves. Eschatology: Branch of theology that is concerned and focused on events surrounding the end of the world or end of humans. It talks about the ultimate destiny of human kind. In Christianity, it focuses on events such as death, afterlife, Heaven, Hell and resurrection Eucharist: One of the seven sacraments in Christianity. According to Gospels, Jesus broke the bread, blessed it, gave it to his disciples and said, “this is my body”. Similarly, he took the wine, blessed it, gave it to his disciples and said, “this is my blood.” This is often used in Church by priests representing Jesus and Christians partake in this believing that they are taking the blood and body of Jesus (literally and spiritually) The Four Noble Truths: (Buddhism) It provides a way for the path towards nirvana. (1)All life entails suffering [One cant deny the experience of moral existence ie. Death, disease etc] (2) The cause of suffering Is desire [humans crave after possessions, sex and power] (3) Removing desire removes suffering. (4) The way for removing desire is to follow the Eightfold Path, the cure for the continuous human cycle of rebirth. The Four Stages of Life: (Hinduism) These stages are called ashramas, and it is believed that every man should eventually go through each stage. (1) student stage, they should receive formal education. (2) householder stage, they should get married, have a job etc. (3) hermit stage, retire and go live in a hut and pray. (4) wandering asetic stage, they should not have a home and devote themselves to god. Gemara: (Judaism) It is part of the Talmud, and makes up part of it. It is the link from the oral Torah to the written Torah Hadith: (Islam) Stories or traditions told about the Prophet Muhammad. The narrative report of Muhammad’s sayings and actions. Haredim: (Judaism) It is an Jewish ultra-Orthodox movement that rejects all modern types and forms of Judaism. The haredi men wear black suits, wide brimmed hats and the women wear long skits, thick stockings and headcoverings. Hijab: (Islam)Arabic word for veil or external covering. This can consist of a headscarf alone or it can be a full body covering. It Is usually worn by a woman after she had hit puberty The Laws of Manu: (Hinduism) It is a part of the Dharmashastra texts and the most important one. It creates laws that both kings and commoners would have to follow. It drew from the Vedas, and one of the stories that are told in it is about Brahma’s creation of the Universe. Mitzvah: (Judaism) They are the commandments that are set forth by God. These commandments require deeds of loving-kindness. They also include precepts. Monastery: It is a building that is occupied by a community of monks that live under religious vows. Monasteries usually include places reserved for prayer like chapels, churches or temples. Muezzin: (Islam) It is an individual who issues the call to prayer from the top of the minerat. Muslims depend on this person to complete their prayers that occur 5 times a day. Nabi: (Islam) It is a word for Prophet and comes up 75 times in the Quran. IT is someone who has been sent with an important message concerning themselves or their community, or has been given a revelation of some sort. The Pureland: (Buddhism) The area where Mahayanists believe that humans would be able to reach enlightenment with the
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