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SOC PSY 1Z03 Final: Social Psychology 1Z03 - Exam Review Study Guide

9 Pages
Spring 2016

Social Psychology
Course Code
Paul Glavin
Study Guide

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Social Psychology 1Z03 - Exam Review Study Guide
Exam Format
 
 
 
 
  !"#$% $!
! 
Key Ideas from the Course
 &"
'#  ("
 )""
 
Course Concepts
 )*#+
)% 
 &"
 )"
 ,"#
- ."
/ "
 "01
Short-Answer Example
2 34- ( 4+" 
2 &0 #"#
2 ,( #
$$#  4+
   4
2 +!#   0!
! !4-0
 ""###
 "4&0#051#
$!16$1478 
- 0"9 "
 "#
 &
& "
 0"9!# !
 
 8
 :
& #0
; 
 
 ,""
 0
< 0  "9
&   
+  
## 4
) &0
=) 4>" 
 " 4+ #!
primitive belief4
<%)$ #" 4+
 #"#
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A"  "4

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Social Psychology 1Z03 - Exam Review Study Guide Exam Format ● 70 multiple-choice questions (1 point each) ● Covering material since midterm ● 3 short-answer questions (10 points each) ● ~ 1-page each ● Focused on second half of course, but you should also know emphasized frameworks, theories, concepts from entire course Key Ideas from the Course ● All human behaviour is social ● We tend to downplay the importance of social factors in explaining human behaviour ● Science is used as means to overcome cognitive biases that obstruct our understanding of the social world Course Concepts ● Social Psychological Theories ● Socialization and the development of the self ● Attitudes shape behaviour and vice versa ● Social perception biases ● Obedience and authority ● Determinants of aggressive + altruistic behaviour ● Group influences on individual behaviour ● Collective behaviour: Individuals and crowds Short-Answer Example • Q. Define and provide an example of cognitive dissonance. Then describe the four strategies outlined in lecture that could be used to resolve this dissonance. • • A: Cognitive dissonance is a state of psychological tension induced by dissonant relationships between cognitive elements, such as attitudes and perceptions about behaviours. • One example of cognitive dissonance is when a person who is normally against smoking decides to smoke at a party in order to fit in with their friends. There is dissonance between their negative attitude toward smoking and their behaviour. This dissonance should cause feelings of distress or discomfort in the person. • To resolve the dissonance, they could engage in one of four different strategies: distort, change, or disregard one of the cognitions, or add a third cognition. Distort: the individual could distort their view of the behaviour by telling themselves that they only smoked a little, or not even the whole cigarette. Change: they could change their negative attitude towards smoking to a neutral or positive attitude. Disregard: they could ignore or forget the behaviour. Add: they could add a third cognition: “I was really drunk that night, and I didn't know what I was doing.” Each of these strategies should reduce the extent that their attitudes and behaviour are dissonant. Attitudes Definition: an attitude is a predisposition to respond to a particular object in a favorable or unfavorable way ● Attitudes are emotional responses ● Attitudes influence behaviour Components of attitudes: all components share the same object, so they form a consistent, whole attitude. ● Cognitive ● Evaluative ● Behavioural Attitude formation can occur in 3 ways: ● Reinforcement - instrumental conditioning ● Classical conditioning - through association of stimuli and responses ● Observational learning - through observation Functions of attitudes: ● Heuristic function: provide a simple and efficient means of evaluating objects ● Attitudes define the self and maintain self-worth The structure of attitudes is such that each attitude is interconnected with a slew of other attitudes that all support each other. When asking someone why they hold one attitude, they will typically refer to the other related attitudes. Structure of Attitudes: ● Vertical - Some attitudes are more fundamental than others. Minor beliefs are dependent upon fundamental beliefs. The unquestioning acceptance of an authority, such as the Constitution is called a primitive belief. ● Horizontal - Some attitudes are linked to more than one set of underlying beliefs. These attitudes are more difficult to change than vertically structured attitudes because they are not based on a single primitive belief. Cognitive Consistency: people prefer to have their attitudes and beliefs be consistent with each other (falls under the cognitive theoretical perspective) ● Cognitive dissonance = psychological tension between dissonant cognitions ● Postdecisional Dissonance - Cognitive dissonance is a state of psychological tension induced by dissonant relationships between cognitive elements. It is an uncomfortable state. ● Counterattitudinal Behaviour - Dissonance occurs when we behave in ways that are inconsistent with our attitudes. To experience dissonance, a person must be committed to a belief or course of action, believe that they acted voluntarily and are responsible for the outcome of their decision. Strategies For Reducing Dissonance ● Reducing dissonance between two cognitions (Example: consider yourself an A student, but fail a test) ○ Disregard one of the beliefs (Ex: ignore/forget test) ○ Change/flip one of the beliefs (Ex: I'm not an A student) ○ Distort one to match the other (Ex: the test was unfair) ○ Add a third belief that resolves conflict (Ex: I was unwell) Festinger (1956) "When Prophecy Fails" ● 1956: participant observation of doomsday cult in Chicago ○ Leader (Keech) communicated with "the guardians" ○ Guardians would save the cult from a global flood at 12am ○ 12am comes and goes ○ Cult members engage in dissonance reduction strategies ■ "Our belief in Guardians saved world from flood" Balance theory: a balanced state is one in which all three sentiment relations (evaluative, based on positive or negative evaluations) are positive or in which on is positive and the other two are negative. ● People try to restore imbalances in this system by (1) changing their attitudes, (2) rendering one of the relations as being irrelevant or (3) differentiating the attributes of the other person/object Weak relationship between attitudes and behaviour: Attitudes and behaviour have only a modest correlation. Several reasons have been suggested as to why: ○ The accessibility and activation of the attitude - we act without considering our attitudes. ○ The characteristics of the attitude - the greater the consistency between cognition and evaluation, the greater the strength of the attitude-behaviour relation. ○ The correspondence between attitude and behaviour - when attitudes and behaviours are at the same level of specificity, the attitudes are more likely to predict behaviour. ○ Situational constraints on behaviour - the situation you are in influences whether you choose to act on your attitudes, based on how you think the people around you will act. ● Reference groups: when people in our social groups share similar attitudes, we are much more likely to act congruently/consistently with our attitudes. Alternatively, when the people in our groups hold contrasting attitudes, we are less likely to act congruently. ● The theory of reasoned action considers the attributes of the object or situation, the relevant attitudes and the costs/benefits of potential behaviours. Social Influence and Persuasion ● Compliance - when the target’s behaviour conforms to the source’s requests or demands ● Authority - the capacity of one person to issue orders or make requests of other group members by invoking rights vested in his or her role. ● Milgram experiment - 60-65% compliance rate, power of situation over personality and other factors ● Factors influencing rate of obedience ○ Intelligence ○ Involvement with the issue ○ Personality ○ Distraction ● Stanford prison study ● Ethical debates - were the milgram experiment and the stanford prison study ethical? ● Communication- persuasion paradigm (aspects of source, target and message that change attitudes/behaviour) Altruism and Aggression
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