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COMM181 Notes.docx

16 Pages
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Department
Commerce
Course Code
COMM 181
Professor
Sean Field

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Description
Chapter 1 • Human resources management (HRM): an integrated set of processes, programs, and systems in an organization that focuses on the effective deployment and development of its employees • HR Activities o Organizational, work, and job design o Planning o Recruitment and selection o Training and development o Performance management o Compensation (pay and benefits) o Occupational health and safety o Employee and labour relation • Line Manager: responsible for the product of service – people managers • HR professional: the HR practitioner’s primary role in today’s organization is to help equip the line manager with the best people practices so that the organization can be successful • Challenges: 1) Global Economy, 2) Survival of firms and business sectors, 3) Technology and quality, 4) Responses to environment and climate change, 5) Developing human capital and talent management, 6) Demographic and employee concerns • Globalization: moving local or regional business in to global marketplace • Downsizing: the planned elimination of jobs • Outsourcing: contracting outside the organization for work that was formerly done by internal employees. The small-business owner saves money, time and resources by outsourcing tasks such as accounting and payroll • Innovation skills o Creativity and continuous improvement skills o Risk-taking skills o Relationship-building skills o Implantation skills • Human resources information system (HRIS): a technology system that provides data for purposes of control and decision making • Six sigma: a process used to translate customer needs into a set of optimal tasks that are performed in concert with one another • ISO 9000: worldwide quality standards program • Benchmarking: finding the best practices in other organizations that can be brought into a company to enhance performance • Human capital: the individual’s knowledge, skills, and abilities that have economic value to an organization • Core competencies: a combination of knowledge, skills, and characteristics needed to effectively perform a role in an organization • Talent management: leveraging competencies to achieve high organization performance o Leadership development o Succession planning o Career planning o Performance planning o High-potential employee development o Learning and training o Competency management o Retention o Professional development • Strategic human resource management: identifying key HR processes and linking those to the overall business strategy Chapter 2 • Common law: our body of law that is developed as a result of judicial decisions • Contract law: the laws that relate to legal and binding agreements • Government Regulations: statutory law • Canada Labour Code: covers basic employment conditions, labour relations, and health and safety in the federal sector • Canadian Human Rights Act: applies to all federal government departments and agencies, Crown Corporations, and business and industries under federal jurisdiction, such as banks, airlines, railway companies, and insurance and communications companies • Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA): have direct influence on how companies and managers handle employee information and the rights of employees regarding this information • Systemic Discrimination: the exclusion of members of certain groups through the application of employment policies or practices based on criteria that are not job-related • Bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ): a justifiable reason for discrimination based on business reasons of safety or effectiveness • Reasonable accommodation: attempt by employers to adjust the working conditions and employment practices of employees to prevent discrimination • Reverse discrimination: giving preference to members of certain groups such that others feel they are the subjects of discrimination • Harassment: any unwanted physical or verbal conduct that offends or humiliates the individual • Inquiry – early resolution and preventive mediation – filing a complaint – preliminary assessment – investigation – conciliation – tribunal • Employment equity: a distinct Canadian process for achieving equality in all aspects of employment • Designated groups: women, visible minorities, First Nations peoples, and persons with disabilities who have be disadvantaged in employment • Pay equity: the practice of equal pay for work of equal value • Diversity management: the optimization of an organization’s multicultural workforce in order to reach business objectives Chapter 9 • Employee rights: expectations of fair treatment from employers • Negligence: failure to provide reasonable care where such failure results in injury to consumers or other employees • Statutory rights: rights that derive from legislation • Contractual rights: rights that derive from contracts o Telling employees that their jobs are secure as long as they perform satisfactorily and are loyal to the organization o Stating in the employee handbook that employees will not be terminated without the right of defence or access to an appeal procedure o Urging an employee to leave another organization by promising higher wages and benefits, and then reneging after the person has been hired • Due process: employee’s right to a fair process in making a decision related to employment relationship • Discipline: (1) Treatment that punishes; (2) Orderly behaviour in an organizational setting; (3) Training that moulds and strengthens desirable conduct- or corrects undesirable conduct – and develops self-control • Progressive discipline: application of corrective measures by increasing degrees o Oral or verbal warning o Written warning o Suspension o dismissal • Positive, or nonpunitive, discipline: system of discipline that focuses on that early correction of employee taking total responsibility for correcting the problem • Wrongful dismissal: terminating an employee’s employment without just cause • Constructive dismissal: occurs when an employer changes an employee’s working conditions such that compensation, status, or prestige is reduced • Alternative dispute resolution (ADR): term applied to different types of employee complaint or dispute-resolution procedures • Mediation: the use of an impartial third party to help facilitate a resolution to employment disputes • Step-review system: system for reviewing employee complaints and disputes by successively higher levels of management • Hearing officer: person who holds a full-time position with an organization by assumes a neutral role when deciding cases between management and the aggrieved employees • Open-door policy: policy of setting grievances that identifies various levels of management above the immediate supervisor for employee contact • Ombunsperson: designated individual from whom employees may seek counsel for the resolution of their complaints • Ethics: set of standards of conduct and moral judgments that help to determine right and wrong behaviour Chapter 3 • Job: a group of related activities and duties • Position: specific duties and responsibilities performed by only one employee • Work: tasks or activities that need to be completed • Job analysis: process of obtaining information about jobs by determining the duties, tasks, or activities and the skills, knowledge, and abilities associated with the jobs • Job description: a document that lists the tasks, duties, and responsibilities or a job to be performed along with the skills, knowledge and abilities, or competencies needed to successfully perform he work o Job title o Summary of Job o List of duties and responsibilities o Job Specifications o Date • Job specifications: statement of the needed knowledge, skills, and abilities of the person who is to perform the position. The different duties and responsibilities performed by only one employee • Standards of performance: set out the expected results of the job • Job design: process of defining and organizing tasks, roles, and other processes to achieve employee goals and organizational effectiveness o Job rotation: people move from one job to another to learn new tasks o Job enlargement: a person’s job expands in the types of tasks he or she is expected to perform o Job enrichment: a person’s job takes on higher-order responsibilities o 1) Organizational objectives of the job: tasks, duties, and responsibilities to be performed o 2) Industrial engineering considerations: ways to make the job technologically efficient o 3) ergonomic concerns: workers’ physical and mental capabilities o 4) employee contributions: behavioural concerns reflected in the different talents, abilities, and skills of employees • Job characteristics model: an approach to job design that recognizes the link between motivational factors and components of the job to achieve improved work and performance and job satisfaction o 1) employee experiences meaningfulness of the work performed o 2) employee experiences responsibility for the work outcomes o 3) employee has knowledge of the results of the work performed o Skill variety: the degree to which a job entails a variety of different activities o Task identity: the degree to which the job requires completion of the whole and identifiable pieces of work o Task significance: the degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people o Autonomy: the degree to which the job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion o Feedback: the degree to which carrying out the work and activities required by the job results in the individual being given direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performances • Employee empowerment: granting employees power to initiate change, thereby encouraging them to take charge of what they do o Participation, innovation, access of information, accountability • Employee teams: an employee- contribution technique in which work functions are structure for groups rather than for individuals, and team members are given discretion in matters traditionally considered management prerogatives, such as process improvements, product or service development, and individual work assignments • Virtual teams: a team with widely dispersed members linked together through computer and telecommunications technology Chapter 4 • Human resource planning: process that the people required to run the company are being used as effectively as possible, where and when they are needed, in order to accomplish the organization’s goals • Trend analysis: quantitative approach to forecasting labour demand on an organizational index • Management forecasts: opinions and judgements of supervisors or managers and others that are knowledgeable about the organization’s future employment needs • Staffing table: graphic representation of organizational jobs along with the numbers of employees currently occupying those jobs and future employment needs • Markov analysis: method for tracking the pattern of employee movements through various jobs • Skills inventory: information about the education, experiences, skills, etc. of staff • Planning steps: 1) forecast demand for labour; 2) determine supply of labour; 3) identify the gap between demand and supply; 4) develop action plans to eliminate the gap • Recruitment: the process of located and encouraging potential applicants to apply for jobs • Internal job posting: method of communicating information about job openings • Labour market: area from which applicants are recruited • Outside recruitment: advertisements, internet, employment agencies, educational institutes, open houses and job fairs, employee referrals, unsolicited applications and resumes, professional organizations, unions, recruitment for diversity • Selection: the process of choosing individuals who have relevant qualifications and who will best perform on the job to fill existing or projected job openings • Reliability: the degree to which interviews, tests, and other selection procedures yield comparable data over time and alternative measures • Validity: how well a test or selection procedure measures a person’s attributes • Panel interview: an interview in which a board of interviewers questions and observes a single candidate • Interviewing methods: one-on-one, panel or group interview, telephone interview, internet-based interview • Behavioural description interview: questions about what a person actually did in a given situation • Situation question: question in which an applicant is given a hypothetical incident and asked how he or she would respond to it • Achievement tests: measures of what a person knows or can do right now • Aptitude tests: measures of a person’s capacity to learn or acquire skills • Can-do factors: kno
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