Film Notes.docx

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Department
Film and Media
Course
FILM 240
Professor
Sidney Eve Matrix
Semester
Fall

Description
FILM MIDTERM EXAM: WEEK ONE THE DIGITAL ERA Digital communication: Images texts and sounds are converted into electronic signals that are then reassembled as a precise reproduction of say a TV picture a magazine article a song or telephone voice Quick development: New technologies particularly cable TV and the Internet caused traditional leaders in communication to loose their control over the distribution of information Example: 1992 presidential election the usual ABC, CBS and NBC began to loose their audiences to first MTV and CNN then later too MSNBC FOX and comedy central By 2004 National Election, Internet bloggers became key players in the news Snail Mail (was still a main thing in 1990) taken over by Email Facebook has nearly 1 billion users world wide Social media allows users to: have online conversations, share stories and interests and generate their own media content The Linear Model of Mass Communication Senders: (authors producers and organizations) transmit Messages: (programs, texts images sounds and ads) through a Mass media channel: (News paper, books, magazines, radio, television, or the internet) to large groups of Receivers: (readers, viewers and consumers) In the process Gate Keepers: (news editors, executive producers, and other media managers) function as message filters Feedback people can return messages to senders or gate keepers WHAT IS THE PROBLEM WITH THE LINEAR MODEL? - Media messages rarely run smoothly from point A to Z - In reality the words and images are likely to spill into each other possibly completely altering the original purpose of the sender A CULTURAL MODEL FOR UNDERSTANDING MASS COMMUNICATION - More contemporary idea: recognizes the individual brings different meanings to the message based on contributing personal factors like: Race religion sexuality Example: Lady Gaga releases the music video telephone. View 1: Cutting edge the new Madonna pushing boundaries and expressing herself View 2: saw the video as tasteless, cruel and exploiting women Selective Exposure: people seek messages and produce meanings that correspond with their own values beliefs and interests KEY: while the linear model shows us how information gets from point A to Z the cultural model shows us the complexity of this process and the lack of control the sender has  with the borderless internet these days this means anybody can be a sender (write a blog post share a youtube video) although some governments have restrictions on what can and cant be posted for the most part it is unregulated THE EVOLUTION OF MEDIA: From Emergence to Convergence - Development of media does not come just from the diligence of inventors BUT from the current social cultural political circumstance of the time. - Example: Telegraph and radio evolved to expand military control: similarly to how internet came to be because of our times need for immediate gratification (need for things to happen right away) Media innovation typically go through 4 stages 1) Emergency or novelty stage - Inventors and technicians try to solve a particular problem (such as making pictures move, transmitting messages from ship to shore) 2) Entrepreneurial Stage - Inventors and investors determine a practical and marketable use for the new device (early radio relayed messages where wires could not go to send telegraphs) 3) Mass medium Stage - This point businesses figure out how to market the new device or medium as a consumer product 4) Convergence Stage - When older media is reconfigured in various forms on newer media (you can still get the New York times in print even though it is available on the internet) Media Convergence - Term used when media critics and analysts use when describing all the changes that have occurred over the past decade and are still occurring in media content and within media companies – 2 different meanings one referring to technology and one to business * has a great impact on how media companies are charting a course for the future The dual roles of Media convergence - 1 definition: involves the technological merging of content across different media channels- the magazine articles, radio program, songs, Tv shows video games and movies now available on the internet through laptops tablets and smart phones - such technical convergence is not entirely new: EXAMPLE in the late 1920s the radio corporation of America purchased the VICTOR TALKING MACHINE and introduced machines that would play both radio and recorded music - 2 nddefinition: sometimes called cross platform by media marketers describes a business model that involves consolidating various media holdings such as cable connections phone services television transmissions and internet access under one corporate umbrella GOAL: not to necessarily offer consumer more choice in their media options but better manage resources and maximize profit Media Businesses in a Converged World Google = the most successful company of the digital era so far GOOGLE: internets main organizer and aggregator because it finds both new and old content, does not produce any of its own information Google gets paid through the online advertisements on the side Google has contributed to the declining sales in newspaper but has made a valid effort through experiments to get older news out into the converged world Media convergence and cultural change The internet and social media have led to significant changes in the ways we consumer and engage with media culture - Then: have to sit down at a specific time to watch your show - Now: Can record things watch when and where you please at your own convenience no need to schedule it in - Our choices of what we watch and do are very influenced by recommendations from friends via facebook twitter and youtube - The ability to multitask our forms of media is also contributing to social change: in the past news papers were in print, our shows were on the tv and our video games on a console now we can do all of these things on a tablet, laptop or smart phone - CAN NOW PACK ten hours and 45 mins of media time into seven hour and a half hours - Is this true engagement? Multitasking leads us to be distracted and not fully aware of what we are reading or who we are connecting with - Positive: now we can comment on the shows we are watching while we are watching them - Between April 2011 and April 2012 commenting on a show through social media grew 194 percent - Some critics even say we are MORE engaged in this time period because we have such a wide range of options to choose from STORIES: THE FOUNDATION OF MEDIA - The stories that circulate the media can shape a societies perceptions and attitudes EXAMPLE: journalists covered what was going on in Afghanistan helping the public comprehend the magnitude and severity of the situation EXAMPLE: in the 1960s news stories covered the civil rights movement leading to legislation that transformed the way white people viewed the grievances and aspirations of African Americans - * in each of the above examples the stories told through a variety of media outlets played a key role in changing individual awareness, cultural attitudes and public perception - During Hollywood’s Golden age (1930s and 40s) as many as 90 million people each week went to the movies on Saturday - WHAT DO WE LIKE NOW: we prefer content that we can relate to: stories of finding love, breakups, back stabbing friends… Also reality TV shows - * The cultural blending of old and new ways of telling stories told both by professional and amateurs is just another form of convergence - Occupy Wall street: probably wouldn’t have gotten the attention that it did if it wasn’t for amateur bloggers and tweeters - MAIN POINT: Popular narratives of our culture are complex and varied, we are a narrative species we exist by telling stories relating our situations and the test of our evolution may lie in getting the story right THE POWER OF MEDIA STORIES IN EVERY DAY LIFE - Earliest debates at least in Western society about the impact of cultural narratives: dates back to the ancient Greeks - Socrates himself worried children being exposed to certain art forms would be corrupted by them - He believed art should uplift us from the ordinary routnes fo our lives - Play wright Euripides believed the art should imitate life - Plato: the classical view of art, it should aim to instruct and uplift - Aristotle: Platos student occupied a middle ground: art and stories should provide insight into the human condition but entertain as well - In the United States in the 1950s the emergence of television and rock and roll generated several points of contention: EXAMPLE Elvis Presley set the state for many of todays debates about hip hop lyrics and television influence - People were not a fan of Presley in the beginning, in some comminutues the objection was motivated by class bias and racism, many white adults believed that this poor white trash singer from Mississippi was spreading rhythm and blues a dangerous form of black culture THE DOWNSIDES - Many talk shoes exploit personal problems - Reality shows often glamorize outlandish behaviour and dangerous stunts - Research continues to document the connection between aggression in children and violent entertainment programs and video games - Children are exposed to around forty thousand TV commercials a year - Yet how much the media actually shapes our society is unknown - Although some media depictions may worsen the social problems research has seldom demonstrated that the media directly causes our society major problems American mass media industries earning more then 200 billion annually Large portions of Media resources now go to studying audiences, capturing their attention through stories and taking their consumer dollar CULTURE AS A SKYSCRAPER th - Throughout the 20 century culture is perceived as a hierarchy aka superior products on the top and inferior products on the bottom (like a modern skyscraper) - Top floors of building: High culture: Ballet, the symphony, art museums and classic literature = good taste - Bottom Floors of building: Low culture: soap operas: rock music: video games = bad taste Going off of this model critics have developed 5 areas of concern regarding low culture 1) An inability to appreciate fine art - Popular culture distracts students from engaging in “high culture” such as serious literature and philosophy. Thus stunting their imagination and undermining their ability to recognize great art 2) A tendency to Exploit High culture - popular culture changes/makes fun of high culture. Example: The Shakespeare story 12 nigh is actually what Shes the man is based off of 3) A Throw Away Ethic - popular culture has a short life span (aka people get bored easily with whats at hand and move on to the next thing) unlike with shakespearean tragedy or the Italian opera 4) A diminished Audience for High Culture - Some observers also warn that popular culture has inundated the cultural environment, driving out higher forms of culture and cheapening public life 5) Dulling Our Cultural Taste Buds -According to this view popular media may inhibit not only rational thought but also social progress by transforming audiences into cultural dupes lured by the promise of products (essentially tv is making us stupid and unable to pick up on the higher quality things of life) Johnsons Sleeper Curve argument - certain tv programs and video games actually cause people to be smarter, engaging, Second way to view culture as a map - Allows us to account for our individual and diverse tastes - In this model we judge forms of culture as good or bad based on a combination of personal tastes - Here culture is an ongoing and complicated process rather then a high low vertical hierarchy - This way of thinking suggests that people can appreciate a wide range of cultural experiences - “we are all over the map” The comfort of familiar stories - Story of Lassie the dog, friend timmy gets knocked unconscious Lassie saves the day (very predictable story line) - Some adult might put down this predictability but young children find comfort in the predictability of the plot line - This same idea is evident in many children stories like Goodnight moon, Snow white, Cinderella Innovation and attraction of “what’s New” - Sometimes seek adventure might turn on a an independent film channel to experience new stories and new places to go, those aspects of culture that demonstrate originality and complexity A wide range of messages - People have complex cultural tastes, needs and interests based on their own personal background and disposition - As part of an ongoing process, cultural products and their meanings are essentially “all over the map” spreading out in diverse directions Critiquing Media and Culture - Contemporary life cultural boundaries are being tested, the line between entertainment and information is blurred - Considering the diversity of mass media, to paint them all with the same brush would be inaccurate and unfair - This leads to distrust and anger example: phone company hacking into personal calls and information - Anger and distrust is understandable but instead we should critique so changes can be made for the future Media Literacy and the Critical Process - Media Literacy: attaining and understanding mass media and how they construct meaning - Critical process: takes us through the steps of description, analysis, interpretation, evaluation, and engagement - Media forms and culture are not so simply represented high to low, instead it is essential for us to understand the contemporary context in which these phenomena are produced Benefits of a Critical Perspective - Developing a critical perspective and becoming media literate allows us to participate in a debate about media culture as a force of both democracy and consumerism (Bad) - On the other hand media can also be a catalyst for democracy and social progress (Good) Media Literacy STEPS of the critical process 1) DESCRIPTION - start by describing program or article - accounting for reporting strategies - identify central characters, topics and themes - we can begin to compare with other stories to see what is missing 2) ANALYSIS - isolate patterns that call for closer attention - example: suspect always shot close up zooming on the face while the detectives are always at a medium distance - Do the issues of the certain piece at hand coincide with the political or social events with that country 3) INTERPRETATION - try to determine the meanings of the patterns we have analyzed - main question “ So what” why are things done a certain why instead of another way 4) EVALUATION - Making an informed judgment - At this stage we can grasp the strengths and weaknesses 5) ENGAGEMENT - To be media literate we must create a media world that helps serve democracy - Send a letter to the producer of a show - Comment on a blog - Participate, don’t be passive Global Village: Bedouins, Camels, Transistors and Coke - “for me, a symbol of the state is a Bedouin mounted on a camel and clad in traditional robes under which he is wearing jeans, with a transistor radio in his hands and an ad for coca-cola on the camels back”… moral of the story: NEW MEANING IS GRADUALLY FORMED THROUGH THE INTERSECTION OF MANY DIFFERENT MEANINGS Film 240 Midterm week 2 Week2  Media effects and research methods (chap 15) 2 types of mass media research: - 1) Media effects o attempts to understand/predict/explain effects of mass media on individuals and society o main goal is to uncover if there is a correlation between violence and media (in 1960 gvt spent $1 million on research) - 2) Cultural studies o focus on how people make meaning, apprehend reality, articulate values and order experiences through the use of cultural symbols o examine how people use media to circulate their messages and sustain interest Early media resthrch methods - most of 19 century, media analysis was based on moral and political arguments - late 1920’s-1930’s scientific approaches to mass media research began to develop - Walter Lippman’s book “Public Opinion” was first book to apply principles of psychology to journalism (considered by many academics to be “founding book in American media studies”) it emphasized data collection and numerical measurement - Daniel Czitrom traces four trends between 1930-1960 that contributed to the rise of modern media research o Propaganda analysis o Public opinion research o Social psychology studies o Marketing research Propaganda Analysis - A way to spread info to public (e.g. after ww2 gvt used propaganda to spread information about war and advance war efforts) - Considered positive during war (force for mobilizing public opinion) - Viewed as negative after war (“partisan appeal based on half truths and devious manipulation of communication channels”) - Harold Lasswell (1927) defined propaganda as “the control of opinion by significant symbols….by stories, rumors, reports, pictures and other forms of social communication.” Public Opinion Research - citizen surveys - measure public attitudes - Especially influential during political elections - Upside: Public opinion research on diverse populations has provided insights into citizen behavior and social differences - Downside: journalism now increasingly dependent on polls, particularly in politics. (e.g. heavy reliance on public opinion has adversely affected active political involvement such that citizens who have seen poll projections decide their vote will not make a difference, therefor do not vote) - Downside: pervasive use of unreliable Pseudo-polls (typically call-in, online, or person-in-the-street polls) that news media use to address the “question of the day” Social Psychology Studies - Measure behavior and cognition of individuals - Payne Fund studies o most influential early social psychology study o series of 13 research projects conducted b/w 1929-1932 o named after privates philanthropic organization that funded the research o done in response to a growing national concern about the effects of motion pictures o these studies later used by politicians to attack movie industry arguing that movies took “emotional possession” of youth o EX: kids and teens wired with electrodes/galvanometers that detected any heightened response via subjects skin. Changes in skin interpreted as evidence of emotional arousal. Results indicated that kids more stimulated by violence and teens most stimulated by romantic or sexual content. Concluded that films potential dangerous for kids and could foster sexual promiscuity among teens o Payne Fund Studies contributed to the establishment of the films industry production code, which tames movie content from 1930- 1950 o Became model for media research Marketing Research - Developed when advertisers and product companies began conducting surveys on consumer buying habits in the 1920s - Emergence of first commercial radio let to first ratings systems that measured how many ppl were listening on a given night - By 1930s radio networks, advertisers, large stations and advertising agencies all subscribed to ratings services - The fact that listeners were hard to track (unlike print media who kept careful track of customer’s names and addresses) led to development of increasingly sophisticated marketing research methods to determine consumer preferences and media use (such as direct-mail diaries, television meters, phone surveys, telemarketing and internet tracking) Research on Media Effects - Researchers looked more to behavioral sciences as basis of research - 1930-1970 “who says what to whom with what effect?” = key question “defining the scope and problems of American communications research” th - most of 20 century media researchers and news reporters asked-who, what, when and where- about daily experiences “Research is formalized curiosity. It is poking and prying with a purpose” -Zora Neala Hurston, Writer Early Theories of Media Effects - major goal is to develop theories or laws that can consistently explain or predict human behavior - varied impacts of mass media and pop culture tend to defy predictable rules - many factors influence media (historical, economic, political) making it difficult to develop systematic theories - Major models b/w 1930-1970 o Hypodermic-Needle Model o Minimal-effects o Uses and Gratifications model Hypodermic-Needle Model - Concept of powerful media affecting weak audiences - Also called “magic bullet theory” or “direct effects model” - Suggests that media shoot their potent effects directly onto unsuspecting victims - EX: Hitler using radio, film and print media as propaganda tool - EX: Orson Well’s radio broadcast of war of the worlds. Hadley Cantril argued that people panicked not because they were gullible and thought it was real (some did) but out of collective panic - This model has been disproved by social scientist over the years Minimal-Effects Model - Cantrils research helped lay groundwork of this model - Also called limited model - Argue that mass media reinforces existing behaviors and attitudes rather than change them - Social scientist began discovering that media alone cannot change peoples attitudes and behaviors - Argue that people engage in selective exposure and selective retention - People expose themselves to media messages that are most familiar to them, and retain the messages that confirm the values and attitudes they already hold - First comprehensive study of children and television- by Wilbur Schramm, Jack Lyle and Edwin Parker in late 1950’s- best capture the minimal effects theory o “For some children, under some conditions, some television is harmful. For other children under the same conditions, or for the same children under other conditions, it may be beneficial. For most children, under most conditions, most television is probably neither particularly harmful nor particularly beneficial” - “The effects of Mass Communications” o Joseph Klapper’s important 1960 research study o Found that mass media only influenced individuals who did not already have strong views on an issue and that the media had a greater impact on poor uneducated audiences o Klapper concluded that strong media effects occur largely at an individual level and do not appear to have large-scale, measurable and direct effects on society as a whole - The minimal-effects theory furthered study of relationship b/w media and human behavior, but still assumed that audiences were passive and acted upon by the media - Schramm, Lyle and Parker o “term “effect” is misleading, suggests that television “does something” to children” connotation that TV is actor and children are acted upon o in fact it is the children who are active in this relationship as they use the television, rather than the television uses them The Uses and Gratifications Model - Proposed to contest the notion of a passive media audience - Researchers use in-depth interviews to supplement survey questions - Researchers studied the ways in which people use the media to satisfy various emotional or intellectual needs - Ask “why do we use the media?” - Asking “why” enables researchers to develop inventories cataloguing how people employed the media to fulfill their needs - Addresses the functions of the mass media for individuals - Does not address important questions related to the impact of the media on society - Never became dominant or enduring theory in media research Conducting Media Effects Research - Private research/Proprietary research o Generally conducted for a business, corporation or even political campaign o Usually applied research in the sense that the information it uncovers typically addresses some real-life problem or need - Public research o Usually takes place in academic and government settings o Involves information that is often more theoretical than applied; tries to clarify, explain, or predict the effects of mass media rather than address a consumer problem - Most media research focuses on the effects of the media in such areas as learning, attitudes, aggression and voting habits - Employs scientific method o Identify research problem o Review existing theories/research related to problem o Develop working hypotheses/predictions o Determine appropriate method or research design o Collect relevant info/data o Analyze results to see if hypotheses has been verified o Interpret implications of study - Scientific method relies: o Objectivity (eliminating bias/judgment) o Reliability (repeatedly getting same answers) o Validity (study actually measures what it claims to measure) - Hypothese: tentative general statement that predict the influence of an independent variable on a dependent variable - Experiments: o Suggest a hypothesis, manipulate varaibles o Use experimental groups as tests (picked randomly) o Use control groups to test validity (group not exposed to selected media content. Serves as basis for comparison) o Subjects picked through random assignment (have equal chance of being in experimental or control group) o Field experiments: difficult for researchers to control variables o Lab experiments: researchers have more control, however may act differently because not a natural setting o Limitations:  Not generalized to larger population  Experimental groups might not be representative of general public  Cannot predict how subjects will behave in far future - Survey Research o The collecting and measuring of data taken from a group of respondents o Draws on larger population than experiments o Conducted through direct-mail, personal interviews, phone calls, e- mail and web sites o Can examine demographic factors (educational background, income level, race, ethnicity, gender, age, sexual orientation, political beliefs) o Enable researchers to investigate populations in long-term studies (longitudinal studies) o Cannot account for all variables that might affect media use; cannot show cause-effect relationship, can reveal correlations o Validity is chronic problem - Content Analysis o Systematic method of coding and measuring media content o George Gerbner, late 1960s, coded and counted acts of violence on network tv. Study found that heavy watchers of violence tend to overestimate the amount of violence in the world o Does not measure the effects of the messages on audiences, nor explain how those messages are presented o Problems of definition (what do they consider violence) o Criticize that researchers favor measurement accuracy over intellectual discipline and inquiry Contemporary Media Effects Theories - 1960, new Ph.D graduates began documenting consistent patterns in amss communication and developing new theories - 5 most influential contemporary theories: o social learning theory o agenda-setting o cultivation effect o spiral of silence o third-person effect - Social Learning Theory o 4-step process  attention (subject must attend to the media and witness aggressive behavior)  retention (must retain memory for later retrieval)  motor reproduction (must be able to physically imitate behavior)  motivation (must be social reward or reinforcement to encourage modeling of behavior) o “Bobo doll” experiments  conducted on children by psychologist Albert Bandura in 1960s at Standford. Concluded that link between violent media programs and aggressive behavior o critics point out that this theory simply makes tv, film and other media scapegoats for larger social problems relating to violence o others suggests media violence is good outlet to let out aggression through catharsis effect - Agenda Setting o Idea that when mass media focuses attention on particular event/issue- set agenda for major topics of discussion among individuals and society o Mass media tells us what to think about o Walter Lippman’s notion in early 1920’s that media “create pictures in our heads” o more stories that news media does on a subject, more importance audiences attach to it o EX: An Inconvenient Truth - Cultivation Effect o Suggests that heavy viewing of tv leads ppl to perceive the world in ways that are consistent with tv portrayals o Focus on impact of perception o Developed from attempts of Gerbner to make generalizations about impact of televised violence - Spiral of Silence o Developed by German communication theorist Elisabeth Noelle- Neumann in 1970s-1980 o Links mass media, social psychology and the formation of public opinion o Proposes that those who believe that their views on controversial issues are in minority will keep their views to themselves for fear of social isolation o Based on Solomon Asch 1951 study on effects of group peer pressure (person more likely to give clearly wrong answer about line length if all other ppl in room unanimously give wrong answer) o Noelle-Neumann argued mass media has same effect by communicating real or presumed majority opinions widely and quickly o Argues mass media can help create false, overrated majority (even silencing true majority of ppl holding a certain position but grow silent when they sense opposing majority in media) - Third-Person Effect o 1983 W. Phillips Davison o suggests that people believe others are more affected by media messages than they are themselves o idea that “we” can escape effects of media o believe that younger, less educated, more impressionable ppl less capable of guarding themselves against media influence Textual Analysis - Highlights the close reading and interpretation of cultural messages, including those in books, movies and tv - Equivalent of measurement methods like experiments and surveys and content analysis - Looks at rituals, narratives and meaning - EX: framing research o Looks at recurring media story structures o Tom Gitlin defines media frames “persistent patterns of cognition, interpretation and presentation of selection, emphasis and exclusion by which symbol-handlers routinely organize discourse, whether verbal or visual.” - Became significant to media in 1974 Horace Newcomb’s book “TV: The Most Popular Art”  first serious academic book to analyze tv shows (studied why certain programs/formats became popular, especially comedies, westerns, mysteries, soap operas, news reports, sport programs) - The study of seemingly minor elements of popular culture provides insight into broader meanings within society Audience studies - Cultural research that focuses on how people use and interpret cultural content - Subject being researched is the audience of the text, not text - Janice Radway “Reading the Romance: Women, Patriarchy and Popular Literature” studied group of women who loved romance novels. She investigated meaning of romance novels to women. (used methods such as literary analysis, interviews, questionnaires) - Radways study helped define culture in broad terms, as being made up of both the products a society fashions and the processes that forge those products Political Economy Studies - Examines interconnections among economic interests, political power and how that power is used - Major concern includes increasing conglomeration of media ownership  means that production of media content is being controlled by fewer and fewer organizations, investing those companies with more and more power - The domination of public disclosure by for-profit companies may mean that the bottom line for all public communication and popular culture is money, not democratic expression - Work best when combined with textual analysis and audience studies (provide context) WEEK 3: ADVERTISING Introduction - Ads take up more than half the space in most daily newspapers and consumer magazines - Advertisements are everywhere and in every media form - Corporate sponsors spend million on product placement - In 2012, nearly 16 minutes and 20 seconds of an hour prime time network television show is commercials - Advertisement comes in many forms, from classified ads to business- business ads, providing detailed information on specific products Early Development - Advertising has existed since 3000 B.C.E. - Shop owners in ancient Babylon hung outdoor signs craved in stone and wood so that customers could sport their stores - First newspaper ads in colonial America ran in the Boston Newsletter in 1704 - To distinguish their approach from the commercialism of newspapers, early magazines refused to carry advertisements - By the mid-1800s, most magazines began to contain ads - About 80 percent of these early advertisements covered three subjects: lan sales, transportation announcements and “runaways” The First Advertising Agencies - The first American advertising agencies were newspaper space brokers - Individuals who purchased space in newspapers and sold it to various merchants - Opening in 1869, the agency help create, write, produce, and place ads in selected newspaper and magazines - As US advertising became more persuasive, it contributed to major social changes in the 12 century - Significantly influenced the transition from producer-directed to a consumer- directed society - By stimulating demand for new products, advertising helped manufacturers create new markets and recover from product start-up costs quickly - Advertising promoted technology - The early 1900s saw the formation of several watchdog organizations - Partly to keep tabs on deceptive advertising, advocates in the business community in 1913 created Better Business Bureau, which has now more than 100 branch offices in the United States - Advertisers wanted a formal service that tracked newspaper readership, guarantee accurate audience measures and ensured that papers would not overcharge ad agencies - As a result, publishers formed the Audit Bureau of Circulation in 1914 - Government created the Federal Trade Commission in 1914, to monitor advertising abuses - Established in 1917, the American Association of Advertising Agencies tried to minimize government oversight by urging ad agencies to refrain from making misleading product claims - The advent of television resulted in the increase of ads intruding on daily life - Subliminal advertising: hidden or disguised print and visual messages that allegedly register in the subconscious and fool people into buying products - Research suggests th
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