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Global Development Studies
DEVS 100

Global Development Studies Quiz #1 Notes (Weeks 1-3) When critically analyzing and article, note: author (background, ethnicity, education, etc.), website/magazine/newspaper, who is cited, use of “I” and “we”, repetition of certain words, inconsistancies/contradictions Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment (Collins)  Black feminist thought – fosters a fundamental paradigmatic shift that rejects additive approaches to oppression o Instead of starting with gender and then adding other variables such as age, sexual orientation, race, social class, and religion, black feminist thought sees these distinctive systems of oppression as being part of one overarching structure of domination  Afrocentric notions of family o Mothers, bloodmothers, community othermothers o Challenges Eurocentric masculinist perspectives on family  Afrocentric model of community o Stress connections, caring, personal accountability o Rejected generalizing ideology of domination o Black women’s experiences as mothers, community othermothers, educators, church leaders, labour union centre women, and community leaders seem to suggest that power as energy can be fostered by creative acts of resistance o Challenges “community” as implicitly defined by the market model ~ “fragile”, “arbitrary” o The communities or spheres of influence set up by black women can serve as source of support when Black women encounter race, gender, and class oppression  Prefer and alternative vision of power based on humanist vision of self-activation, self- definition, and self-determination  Title Vll of the 1964 Civil Rights Act o African American women continue to be inadequately protected by it  The Matrix of Domination o Additive models of oppression are firmly rooted in the either/or dichotomous thinking of Eurocentric, masculinist thought  Must either be black or white  People of ambiguous racial/ethnic identity constantly have a battle o Replacing additive models of oppression with interlocking ones creates possibilities for new paradigms o 3 systems of oppression that most heavily effect African American women  Race  Class  Gender o Depending on the context, an individual may be an oppressor, a member of an oppressed group, or simultaneously oprressor and oppressed o Gender oppression – can intrude personal relationships via family dynamics and within individual consciousness o Social class – can be viewed as a relationship of communities to capitalist political economies rather than an individual relationship of employees to their employers o Reace, class, and fender constitute axes of oppression that characterize Black women’s experiences withing a more generalized matrix, such as sexual orientation, religion and age, but the overarching relationship is one of domination and the types of activism it generates  This matrix = “politic of domination”  The ideological ground that they share, which is a belief in domination, and a belief in the notions of superior and inferior, which are components of all those systems  Multiple Levels of Domination o The matrix of domination is structured on several levels o People experience and resist oppression on 3 levels:  Personal biography – everyone has a unique personal biography made up of values, experiences, motivations and emotions (ex. Abusive relationships)  The group or community level of the cultural context created by race, class, and gender – each individual biography is rooted in several overlapping cultural contexts (ex. Groups defined by race, social class, age, gender, religion, and sexual orientation  The most cohesive cultural contexts are those with identifiable histories, geographic locations and social institutions  Dominant groups aim to replace subjugated knowledge with their own specialized thought because they realize that gaining control over this dimension of subordinate groups lives simplifies control  The systemic level of social institutions  These institutions are generally controlled by the dominant group (schools, churches, media, other formal organizations)  Expose individuals to the specialised thought representing the dominant group’s standpoint and interests  Although they promise literacy and other skills that promote empowerment, they require docility and passivity (ex. Such institutions would have us believe that the theorizing of elites constitutes the whole of theory)  Resisting the Matrix of Domination o Domination operates by seduction, pressuring, or forcing African American women and members of subordinated groups to replace individual and cultural ways of knowing with the dominant group’s specialised thought o Although most individuals have little difficulty identifying their own victimization within some major system of oppression, they typically fail to see how their thoughts and actions uphold someone else’s subordination  White feminists routinely point out their oppression as women but resist to see how their white skin privileges them  Adhering to the inclusive model of interlocking oppressions provides the conceptual space needed for each individual to see that he or she is both a member of multiple dominant groups and a member of multiple subordinate groups  Empowerment involves rejecting the dimensions of knowledge Part ll: The Discursive Regularities, Chapter l: The Unities of Discourse (Michel Foucault)  Tradition o Intended to give a special temporal status to a group of phenomena that are both successive and identical o Makes it possible to rethink the dispersion of history, allows a reduction of the difference proper to every beginning (in a search for the origin), enables us to isolate the new against a background of permanence, and to transfer its merits to originality o Must question tradition and influence, and the divisions and groupings that have become familiar  The unities that must be suspended above all – the book and the oeuvre o May think that a book occupies space, is definite, begins and ends, etc. o However: the material unity of a volume is a weak, accessory unity in relation to the discursive unity of which it is the support  No more than a collection of other ideas and texts o More difficult in an oeuvre  To be valid, should have sketches, first drafts, corrections, crossing outs if author is dead  “the oeuvre can be regarded as neither an immediate unity, or as a certain unity, or as a homogenous unity” o 2 linked but opposite themes must be renounced  It should not be allowed to assign a beginning to something, for there is always a secret origin  The manifest discourse is really no more than the repressive presence of what it does not say 1. Everything that is formulated in discourse was already articulated in that semi-silence that proceeds it, which it continues to run obstinately beneath us, but which it covers and silences  *must show that these do not come up by themselves but they are a result of the construction of the rules of which must be known, and the justification scrutinized o Must question/doubt all o Must free the facts of discourse from the groupings that purport to be natural, immediate, universal unities o The “sciences of man” have de facto privilege  Provisional privilege  2 facts must be kept in mind 1. the analysis of discursive events is in no way limited to such a field 2. the division of this field itself cannot be regarded wither as definitive or as absolutely valid; it is no more an initial approximation that must allow relations to appear that may erase the limits of this initial outline  Chapter 2: Discursive Formations o Concepts overlap certain disciplines st  1 hypothesis: statement sin different form and dispersed in time, form a group they refer to one and the same subject nd  2 hypothesis: define a group of relations between statements – their form and type of connection  3 hypothesis: might it not be possible to establish groups of statements, by determining the system of permanent and coherent concepts involved  4 hypothesis: to regroup the statements, describe their interconnection, and account for the unitary forms under which they are presented The True White North: Reflections on Being Canadian (Colin Robertson)  Our national pre-occupation is our identity o Why is this?  We are a new nation (141 yrs. Old)  The US (always compared, shared history)  Rich immigrant experience  Pro-longed colonial experience  We tend to remain ourselves by not being “them” (American)  National identity is heavily laced with ambiguity o “Canadian-ness” has never been certain o Less straight forward than Americans  No “founding nations” setting our to create Canada like there was in America o Loyalists (allegiance to British crown) wanted a united British North America, while the French were resistant o BNA unintended consequence of loss at American Civil War  One of the sparks of the American civil war was the British insisting on retaining rights for First Nations (British North America Act)  **no collective memory – always a division  Northrop Frye o The Canadian identity is an eminently exhaustible subject  Conrad Black o No real rationale as a country o “Canada is the only substantial country in the world with no cultural, linguistic, or tribal homogeneity nor any distinct revolutionary, ideological, or geopolitical tradition to give it an organizing principle.”  Richard Gwyn o Canada exists because Sir John A. MacDonald was resolutely anti-America o America=godless, radically progressive o Canada=un-Americam  This conviction manifests itself in the construction of a coast-to-coast railway  W.L. Morton o 1 national institution=Hudson’s Bay Company o Design that our fathers of confederation chose o “peace, order, and good government” as a slogan rather than “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” o We have constructed “the greatest civilizations in the grimmest of environments and elaborated in one of the largest, harshest, and most intimidating countries on earth”  Mark Kingwell o It takes moral courage to stand up and say “I’m not the same as you” – not necessarily bad o Canada has been busy creating a model of citizenship that is inclusive, diverse, open- ended, and transnational under America’s shadow  Michaelle Jeane o Our “Frenchness” is integral to our being  1775 – Quebec was the strategic colony whose adherence to the American Revolution would have severed ties to Britain, possibly preventing Canada’s existence  A reason for our constant identity crisis  Quebec=challenge to any simplistic claim to national homogeneity  “Frenchness” not exclusive to Quebec  Canada=”under construction”  Open door immigration policy – 1/5 Canadians born outside of Canada  Des Morton o Canada is peopled by adventurers and “history’s losers”  Adventurers came in search of West Indies and losers came in search of sanctuary o 1760 – French Canadians left behind when their leaders sailed home to France o Loyalist losers of the American Revolution fled north to “Britain” o 1815 – refugees of Napoleonic Wars and Irish potato famine o 1890s – those who fled pogrom and poverty in central and northern Europe and tsarist Russia  Sir Cliford Sifton o The settlement of the West would be well served by a “stalwart peasant in sheepskin coat, born on the soil, whose forefathers have been farmers for 10 generations, with a stout wife and a half-dozen children”  20 century – Poles, Czechs, Hungarians, Cheileans, Latin Americans, Vietnamese, people of Hong Kong and Africans immigrated  Immigration gives us skills necessary for consensus building at home and abroad  What else gives us our Canadian-ness o Our sense of the North and nature  North=equivalent of American frontier  Struggle with climate/geography  Promise of oil, gas, diamonds  Geopolitics of Arctic – Northwest Passage o Good government  Plays a role in creating national institutions  Transportation (canals, railroads, roads, airlines)  Communications (CBC, CRTC)  RCMP  Health care (Medicare=Tommy Douglas of Saskatchewan) o Non-antagonistic political culture  Colonial experience  Fundamental sense of diversity  Consciousness of our small hold on vast territory  Consensus that government is a shared social resource o Sense of improvisation and humor  Because we don’t have the resources and money, we improvise, innovate, and make do with what we have  Because of hardships, had to have a sense of humor o Sense of internationalism  Willing colonialism  Lester B. Pearson’s nobel peace prize  Active in the UN, NATO, Commonwealth, la Francophone o Not warlike  Allies at Somme (WW1)  Every year, the Dutch Royal family gives Ottawa 10, 000 tulip bulbs in recognition for refuge given to Princess Juliana during WW2  Arthur Sclesinger o Success in Canadian politics=”vital centre” o Accommodation between upper and lower Canada  Marshall McLuhan o Canadians are masters of “the technique of suspended judgement”  Crown of Canada=unique institution  Stephen Harper o The Crown links us to the Tudors, Plantagents, Magna Carta, habeas corpus, the Petition of Right and English common law  Challenges of 21 century o Aboriginal issues o Continuing successful selection and integration of new Canadians (immigration)  Michael Adams o Good reason to be optimistic o “reasonable accommodation” is already well-paved, just needs fixing  J.M.S Careless o Canadians are people with “multiple identities” o Multiculturalism=policy and a creed  Yann Martel o Author of “Life of Pi” o Canada=greatest hotel on earth o If all we have in common is our diversity, do we have anything in common at all?  Citizenship ceremonies need to be more of a celebratory occasion  Need to teach young and old about Canada Where is the Great White North? Spacializing History, Historicizing Whiteness (Andrew Baldwin, Laura Cameron, and Audrey Kobayashi)  Great White North=enduring Canadian myth o Non-whites and indigenous people excluded o Whiteness suggests innocence o Quintessential feature=the disavowal of conquest, genocide, slavery, and the exploitation of the labour of peoples of colour  Physical “north” o Northwest passage o Cold War – Distant Early Warning built for fear of communist invasion o Diamond mining – John Diefenbaker saw the north with economic value o Melting polar ice – environmental/geopolitical anxieties o Metaphor for imperial grandeur, innocence, and sovereignty  Glenn Gould o Helped construct myth o “The Idea of North” – CBC program o Believed that contrapuntal music or discourse of radio interview could be the basis for creating a state of existence by giving rhythm, a kind of life force to ideas that can blend when played together o Displayed the immense power that ran through national identity o Did not represent the voice of FN/Inuit  Whiteness=fundamental category in northern imagery o Connection between race and nature  “cultural politics of race and nature”  1971 – adoption of a multiculturalism policy o Still, “white man” pervasive  Situating Whiteness Scholarship o Race is a social construction o Race remains an important analytical device for thinking about social relations both historically and in the present o “post-racism” – espouse a rejection of the term “race” on the basis that race has no place in rational thought and practice  Don’t believe this  Believe that the persistence of racialized social relations (as seen below) demand that the idea be retained  Racialization of poverty  Environmental racism  “white” neighbourhoods  Racist law  Immigration policy  Racialized discourses  “race” o Used historically to categorize difference o Early uses include using it to indicate biological difference o WW2 – biological racism supplanted by cultural racism (one’s culture comes to signify one’s race) o The more a so-called race of people was believed to differ in morality, industry, or capacity for rational thought from the presupposed superiority of the white person, the farther down it would be placed on the social hierarchy  W.E.B DuBois o Wrote one of the most comprehensive histories of black America’s contribution to post- Civil War reconstruction o Whiteness is a designation granted to the American working class as a form of psychological compensation for its low social status o Designates white privilege as a form of economic self-investment, or currency  David Roediger o Wrote “Wages of Whiteness” o Principle that from the early 19 century, the white American working class struggled to differentiate itself from black slavery for fear of lapsing into conditions of white slavery o “How the Irish Became White”  Irish came to be accepted into white privilege through their denigration of and active dissociation from blackness  Henri Lefebvre o If whiteness is above all else a complex system of contradictory and converging values, the stabilities of such values is not pre-given, but is instead guaranteed through some corresponding “discourse upon social space”  Nature is an important resource in the articulation of whiteness  Nature is instrumental in maintaining an oppressive matter of social relations Multiculturalism Unveiled Movie Underdevelopment, Structural Adjustment and Gendered Migration from the West Indies and the Philippines (Stasiulis, Daiva and Abigail Bakan)  Structural adjustment imposed on developing countries o IMF/WB o these institutions pursue these policies which induce their citizens to seek jobs and money elsewhere o dislocated rural labour is inadequately absorbed into the factories of export processing zones o affect migration from developing to developing nations  1950sand 1970s o Immigrant workers filled labour shortages o Influenced the politics of citizenship  Worsened by 9/11  SAPs have increased the burden of Women’s oppression  Diane Elson o SAPs rely upon the increased provision of women’s unpaid labour as a means to compensate for a decline in the level of services, devaluation in local currency, and the rise in prices of consumer goods o Increased opportunity for domestic services (childcare, eldercare, nanny services)  Why the demand?  More women working (since WW2)  Expensive costs of childcare  2 arguments o Structural forces (generalized conditions of global unevenness exacerbated and amplified by imperialist structures and polities) tend to create conditions which force female citizens of poor states to seek citizenship on virtually any terms in richer states o First world states (Canada), are both willing and able to exploit this increased supply in order to advance their own policies of structural adjustment  Conditions only co
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