DEVS 100 Exam Study.docx

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Queen's University
Global Development Studies
DEVS 100
David A Mc Donald

DEVS 100 Exam Study Midterm #1 Study: Week 1-5 Development -Questions concerning poverty (income, housing, health, education) -Does income mean happiness? -Is change good? Human Development Report 1991 (UNDP) -Enlarged range of choice for increase in development, democracy and participation -Wage, employment, education, healthcare, work environment, economic/political freedom Bruntland Commission Report 1987 -“Our common future” -Looks at future resources, direction of investment, technological advancement and institutional change -Evaluates present and future needs South Commission (1991) -“Challenge for the South: -Enables humans to see their potential, build confidence, dignity, fulfillment, and be free of fear of exploitation -Moves away from political, economical and social oppression -Develops independence and growth from within a developing society Mainstream Development Paradigm -Defines by Western standards- way to maintain Western-capitalist power -Income, capital, infrastructure, services, multiparty governments, social norms and market economy are all part of modernization -Supported by the WOB, aid organizations, Western states, NGOs, media and development strategy programs History of Modern Development Birth od Modern Developmentalism 1940-50 -End of WW2 -Bi-polar world -Rise of multinational intervention ad world bank -Truman’s speech uses “primitive” and underdeveloped” Decolonization Era 1960-70 -Multi-polar world -Rise of political alternatives (socialism, nationalism) -Growth of aid agencies -Western powers want to retain influence End of Cold War- Rise of Neoliberalism 1980-90 -Trend towards homogenized world -Hegemonic sense of development (structural, financial, privatization) Rising Uncertainty of Method/Meaning of 2000+ -Rise of multi-polarity (BRICS) Development -Declining US and European power -Rise of socialism, sub/supranational agencies Non-Aligned Movement, Appropriation of the Term “Third World” -Movement to organize Third World countries at Bandung Conference (1955) -Colonial rule created dependency on First Worrd -Third World coined by Sauvy in 1952 (the 3 estate is the French Revolution- refer to countries outside of the East/West) First World Second World Third World Fourth World -US and allies -USSR, Eastern Bloc -Newly dependent countries -Coined by George Manuel -Capitalist countries -Communist Countries -Areas of conflict between First -Least developed countries -Hierarchal and Second Worlds -Aboriginals, people with no state (Romani’s, Kurds) World Bank Terminology Transition countries Former Soviet linked states (Poland, Ukraine) Newly Industrialized Countries (NICs) 1980-90 (South Korea, Taiwan) Emerging Markets Common today (Brazil, China, India) World Trade Organization (WTO) -Lets countries define their own status between developed or developing Global Worlds Global South Previous First World (geographic North with pockets of wealth in the South” Global North Previous Third World (mostly in the geographic South with pockets of poverty in the North) Empire -Political body ruling over territories outside of its borders, typically taken by force, controlled by a dominant group using indirect/direct forms of rule -Sometimes settler colonies become their own nations (Canada) -Usually maintained by violence -Creates unequal power relations between core and periphery -Creates a diversity of people (language, religion, race) which can lead to a hierarchy within a colony -Early empires were religion/state run -Always fragile and changing -Some empires include Roman, Aztec, African, Ottoman and European Measuring Development Gross Domestic Product per Capita -Measures total production of good/services in a Variations (GDP) country then divides it by the umber of people in-GNP (Gross National Product)- Total a country production of good/services of individuals no matter where they live -GNI (Gross National Income)- Removes indirect taxes (used by WB) Problems with GDP -Hides distribution of income -Could be based on a single commodity -Hides environmental/social problems -Doesn’t measure unpaid labour or gender bias Advantages with GDP -Quantifiable -Reveals inequalities -Uses gender, environmental and social indicators Gini Coefficients -Measures income by taking 10% of the wealthiest and comparing them to 10% of the poorest -Lower inequality ranks closer to 0 and higher inequality ranks closer to 1 Purchasing Power Parity -Way to measure GDP per capita (PPP) -Takes into account the buying power of the dollar in different countries Human Development Index -Looks at more than GDP -Created by UNDP (HDI) -Measured by life expectancy, knowledge, and income Gender Development Index -Uses same indicators as HDI (GDI) -Captures inequalities in achievement between men and women Millennium Development Goals -1990- Goals for development, concrete -Eradicate extreme poverty (MDGs) measures of progress -Universal primary education -Eight main goals and 18 smaller goals -Gender equality -Reduce child mortality rates -Combat HIV/AIDS/Malaria -Ensure environmental sustainability -Develop global partnership for development Empire -Political body ruling over territories outside of its borders, typically taken by force, controlled by a dominant group using indirect/direct forms of rule -Sometimes settler colonies become their own nations (Canada) -Usually maintained by violence -Creates unequal power relations between core and periphery -Creates a diversity of people (language, religion, race) which can lead to a hierarchy within a colony -Early empires were religion/state run -Always fragile and changing -Some empires include Roman, Aztec, African, Ottoman and European What Drove European Imperialism? -Rivalry among European states -Search of trade routes -Advancement in naval/arms technology -Sense of cultural/racial superiority -Pressure to increase economy (imperialism is the highest stage of capitalism) -Missionary zeal, church ambitions (seemed morally justified Africa -Everyone wanted a piece (British, French, German, Portuguese, Italian, Belgian, Spanish) Slave Trade -Captured/enslaved people from Africa, sent them to Atlantic, South America, Caribbean and North America Privatization of Empire Settler Colonies -Europeans settled in Canada, South Africa and Kenya Impacts of Colonization -Reinforced/created new inequalities and hierarchies, destroyed existing systems, wiped out civilizations with disease and genocide, redistribution of wealth, created global capitalism, and created new power systems No Development Was Allowed -India didn’t develop for 190 years under British rule, Belgians left Congo without doctors and lawyers, development imposed boundaries with no social, political, linguistic or ecological integrity Why Did Decolonization Happen? Political and Moral Pressure in the North -Growing liberalism -Threat of socialist revolution in colonies -Self determination of new European states -New human rights codes emerging -US wanted to establish itself as anti-colonial Economic Pressures -Economic pressures at home from recovering of war plus the expense to run colonies -Found there was better economic gain with independent states which lead to newer economic institutions and trade regimes Resistance in the South Emergence of new military, ideology, Bourgeoisie and pan-nationalism -Latin America, North Africa and the Middle Eat became independent Decolonization Time Lapse (1914-2008 for Majority) Does Colonialism Still Exist? -European states still have direct control over former colonies (France, Britain and US still hold power by force) -Canada has power over Natives, Latin American Elites hold power, South Africa still marginalized Internal Colonization -Countries stripping natives of resources, give them few rights, exploit them economically, discriminate against them and leave them out of treaties and agreements Feudalism in Europe -Strict hierarchy, fixed view, God determined life -Land meant wealth, large private sector, and no wage labour Tensions Bourgeoisie New business owner class, demanded economic freedom and political rights New Industries Emerge Technology increases Mercantilism Merchant capitalists begin a mass wealth Landed Class Poses as an obstacle for change Bourgeoisie Revolution (French Revolution) -Created space for capitalists and wage labour Capitalism *Seen as natural and moral *Humans always want more and are self-interested Bourgeoisies -Capitalism is good -Slavery and feudalism kept them from intellectually, culturally and economically progressing) Hobbes -Without rationality of liberal democracy life is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short Adams -Goods create good -Good for self interest, creative energy; competition is healthy, increase of wealth leads to increase in happiness and gets rid of feudalism -It is immoral not to created capitalist markets Law of Accumulation -Capitalists must reinvest profits back into business to stay competitive -This is an economic and moral responsibility -Growth potential is infinite Comparative Advantage -Nations/individuals compete -Specialize in commodities you are good at and trade for things you aren’t -This is based on natural resources, resources, skills and relative costs of capital labour Neocolonialism *Strong nation seeking hegemony over independent nations, extends geographical areas without reducing the subordinate nations What is Neo? 1 Ongoing Military Dominance -Indirect control of another territory via military strength but may not be military occupies -Coups/military support for dictatorship 2 Economic Colonizing -Powerful multination corporations in the North -Trade favors North -Structural adjustment programs keep south tied to certain commodities -Powerful international financial institutions controlled by North 3 Colonization of the Mind -Control of others values and perceptions through cultural means (media, language, education, food and religion) -Effects of neocolonialism are long lasting/hard to remove -Marked by asymmetries of power -Parties can be aware of unaware of their role as colonizer/colonized -Involves economic gain over others *Resistance to Neocolonialism possibilities: physical resistance or economic resistance (skills development, infrastructure, new trade terms) Is Development a form of Neocolonialism? -Reproduction of colonial knowledge -Do people believe they are helping others by providing them with “better” beliefs and institutions? Neocolonialist Key Theories Invisible Hand 1-Markets work without intervention (self correcting) 2-Still has a state role -Helps create and enforce rational rules of the mark -Manages labour and social unrest, addressed market failures and protects national interest Keynesian Twist -Response to the Great Depression and the threat of socialism -Markets are not self-equilibrating -The state has to intervene, know what to get out and know when not to interfere Modernization Theory -Human nature is to have the same thing for everyone -Traditional societies can realize their human potential -Need for freedom of backwardness -Economically and morally right Prebisch 1-Centre periphery thesis -Centre benefits from periphery -Power inequalities from colonialism used 2-Declining terms of trade -Manufacturing economies have an advantage -Too many Southern countries are trying to take off with few commodities Import Substitution Identifies state manufacturing specialty -Comparative advantage, subsidies, protected from imports -You have to know when to withdraw subsidies, protections and barriers Rostow’s Take off Model 1-Traditional Society 2-Pre-Take Off Stage - Have to want change, develop a business class, increase agriculture and have a required capital investment of 5% GDP 3-Take Off Stage -Increase reinvestment, agricultural productivity, manufacturing investment, social and political institutions to support market growth, elections, taxation and private property rights -Can take between 100-150 years but after that the process speeds up 4-Drive to Maturity - Further increases reinvestment, economy become diverse, winners and losers become apparent, entrenches new social and political institutions 5-High Mass Consumption -Shift to service industry, mass consumption (if you are not dynamic you have a chance of falling back down the model) Structures Need Change Political Self determination, private property rights, elected authority Sociocultural Freedom of speech, freedom of beliefs, freedom to want and push for change Economic Wage labour and a capitalist class Neocolonialist Key Faces John Maynard Keynes Keynesian Theory State must intervene, know when to get out and when not to interfere Adam Smith Capitalism Moral, natural and good Bourgeoisie Waged Labour Said feudalism didn’t provide for bigger opportunities, created waged labour, liked capitalism Rostow Take off Theory Considered the take off from traditional society to a high mass consumption stage Prebisch 1-Centre Periphery Thesis 1-Centre benefits from periphery and leads to power inequalities from colonialism -Declining Terms of Trade 2-Manufaturing economies have an advantage because too many countries in the “Global South” are trying to take off with few commodities By the 1980s… -Keynesian Theory and Import Substitution failed, Modernization became too simple and the need to modernize Modernization lead to Neoliberalism Neoliberalism *System of managing capitalism (ideology/set of policies) 1 Ideology -Attacks Keynesian/Welfare State (Needs governance) -Revival of classic liberalism (individualism, few/simple rules, self-managing market) 2 Governance -State facilitates market, decentralizes the government, public manages government, partnerships with private sectors, promotion of self government -“State steers the boat, it doesn’t row it” 3 Policy -Inflation targeting, privatization, deregulation, liberalization, market based currency, export orientation, labour flexibility, cost recovery, tax cuts, spending cuts, promotion and protection of property rights and independent from central banks Neo-conservatism *Same basic policies as neoliberalism 1-Differences on Social Policy -Security (police, prisons, army) 2-Traditional Morality Waves of Neoliberalism First Wave 70s-90s -Crushed unions, full privatization, end of subsidies, structural adjustments to many governments in the South *Thatcher, Reagan, Pinochet Second Wave 90s-Present -Modifies policies (public/private partnerships) -More social progressive (gay rights, cultural diversity) -More global outlook (global trade policies, promotion of multicultural institutions) -Emphasis of soft power (hegemony, WTF, UN) *Obama, Clinton, Blair Capitalism is… -New, enlightened, natural, moral, efficient, good for development, pro-market -Mix of modernization (50-60s), Keynesian influence (60-70s) and neoliberalism (80s-present) Marxism and Karl Marx 1 Overthrowing Feudalism -End of landed privilege -Freedom of oppression 2 Enlightenment -End of superstition -Individual creativity -Rationality 3 Unleashes Energy of Markets -Creativity, technology, end of drudgery 4 Insights of Classical Political Economy -Historicism -Materialism 5 Inevitable Step Forward of Humanity -Capitalism necessary for Europe -Now necessary in backward regions 6 Violent and Disruptive Capitalism is… Not the End 1-Next stage of unequal systems -Bourgeoisie revolution, not working class revolution 2-Inherently Inequitable, Unstable, Self-Destructive -Goes beyond Keynes Destructive and Evil 1-Extraction of Surplus Value From Labour -Value comes from labor; capital owners make most of surplus -Inherently unequal over time 2-Extraction of Surplus Value from Value of Nature -Strip resources; avoid regulation, growth at any cost 3-Competition Forces Capitalists to Extract More Value from Labour and Nature -Drives down real wage -Seeks cheap labour-replacing technology -Scours the globe for new resources 4-Law of Diminishing Return -All firms forced to invest in same techniques, locals, and technologies -Drives down profit margins -Tendency to monopolization -Leads to crisis of over accumulation 5-Cyclical Patterns Lead to Regular Crashes -Keynesian interventions merely stave things off until next crisis -Cant fix an inherent contradiction Imperialism is the Highest Stage of Capitalism -Opens fresh ground for bourgeoisie -Need to constantly expand market for products chases the bourgeoisie away Capitalism -Was created by the bourgeoisie to support and enhance capital accumulation (not necessarily imposed by force) Hegemony *Struggle against capitalism is inevitable and the working class plays the central role -Dominant groups maintain dominance by securing consent of subordinate groups -Achieved by negotiations (political/ideological) -Uses coercion -Produced in civil society (media/school) -Shaped notion of common sense Underdevelopment Theory -Developed and underdeveloped (you are either one or the other) -Periphery states trapped in underdevelopment -Periphery states grow only when ties with core and are broken (delinking) Key Concepts in Marxism 1-Capitalism is revolutionary 2-Capitalism is expansionary 3-Capitalism is unequal 4-Capitalism is crisis prone/self-destructive 5-State is biased World Systems Theory (1970-90) *Concept of semi-periphery -Newly industrialized, emerging nations lack power and economical dominance of core nations (Brazil) -Southern elites have showed interest in global capitalist systems -Existence of a semi-periphery acts as a buffer to change -Need radical action to break bonds Midterm #2 Study: Week 6-9 Post-structural -Critical of universal truths, linear though, essentialism, economics and enlightenment Post-development -Belief in linear notions of development, critical os mainstream development theory and Marxis visions of development Development = Regimes of Truth -Dominant cultures dismiss others world views -Use language, images and cultural artifacts to reinforce power -Established hegemonic ideas and institutions Discourse Analysis -Analyzing written, vocal or sign language -Explores socio-political meanings rather than simply text structure -Hidden power relations -Music, gestures, clothes, photos, films, dance and expressions are also interpreted Orientalism (Edward Said) Orientalism -Critique of Eurocentrisim, prejudiced interpretationthof thetheast” -Shaped by the attitudes of European imperialism in the 18 and 19 centuries -Term originally referred to Arabs and Islam but later extended to the other colonized people Common Themes -Oriental men are untrustworthy and dangerous -Oriental women are eager to be dominated and are exotic -Oriental people are “noble savages” -The orient is an erotic, threatening and menacing place -The orient is a place that requires developmental assistance Binaries Between Europe and the Orient Europe -Strong, active, honest, moral Orient -Weak, passive, corrupt, licentious Depictions Oriental Women -Nude, sexual, submissive Oriental Men -Strong, violent, scary *Music, cigarettes portray mystery and sexuality Enlightenment Thinking -The “other” as biologically different and racial inferior -Central to Western philosophy What do Modern images of Development Convey? -“Others” = helpless, passive, “flies in the eyes” -Development = active, knowledgeable Development Pornography *Thought of the post-intervention “happy child”- is used in celebrity aid -Jorgen Lissner - Says suffering is very personal, people’s bodies, misery, grief and fears are displayed Post –Colonialism Alternatives -Critical of capitalism and socialism (Eurocentric, imperial, homogenizing and dualistic) -Power relations are complex (text, images and films) -Development is not just economic (culture matters too) Critiques 1-No alternatives, no plans for change 2-Ignores changes to structural theory since the 1970s (gender, culture, ecology) -Critiques capitalism and supports neoliberalism Grey Areas -Military assistance -Debt relief -Tied Aid -Inconsistent ways of recording ODA Other forms of “Official Assistance” -Humanitarian Aid (famines, natural disasters) -Export assistance -Military Aid Motivations for ODA 1-Relieve poverty -Morally correct thing to do Often driven by former colonial ties (France in Africa, Spain -Good for home economy in Latin America and UK in commonwealth) -Reduce threat of international instability 2-Geopolitical Interests -Cold war Diplomatic maneuvering (wins points in the international -Free trade community -Access to resources 3-Domestic Politics -Social attitudes (anti-immigrant and aid fatigue Economic situation at home Major Cycles in ODA 1970s - Growing aid budgets, cold war politics, new markets, faith in Keynesian interventionism 1980s - Shrinking aid budgets, imposition of neoliberal structural adjustment programs (SADs) 1990s -Further shrinkage of aid budgets, emphasis on neoliberal forms of “good governance” 2000s -Small increases in aid funding (military and debt relief), growth of celebrity aid, growth of private aid agencies, entry of china Remittances -Money transferred by a foreign worker to their country -Far larger than aid budgets Multilateral Development Banks World Bank and the IMF (International Monetary Fund) -Bretton Woods Conference 1944 Objectives of the Bretton Woods Conference -Create a stable post-war financial system -Avoid fluctuation currency rates of 1920-30 -Lending for balance of payment crisis -Create financing for reconstruction -Strong Keynesian influence International Monetary Fund -Not a private bank -Contribution from member countries -Helps stabilize international trade -Loans money to countries in temporary crisis (balance of payments World Bank -Not a private bank -Contributions from member countries -Post-war European assistance -Shifted focus to the South in 1950-60 (grants and loans) -Infrastructure lending that private banks will not support Governance of WB and IMF *Voting weighted by size of member economy, US has no effective veto, and Southern countries are marginalized Expanding Roles in 1970s -IMF begins lending -World Bank expanding role Changes in the 1980s -WB takes on debt of private banks and WB/IMF become gatekeepers *Rise of debt crisis -Structural Adjustment Policies (SAPs) *Shift to Neoliberalism *Anti-IMF riots WB/IMF in 1990s -Challenged by conservative governments in the North *Second-wave neoliberalism -Despised by anti-globalization movements WB/IMF in 2000s -Rise of emerging economies, private finance and China alternative -Stronger push for reforms from South -Regaining power with recent financial crisis -Seen as less of a threat than private banks Where Do WB and IMF Get Their Power? >-Conditionalities, give stamp of approval -Knowledge collection and dispersal (data, publications, conferences) Critics on the Right -Poverty in home country is priority Alternatives: -Aid industry is bureaucratic and inefficient Emergency aid only -Aid does not work and never will (feeds into -More business-like approach to how aid corruption, cycle of dependency, distorts markets organization run and holds back real development) -More accountability by receiver countries -Makes poverty worse in the end -More trade, less aid Critics on the Left -Interested in geopolitical interests Alternatives: -Creates non-colonial dependency on loan/aid Reform -Ignores alternative world view -Increases in funding and changes to institution -Homogenizing the world needed -Reform financial systems Abolish -Close down WB and IMF -Radical changes to market economy -Introduction of alternative world views -South-South cooperation Formation of the UN -Created at the end of WW2 (51 member states) -Lesson learned from League of Nations failure -Intended to avoid another world war -Driven by US (new internationalism, saw itself as non-colonial) -Reconstruction of Europe was initial focus -Included Soviet Union (impossible to claim universality otherwise, not inherently capitalist) -Moved to “International Development” in the 1950s No Strong Opposition to the UN -More diverse than IMF/WB (institutionally and ideologically) -Less interventionist -More humanitarian work, democratic, positive achievements -Celebrity endorsements Funding of the UN -Base on “ability to pay” and voluntary contributions by member states -Budget is always unstable- mostly for special agencies Structure of the UN General Assembly
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