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HIST121 Exam Review

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Queen's University
HIST 121
Richard Bailey

Queen’s SOS: Students Offering Support History 121 Final Exam-AID Review Package Tutor: Arielle Raphael, [email protected] Queen’s SOS: Students Offering Support Skills for History Exams  You have to be able to quickly connect ideas! This is why we’re going to make this session really interactive – there’s only so much actual information I can teach you in three hours when you’ve already had three months. We will quickly review it, but I really want to see you making your own connections between ideas and thinkers you’ve learned about in class.  You also have to be able to make an argument, and realize what the problems with that argument are. Acknowledging the flaws in your argument can either make or break a history essay. So in this session I want you to feel really free to point out to other people what the flaws in their arguments are, or even to point that out to me. Acknowledging the problems in your own argument as you make it also great.  I’ve explained a lot of terms that I’ve found difficult, but Professor Bailey also provided a really wonderful glossary at the end of his powerpoint presentation on Augustine. I would spend some time with that if you’re still confused about early Christianity/the divergence of Christianity and Judaism/early Christian thinkers.  Outlines are important. Your essay should be well written, and that’s a lot less likely to happen if you’re winging it. This will also come in really handy if you don’t have time to finish your essay – most profs will take the time to read a completed essay outline and give you at least some marks for the ideas you had. Everybody outlines differently, especially on exams. I like to do it in point form, to keep it quick. I’ve included an example below, but do it however you want to, and in whatever way makes sense to you – just make sure it’s clearly labeled as not being part of your essay and clear enough that someone else could make sense of it if they need to. Example Essay Outline Question: Fish or Chips? (an actual question in HIST289 two years ago) o Given a choice between fish and chips I would choose chips. o I hate fish  It tastes terrible and flaky and strange, even when you fry it o I love chips Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs Queen’s SOS: Students Offering Support  they are the most delicious food, especially if poutine could be arranged o for large portions of England’s history potatoes have been much cheaper than fish and so chips would be generally more economical  though this is not true during the second world war, so if time travel was involved, I would rethink.  Read it over! Everyone has told you this forever, but it’s true.  Make connections that were not made in class – it’s the difference between a B+ and an A+, and it will make sure that your exam stands out.  How to use the blanks below? o A) However you want! o B) To make connections between different themes in different weeks (ie: under Monotheism in Hebrews you could write Xenophanes, who also takes about a singular God) History 121 Review  Hebrews o Monotheism  _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________  It isn’t unique, and it isn’t new. Remember that everything develops somewhere. o Ethical Monotheism  _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________  This part is new; a god who wants us to behave, just for him. o Transcendent God  _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________  A god who is above human beings. o The Fall  _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________  As it appear in Genesis. Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs Queen’s SOS: Students Offering Support  Knowledge  __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________  Knowledge is the ultimate temptation, the ultimate corruption and the ultimate power. It is not really meant for man.  Obedience  __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________  Obedience to parents – a very big Old Testament theme o Also, remember that a lot of stories in Genesis and a lot of the culture of the Hebrews emerges from Ancient Near- Eastern Pantheism.  Greeks o The source of scientific thought, philosophical thought and democracy. o It is sometimes better when talking about anyone before Newton to talk about natural philosophy rather than science itself. o Remember that they didn’t specialize – they considered themselves experts in everything and acted as such. o Pre-Socratics  Thales  __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________  The basic being of all things persists.  The soul is a motive power.  Anaximander  __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________  Saw nature as ruled by laws.  A contributor to astronomy, physics, politics and geography. Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs Queen’s SOS: Students Offering Support  Xenophanes  __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________  God is immortal, one and stationary.  No one can ever know if what they think is truthful really is.  Heraclitus  __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________  Nothing is constant; all things came to exist through strife and without strife all things would cease to exist.  We see everything through the ‘little windows’ or our senses.  Melissus  __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________  Everything always was, and nothing can come of nothing.  Nothing could change ,because then everything would not be One.  Perception is false because we see change where none exists.  Hesiod  __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________  There is no creator, simply creation.  Desire is a good thing, which softens and overpowers the mind.  Women are a curse to men and a drain on their hard work. o Big Ideas  Empiricism Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs Queen’s SOS: Students Offering Support  __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________  Certainty of knowledge based on the senses.  Rationalism  __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________  Reasons is a higher sense than the senses, and provides true knowledge.  Monism  __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________  Everything is one, and this oneness underlies reality. o Plato  Uses a dialectal approach to reach an unexceptionable truth.  Forms  __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________  He believes that the true nature of reality is the world of forms.  A perfect version of each object, unchanged, from which each version of that object draws its essence.  These are intangible.  Goodness  __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________  Pleasure cannot be equated with goodness.  You must know the just and the beautiful before you know the good.  Goodness makes things clearer. Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs Queen’s SOS: Students Offering Support  Leaders should understand the ultimate good.  Knowledge and Reality  __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________  Seeing the real reality will cause us to go mad, and so knowledge is both curse and blessing.  Remember the cave, even though I didn’t talk about it at length – it’s a great analogy.  Approach to Society  __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________  Leaders should not be eager to lead in the best city.  Society must be protected from disunity, violence and misrule.  People are divided by occupation, not by income group.  Justice is all the classes – discussed in the slides – going about their own functions and not doing too much or too little. o ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs Queen’s SOS: Students Offering Support Type of Government Positive Aspects Negative Aspects Timarchy Honor Tendency to rebel Individual lost to the Private Property state Oligarchy Exploitation of the poor Democracy Poor leadership Little cohesion Class warfare Creates tyranny Tyranny o Aristotle  Ethics  The Good o ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ o All things aim for the good.  The Ultimate Good o ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ o If we had knowledge of this we would be better able to be good.  Happiness Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs Queen’s SOS: Students Offering Support o ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________  Intelligence o ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ o The human race lives by reasoning. o Senses to not tell us the reason of anything, only the reality of it. o This, not happiest, is the highest position.  Morals and Virtue o ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ o We are born without morals but we are able to learn them.  The State  Types of Government o Oligarchy is the rule of the few for the benefit of the wealthy o Democracy is the rule of the many for the good of the poor o Aristocracy is the best form of government o The best type of government is dependent on the population o The best political association is ruled by the middle class because they are the least likely to rebel o Born leaders will lead born followers for the good of all in a good state.  Metaphyics  The Forms o ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs Queen’s SOS: Students Offering Support ____________________________________ ____________________________________ o These actually exist inside of things – the universal inside of the particular.  Primary Substance is that which remains when everything that can be said about something is removed, and secondary substance are the attributes that rely on the existence of the primary substance.  Change o ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ o Everything is constantly expressing its potential by changing – everything constantly has the ability to change. o Everything was originally set in motion by the ‘unmoved mover’.  Physics  Cause o ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ o That out of which a thing comes and which is part of it.  Stoic Thought o Stoic thought is striving after wisdom. o Reason  _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________  Stoic thought mainly relies on this. o Human Nature  _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs Queen’s SOS: Students Offering Support  We are divine because we, like the gods, can reason. o The Argument from Design  _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________  If there is a watch there must be a watchmaker  Lucretius o Natural Sciences  First Principles  __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________  Nothing comes from nothing  Nothing is reduced to nothing, it is only reduced to his components  nature works through invisible bodies  Matter  All particles of matter are moving and are kept in motion by their own weight  The universe is bottomless and nothing can ever come to rest in it  Atoms sometimes swerve randomly o Morality  Happiness  Is a body free from pain, a mind without worry and fear.  __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________  Mortality  Both spirit and mind are single substances, and having been born will die, or dissipate and dissolve when the body dies.  There is nothing to fear in death.  __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs Queen’s SOS: Students Offering Support  Love  __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________  Is much easier to avoid than to escape, and makes us blind to reality.  The New Testament o Written between 130-330 o Gender relations and Marriage  _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________  Women should be able to seek information in faith as well as men, and need not serve men.  Women should be modest and silent, but should be saved through modesty and the bearing of children.  The husband rules over the wife’s body, and the wife over his.  You should have a wife to sate immoral impulse, but married people concern themselves with the worldly and unmarried with the godly. o Faith  _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________  Do not be anxious, God will provide.  Generally, a more loving God than that of the Old Testament. o This will dominate so much of the rest of the course that you should think of this section as nothing like comprehensive- you should be able to talk about the New Testament, but you should always be able to think about it in context of another thinker or a bigger idea.  Epicletus o Control  _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs Queen’s SOS: Students Offering Support  It is not the things outside of our control that upset us, it is our judgement of them. o Virtue  _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________  Virtue is the pursuit of good, reason is the only good, so virtue is the pursuit of reason, Abbasid o Mortality of the Soul  _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ o Ideal Life  _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________  Scholasticism o A teaching technique, based on the dialectal methods of Peter Abelard o Brings previous thinkers into a Christian contextth o Began with a debate over the universals in the 11 century o ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________  St Paul of Tarsus o Mystery Cult and Judaism  _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________  St Paul takes Christian Judaism and gives it many of the traits of a Hellenistic mystery cult. o Damascus Revelation  _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ o New Covenant Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs Queen’s SOS: Students Offering Support  _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________  Christ was the end of the law, and so a new covenant
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