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Weight Control (week 12).docx

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Queen's University
Health Studies
HLTH 230
Jeffery Lalonde

Causes of Overweight and Obesity Genetics  Twin studies  Leptin LESS DECREASES APPETITE o Decreases appetite o Increases energy expenditure  Promotes negative energy balance  calories you take in is less than the calories expended  Burn more than you are taking in  Ghrelin GROW – MORE APPETITE o Produced by the stomach cells that enhances appetite o Decreases energy expenditure  Acts as a hormone in the hypothalamus  Stimulates appetite and promotes efficient energy storage  Triggers desire to eat o Ghrelin rises before meals and falls after a meal o Ghrelin fights to maintain a stable body weight  High levels with negative energy balance  Fat stores reduced  Wants to burn calories  Low levels with positive energy balance  Why it is difficult to keep off weight that has been lost  When you lose weight, body wants to maintain original weight  Wants to burn less calories  Prader Willi Syndrome o Genetic disorder characterized by excessive appetite, massive obesity, short stature  2 Types of Fat o White Fat  White adipose tissue  Stores fat for other cells to use for energy o Brown fat  Brown adipose tissue  Releases stored energy as heat  When fat is oxidized, some energy is released in heat  In brown fat, heat is produced instead of ATP  ATP is energy  Important for new borns, freezing climate, hibernating animals  Most humans have less than 1% of brown fat  Brown fat inverse relationship with BMI  Less brown fat, higher BMI  Not used for storing, used for heat  Heat burns calories Environment  Environmental factors in obe
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