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Psyc_

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 100
Professor
Ingrid Johnsrude

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Lesson 1:  Behaviour: any action that can be observed, recorded, and measured  Rationalism: the pursuit of the truth though logic and reason o Ancient Greek philosophers: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle  Physiologist: study the function of living systems  Empiricism: the gaining of knowledge through observable facts and experiences  Founding fathers of psychology: Wilhelm Wundt and William James  Wundt: smaller elements that made up the human experience  James: purposes associated with the various human traits  Structuralist psychologists: (Wundt, von Helmholtz, Fechner) break complex phenomena down to their smallest components and then study these components, assuming that if they understand all the parts, they will understand the whole. o introspection  Functionalism: examine behaviours, traits, and perceptions by asking, “What are they for?” This focus on purpose was influenced by Charles Darwin  Natural selection: characteristics vary among individual members of a species-> characteristics are passed from parents to offspring -> adaptive characteristics that cause greater reproductive or survival success become more common over generations  Psychology blurs into neuroscience, biology, sociology, economics, engineering, computer science, linguistics, and education, as well as philosophy, physiology and other disciplines.  Psychology: the science of behaviour and mental processes, including emotions, perceptions and memory  Science: an organized method for asking questions and looking for answers  There are critical periods of learning and growth during development  Obedience and Compliance can lead to neglect to the environment - also as conformity Lesson 2:  Theories: an idea, or conceptual model, that is designed to explain existing facts and make predictions about new facts that might be discovered  Hypothesis: a statement, usually designed to be tested by an experiment, that tentatively expresses a cause-and-effect relationship between two or more events (disprovable)  Verifiability: can be tested by others  Objectivity: result based on observable phenomena and is uninfluenced by emotions or personal points of view  Empiricism (scientific theory): the gaining of knowledge through observable facts and experiences  Reliability: a finding that is consistent across time and experimenters; not due to chance  Empirical: observation: experienced by most individuals in a similar manner  Motivation hypothesis > design > data collection and analysis procedures > results >conclusion> theory  Operational definition: describes a concept by how it is demonstrated in an observable or measurable way. In other words, an operational definition describes the operation that makes the concept observable and measurable  Memory: recall, recognition ,motor behaviour  Independent Variable: variable experimenter manipulates- it is independent of all other outside variable that might influence the outcome of the experiment  Dependent variable: outcome of experiment – changes in the variable (should depend on the manipulations the experimenter makes on the independent variable.  Naturalistic Observation: collecting data in natural surroundings rather in a highly controlled laboratory situation  Case Study: intensive study of individual participants (clinical cases)  The Survey: questionnaires/ polls/ etc. – used when examining smaller groups (samples) and the extrapolating (generalizing) the results to the population  Correlational Study: is a descriptive statistic that summarized data in a meaningful way and that describes the relationship between two variables.  Experiment: powerful- allow you to infer a causal relationship: whether a change in one variable causes a change in another variable (strict control)  Theory: an idea or a conceptual model that is designed to explain existing facts and make predictions about new facts that might be discovered  Validity: the degree to which the operational definition of a variable accurately reflects the variable it is designed to measure, as well whether there are any confounds present in the study that might bias the results  Hypothesis: a statement, designed to be tested, that tentatively expresses a cause-and-effect relationship between two or more events  Confound: is present whenever a factor that is not controlled for might influence the subjects‟ behaviour in systematic ways  Subject expectancy effect: condition in which an experimental participant believes they know what the experimenter is looking for, or has expectations related to the experiment that affect his or her behaviour in the experiment  Demand artifact: aspects of a study that reveal the hypothesis being tested in some way. They are the unintended features of the study that affect the results. Demand characteristics, or demand artifacts, can affect both the participants and the researchers  Placebo effect: when people who falsely believe they are receiving a treatment respond as if they had actually be treated  Observer expectancy effect: an experimental confound where the researcher‟s scoring of, or manipulation of, the behaviour of the subjects is unintentionally biased to the favour what the experimenter expects of wants to happen  Random Assignment: the fact that any individual in the experiment is equally likely to be in an experimental group or the control group  Generalizability: the degree to which one set of results can be applied to other situations, individuals, or events  Random Selection: any specific member of the population is as likely as the next to be chosen for the survey  Data: measurements of simple facts  Information: data that has that has been organized and made useful  Descriptive statistics: summarize data in a meaningful fashion  Collapsing data: organizing into groups  Normal distribution: following a bell-shaped probability function. Likely due to mathematics thus a useful model  Typical data (normal distribution): mean, median, and mode the same  Mean: adding together all scores and dividing by number of scores (average)  Median: midpoint of a distribution, half of observations have greater have lesser  Mode: most frequently occurring value in a distribution  Range: difference between the larges and smallest score  Standard deviation: the extent to which each score differs from the mean  Inferential statistics: used to determine what the data mean. They test reliability of the data and can also be used to infer or apply the results from the sample to the larger population from which it was drawn  Probability is less than 5% concludes that the mean difference obtained did not occur by chance  Significant: statistically a difference that is unlikely to have occurred by chance  Scatter plots: plots graph of two variables  Range: r= +1= perfectly positive correlation  R= -1 perfectly negative correlation Quiz 1 -2 :  Through their research on human responses to physical stimuli, both Helmholtz and Fechner contributed to the beginning of psychophysics  In psychological research, the term generalization refers to concluding that the results obtained from a sample can also be applied to the larger population  The emphasis of the functionalist approach was placed squarely on the biological significance of behaviour.  A commitment to the philisophical notions of empiricism and materialism implies a belief in determinism, the idea that behaviour can be predicted perfectly from an animal's current brain sate together with the environmental stimuli it is exposed to.  Which of the following approaches to psychology was most likely to reject the idea that mental events are an appropriate subject matter for study in psychology? behaviourism  The idea that behaviour that produces a favourable outcome is likely to be repeated is embodied in the law of effect.  If two variables are positively correlated, then in a scatterplot we should notice that high values of one variable are associated with high values of the other variable.  Mean is to central tendency as standard deviation is to variability.  Structuralism is to elements of consciousness as functionalism is to purpose of consciousness.  The approach for investigating psychological phenomena Wundt adopted was structuralism  Kathleen trains her dog by giving him a treat every time he obeys and scolding him when he disobeys. Her method of training is most related to the early psychological ideas of the law of effect  A strong negative correlation would probably be found between: Someone‟s ability to swim, and how afraid they are of deep water  Dr. Singh wants to know if the type of lighting (fluorescent or incandescent) under which participants read affects the number of pages of text that they can read in one hour. The dependent variable in this experiment is the number of pages of text read in one hour  Suppose that you conduct an experiment to study the effects of love on improving children's self concepts. To manipulate love, you allow a research assistant to hug each child after he or she has successfully completed a set of math problems. After the study is over, you ask the children if they felt loved during the study. They all say no. Apparently, your operational definition of your independent variable is invalid  Dr. Lemieux wants to determine if a group of participants reading under incandescent light will read more pages of text in one hour than a group of participants reading under fluorescent light. She assigns students sitting at the front of the class to be in the "incandescent light" condition and students at the back of the class to be in the "fluorescent light" condition. In this experiment seating location is a confounding variable  In a sample of Canadian adults, heights follow a normal distribution. Which of the following is NOT true about this sample The median and the mean have very different values  Only experiments involve the manipulation of independent variables  The mark of a good theory is that it produces testable hypotheses.  If an experimental procedure produces consistent results under consistent conditions, then the procedure is said to be reliable  Inferential statistics are useful in telling researchers whether the results of their experiments are due to chance Lesson 3:  Fight or flight: our body goes on alert and all of our senses quickly gather information to determine the extent of the danger and possible solutions that will promote survival  Social Readjustment Rating Scale: common measure of life stressors  Chronic stress: can increase risk of coronary heart disease, cancer, impaired immune system functioning, and high blood pressure (or going to bad behaviours like smoking)  General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS): framework for understanding our physiological response to stressors o Alarm: when an organism is first confronted with a stressor its responses center around the autonomic nervous system. During this stage, the organism‟s resistance to the stressor temporarily drops below normal, and the organism may experience shock (impairment of normal physiological functioning) o Resistance (adaptation): as the organism adapts to continued exposure it enters the stage of resistance. Its autonomic nervous system returns to normal functioning and resistance to the stressor increases to above- normal levels o Exhaustion: if exposure to the stressor continues for a long enough time, the organism loses its ability to adapt. During this exhaustion phase resistance falls dramatically, leaving the organism susceptible to illness and even death  Stress-appraisal (Lazarus and Folkman): o Primary Appraisal: perceive new or changing environment as beneficial, neutral or negative o Secondary Appraisal: assessment of coping abilities and resources and judgment as to whether they will be sufficient to meet the harm, threat, or challenge of new or changing environment  Self-efficacy: confidence that we can perform the necessary actions to reach a satisfying outcome. The more self-efficacy we have for a particular task, the more likely we are to try it, persist at it and then succeed  Attitudes: our positive and negative evaluations of the behaviour in question  Emotion-focused coping: aims to reduce our emotional reaction to a stressful situation. (aerobic exercise, progressive muscle relaxation, and cognitive appraisal)  Problem-focused coping: changes an existing stressful situation by reducing or eliminating it (only possible in circumstances where the stressor can be controlled)  Proactive coping: used up front to prevent or reduce stressful event from occurring. This means that you may try to prevent stressful events from occurring  Stress inoculation training (SIT): prepares people for the negative effects of stressful events and gives them skills to reduce their susceptibility to those effects  Addictions have environmental, psychological, and biological factors  Subjective norms: represent our beliefs about what other people think we should do  Perceived behavioural control: our confidence that we can achieve the desired behaviour  Healthy behaviours: long term > short term  Unhealthy behaviours: short term > long term  Pluralistic ignorance: misperceptions of what is normative because other are too afraid or embarrassed to present their true thoughts, feelings, or behaviours Lesson 4:  Mental disorder if o Clinically significant: symptoms are considered clinically significant if a clinician judges them to be sufficiently significant, marked, or substantial in intensity or duration that the patient would benefit from professional treatment o Internal factor: not cause by an event outside o Voluntary: chosen by individual  Mental disorders are both cause by genetic and environmental factors  Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR): outlines the various mental disorders and the specific criteria required for each disorder diagnosis-three prong test o Behaviours interfered with normal daily life o Behaviours were predictable reactions to their environment o Actions were freely chosen, not a manifestation of a dysfunction  Diagnostic Manual of Mental Disorders (DMS)  Women more likely to be diagnosed with anxiety disorders and depression  Men more likely to be diagnosed with antisocial personality disorders intermittent explosive disorder and substance-use-disorders  Anxiety Disorders: and irrational fear of situations of stimuli that are not actually dangerous: o Panic Disorder: experience of reoccurring, unexpected panic attacks o Specific Phobia: experience of significant anxiety in response to a specific situation or object that does not present any real danger o Social phobia/Social Anxiety Disorder: experience of significant anxiety in response to social situation or situations in which the individual is being evaluated o Obsessive-Compulsive disorder: experience of obsessions (uncontrollable thought, images or impulses) and/or compulsions (repetitive behaviours or mental acts) o Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Re-experiencing a traumatic event and experiencing symptoms of anxiety in response to any stimuli that relate to the traumatic event o Generalized Anxiety Disorder: excessive and uncontrollable worry, often about common concerns for an extended period of time  Agoraphobia: people experience intense anxiety about being in situations where they might not be able to escape if they need to or they might not be able to get help if they experience and attack  Panic attack: involve the sudden onset of intense fear and various physiological symptoms related to anxiety, such as a pounding heart, trembling, chest pain, a feeling of choking, nausea, and shortness of breath  Phobic Disorder: a panic-like reaction that clearly occurs in response to specific stimulus or situations  Obsession: recurrent, unwanted thought or images that the individual recognized as being irrational, yet they are uncontrollable  Compulsions: specific rituals or acts that are completed with the goal of reducing anxiety  Somatoform disorders: a category of mental disorder that involve physical symptoms similar to a medical illness but for which no medical cause can be found o Somatization disorder: multiple physical symptoms that occur over years that cannot be explained due to medical cause(pain and gastrointestinal, sexual, and pseudo-neurological problems) o Undifferentiated Somotoform disorder: physical symptoms last for at least 6 months and cannot be explained due to a medical cause, but do not meet the threshold for somotization o Conversion disorder: symptoms that affect motor or sensory functioning that appear to be related to a neurological disorder or medical condition but do not actually have any identifiable cause (onset of symptoms immediately following a psychological trauma) o Pain disorder: significant pain that is associated with psychological factor o Hypochondriasis: preoccupation with having a serious medical condition despite significant evidence to the contrary o Body Dysmophic: preoccupation with a part of the body that is perceived as defective  Dissociative Disorders: a group of mental disorders that are characterized by “a disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or perception”. o Dissociative Amnesia: one or more periods of time where an individual cannot remember important personal information. Often this information is related to a traumatic or stressful experience. The loss of memory goes beyond normal forgetting o Dissociative Fugue: a person suddenly leaves home or work for no apparent reason and travels to a difference city, forgetting who he is and where he came from. He may adopt a new identity o Dissociative Identity Disorder: characterized by the presence of two or more distinct personalities within an individual. The person‟s behaviour is guided by different personalities at different times o Depersonalization Disorder: the sensation that one is detached or outside of one‟s body  Personality disorders: exhibit patters of thought, feelings, interpersonal interactions, and impulse control that are considered inappropriate or discordant with their culture  Antisocial personality disorder: is marked by a lack of empathy or care for others, lack of guilt for misdeeds, antisocial behaviour, and persistent lying, cheating, and stealing  Borderline personality disorder: have disturbances in their sense of self, difficulty regulating their mood, unstable interpersonal relationships, and fear of abandonment. Impulsive behaviour, including self-injury, is a common method of coping Quiz 3-4:  Darren lost his job last week. At first, he was very upset, but now, he is doing his best to find a new job. Which stage of Selye‟s general Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) is Darren most likely to be experiencing? stage of resistance  Which of the following statements is/are TRUE regarding stress? Stimuli that cause stress are generally aversive and are called stressors, stress is a product of natural selection, stress is a behavioral adaptation that helped our ancestors survive, stress often helps us confront or escape threatening situations  Epinephrine releases the stored form of glucose that is present in the muscles, thus providing energy for strenuous exercise  Which of the following statements is NOT true of Richard Lazarus‟ cognitive appraisal? If the resources are not adequate to help with coping, the person enters the third stage of cognitive appraisal, the stage of exhaustion  Julie is described as having a Type A behavior pattern while her friend Sarah is described as having a Type B behavior pattern. According to Friedman and Rosenman (1959, 1974), who is more likely to develop coronary heart disease (CHD)? Julie  Sandy‟s mother has Alzheimer‟s disease. Sandy knows she cannot do anything about this, so she has tried to make peace with it by reminding herself that her mother has lived a full and happy life, and that all that matters now is the time they have left to spend together. Sandy is using which of the following coping strategies? Emotion-focused coping  Which of the following make up the diathesis in the diathesis-stress model? A person‟s genetic make-up and early learning history  How do children with autistic disorder perform on the “Sally-Anne false-belief" task? They perform far worse than normal children.  Mary is a 40 year old woman who works from home. One day, the phone rang right after her groceries were delivered to her front door. It was her younger sister calling to tell Mary that she is getting married and would like Mary to come to the wedding in the summer. Although Mary was happy for her sister, she dreaded the thought of being at a big wedding and began sweating profusely and feeling nauseous. She told her sister she wishes the best for her, but that she would not be able to attend the wedding. Why did Mary refuse to go to her sister‟s wedding? What disorder is Mary most likely to have? Agoraphobia  People who actually lose a bodily function due to their anxiety are diagnosed with conversion disorder; those who pretend to have lost a bodily function are diagnosed with malingering.  Alcohol myopia can reduce the chances of condom use in a sexual encounter because the individual will: focus on the short-term desires, rather than on the long-term threats of sexually transmitted infections.  Baumeister and his colleagues (2005) examined how social situations influence self-control related to health behaviours. They found that: social rejection increased the number of cookies participants consumed.  According to the Theory of Planned Behaviour, our actions are predicted by the following: Perceived behavioural control; attitudes; subjective norms.  Anne has a major essay due in a week. However, she is worried that she won't be able to complete the essay on time because it feels like she is coming down with the flu. Even though the due date is still a week away, Anne asks her professor for an extension on the assignment. Anne is using which of the following coping strategies? Proactive coping.  If early learning experiences and specific genetic traits put an individual at risk for developing a mental disorder, they would be considered predisposing causes if the disorder developed.  Hundreds of studies demonstrate that the accuracy of actuarial diagnosis (using numerical formulas based on prior data) is: generally superior to diagnosis made by a highly experienced clinician (psychiatrist or clinical psychologist).  Mason has just experienced a particularly nasty divorce. He suddenly loses total recall of his memories of himself, his ex-wife, and their marriage. Shortly thereafter Mason moves to a different city and calls himself "Ned". Mason is most likely experiencing: dissociative fugue.  Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a subclassification of anxiety disorder.  Nick was severely beaten by a gang of neighborhood bullies. He is so fearful of leaving his home that he no longer goes to school or visits friends. He wishes he wasn't so afraid, but the feeling hasn't diminished because the bullies continue to taunt and threaten him. Although this is a serious situation, Nick would not be diagnosed as having a mental disorder because the criterion of internal source has not been met.  Lisa has been diagnosed with an eating disorder. If receiving extra attention from her family and friends and losing weight contribute to her maladaptive behaviours, they would be considered maintaining causes if the disorder continues. Lesson 5:  Psychoactive Substance: a chemical substance that acts upon the central nervous system where it affects brain function, resulting in changes a person‟s emotions, perceptions or thoughts  Substance related disorders o Substance-use disorder: dependence / abuse o Substance-induced disorder: intoxication /withdrawal  Substance dependence: when an individual‟s repeated use results in “tolerance withdrawal and compulsive drug-seeking behaviour”  Substance abuse: diagnosed when a person‟s repeated use of a substance results in serious adverse consequences o Criteria: repeated failure to fulfill important obligations, repeated use of the substance in dangerous situations, repeated legal problems related to the substance, continued use of the substance despite it causing problems in the individual‟s social or interpersonal relationships  Substance intoxication: occurs when a person suffers clinically significant negative or harmful behavioural changes or psychological effects because of the influence of a psychoactive substance  Substance withdrawal: occurs when a person suffers clinically significant negative or harmful behavioural changes or psychological effects because they recently stopped prolonged use of a psychoactive substance  Schizophrenia: last at least six months and includes at least one month of active phase symptoms o Positive Symptoms: like delusions or hallucinations usually reflect an excess or distortion of a normal brain function. (disorganized speech, grossly disorganized catatonic behaviour) o Negative symptoms: like slowed speech or movement normally reflect a diminution or loss of normal brain function  Schizophreniform disorder: a psychological disorder where the individual experiences the symptoms of schizophrenia for a period of only 1-6 months  Schizoaffective disorder: a psychological disorder where a person experiences a mood episode such as depression or mania at the same time that he is exhibiting symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations or delusions  Delusional disorder: marked by delusions that are considered non-bizarre (delusions of people more powerful and important that one really is)  Brief psychotic disorder: an episode of psychotic symptoms that lasts between one day and one month  Shared psychotic disorder: development of a delusion that is similar to a delusion already held by a close individual  Substance-induced psychotic disorder: psychotic symptoms are judged to be a direct physiological consequence of taking a psychoactive drug or medication  Diathesis: medical term for a predisposition, vulnerability, or tendency  Dopamine: chemicals used in the brain to communicate among brain cells: o In schizophrenia too much of this neurotransmitter results in many of the symptoms experience by individuals with this disorder (difference in size and shape of brain structures as well)  Major Depressive Disorder: A period of intense depressed mood and/or loss of interest in activities that persists for at least 2 weeks and is accompanied by at least 4 additional symptoms. (sleep/appetite disturbance, loss of energy, worthlessness, loss of concentration, suicidality)  Dysthymic Disorder: chronic depressed mood that persists for at least 2 years and is accompanied by additional symptoms that do not meet criteria for major depressive  Bipolar disorder: mood disorder that has periods of mania or hypomania, and periods of depression. People with bipolar disorders will experience times with an overabundance of energy and plans, and times with strong depressive symptoms  Bipolar I disorder: experience of at least one manic episode defined as a period of abnormally elevated mood that persists for at least one week and is accompanied by at least 3 additional symptoms (decreased need for sleep, grandiosity, pressured speech, racing thoughts) and typically alternates with at least one major depressive episode (sometimes mixed episodes alternating between sadness and euphoria)  Bipolar II disorder: Experience of at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode and is accompanied by at least three additional manic symptoms  Cyclothymic Disorder: long-term (2+yrs) cycling of moods that alternate between depressed and hypomanic states  Hypomanic: a period of abnormally elevated mood that persists for at least 4 days  Manic episode: abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood lasting at least 1 week with at least three of: grandiosity, decreased need for sleep, extra talkative pressured speech, flight of ideas, distractibility, increase in goal-directive activity, excess involvement in pleasurable activities that are dangerous  Cognitive/ environmental: o Negative events: stable/global/internal causes o Positive events: unstable / specific / external causes  Disorganized speech o Over-inclusion: jumping from idea to idea without the benefit of logical association o Clang speech: rhyming o Neologisms: making up words o Echolalia: repetition of other people  Disorganized behaviour: o Behaviour inappropriate for situation o Inappropriate affect is expressed o Catatonic behaviour :unresponsive to environment Lesson 6:  Philippe Pinel and Dorothea Dix: more humane asylums/treatment of mentally ill  Psychological treatment: to reduce or remove clinically significant symptoms  Assessment: elicit personal history and present symptoms so the mental health professional can arrive at a diagnosis and construct a treatment plan. Once the diagnosis and treatment plan are complete, treatment begins (before and after)  Clinical interviews: trained professions interview designed to elicit information on the client‟s history and presenting symptoms  Neurophychological tests: to examine various aspects of cognitive functioning – intelligence, academic ability, memory, processing speed, language function, and executive functioning o EEG (electroencephalogram) o CAT scan (computerized axial tomography) o MRI / fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) o PET scan (positron emission tomography)  Behavioural monitoring: recording specific behaviour and the circumstances around them  Psychiatrist: have a medical degree with an additional specialization in psychiatry and are the only mental health professional who can prescribe medication  Clinical psychologists: have a doctoral degree in clinical psychology with training in the assessment and treatment of mental disorders, as well as training in statistics and research methods  Counselling psychologists: have a doctoral degree in counselling psychology, which is similar to clinical but with less focus on statics and research methods, and more focus on clinical practice  Psychiatric Social workers: have a master‟s degree in social work with a specialization in psychiatric issues  Psychiatric nurses: have a nursing degree with specialized training in psychiatric issues  Psychological associates: have a master‟s degree in clinical psychology but not a doctoral degree  Counsellors/psychotherapists: individuals with any educational background can technically call themselves a counsellor or a therapist  Drug therapy (pharmacotherapy): the use of medication to treat psychological disorders; most drug therapies for psychological disorders focus on medications that affect the neurotransmitters that convey information between nerve cells in the brain and body  Dopamine: involved in motor control, memory, attention and problem solving, and in reward system of the brain which attaches emotional value to external events and motivates individuals to perform certain activities o Excess dopamine associated with schizophrenia, too little with forms of depression  Norepinephrine: associated with alertness, arousal and fight-or-fight response o Too little associated with depression, and excess with schizophrenia  Seratonin: plays a role in mood, sleep, appetite, and impulsive and aggressive behaviour o Too little associated with depression and some anxiety disorders (OCD), some antidepressant medications increase the availability of serotonin at the brains receptor sites  GABA (gamma-amino butyric acid): inhibits excitation and anxiety, induces relaxation o Too little associated with anxiety and anxiety disorders  Antipsychotic drug: a medication used primarily to treat psychotic disorders  Tardive dyskinesia: involuntary and random movement of the facial, arm, or leg muscles seen in clients who have taken first-generation antipsychotics for a long time  Antidepressant drugs: a class of drugs used to treat symptoms of depression o Tricyclics: block the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin o Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs): inhibit the enzyme oxidase that breaks down dopamine and norepinephrine in cells o Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): prevent the reuptake of serotonin in the brain  Anti-manic drug: any medication used to treat bipolar disorder and manic symptoms (lithium carbonate & mood stabilizers)  Anti-anxiety drugs: used to treat symptoms of anxiety (benzodiazepines)  Electroconvulsive therapy: a therapeutic method used to treat resistant mental health disorders by passing an electric current through electrodes placed on a client‟s head in an effort to prompt a seizure and release additional GABA  Psychosurgery: invasive form of treatment in which brain surgery is used to treat the symptoms of a disorder; this last-resort procedure removes or permanently alters some part of the brain  Psychoanalysis: Freudian psychodynamic theory – much of behaviour can be explained in terms of unconscious forces or desires. Need to become aware of them to cure them  Humanist: psychological problems result from individual being thwarted into their ability to realize their full potential, to develop as far as their capacities permit (make dreams true)  Gestalt: focuses on present moment and aim to help clients recognize what they are thinking, feeling and doing at that moment – mindfulness  Systematic desensitization: a very effective type of exposure therapy, especially for phobias, involving gradually exposing clients to the feared stimulus to habituate and eventually extinguish the fear reaction – relaxation  Flooding: a form of exposure therapy where the client is exposed to the object of fear directly and fully but without actually harm, and kept there until her panic reactions go away  Aversion therapy: involves pairing an undesirable behaviour and an aversion stimulus so that the individual will develop a less favorable emotional association with the undesirable behaviour  Imaginal exposure: a form of exposure where the client imagines the feared stimulus rather than actually experiencing exposure (PTSD)  Behaviour modification: therapy design to alter behaviour using operant condition techniques  Token economy: form of operant conditioning in which desired behaviours are reinforced with tokens that can be exchanged for some form of reward  Aaron Beck‟s Cognitive therapy: uses a variety of therapeutic technique to help clients identify their thoughts and to examine the logic behind these thoughts. Once clients begin to realise that their thoughts are not accurate, they can begin more rational thinking  Rational-emotive therapy (RET): (Ellis) form of cognitive behavioural therapy that proposes that the driving force behind psychological problems is the thought process behind them o Antecedent (event) →beliefs held by person → consequences of beliefs  Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT): based on the cognitive theory of mental illness that proposes that psychological problems are the result of maladaptive ways of thinking  Group therapy: a form of therapy in which a therapist sees two or more clients at the same time  Community psychology: promotes individual wellness through social change/community empowerment  Taylorite: there is one best way to perform any task  Dodo bird: everybody has won and all must have prizes  HVAC: choose the professional and then pick the system  Operant conditioning: behaviour affected by consequences  Classical conditioning: associations between stimulus and natural response transferred to another stimulus  Modeling: imitate the successful behaviours of others  Extinction of maladaptive behaviours: remove previously available positive reinforces  Punishment of maladaptive behaviours: administer negative consequences for undesirable behaviour  Cognitive distortions o Polarized thinking: black and which o Overgeneralizations o Personalization o Emotional reasoning o Magnification/minimization  Undoing Cognitive distortions: o Double-standard method o The experimental technique o Thinking in shades of grey o Survey method o Semantic method o Cost benefit analysis Quiz 5-6:  While speaking to a person with schizophrenia, you mention the snow outside. The person replies, "I think snow is a fine thing because it's good for skiing. I used to ski. I wanted to sky down Bob Hope's nose because it's a ski jump nose, you know. Do you like your nose?" This example illustrates: overinclusion.  Some mental disorders are associated with a deficiency or excess of particular neurotransmitters. Which of the following statements regarding neurotransmitters and psychological disorders is not accurate? Too little serotonin and too much norepinephrine are associated with depression.  People with schizophrenia are more likely to recover if they live in a: developing society, in part because the people tend to regard the disorder as temporary and refer to it in less stigmatizing terms.  Janine reports hearing voices demanding that she carry out a mission for them. Which of the following symptoms of schizophrenia is she describing? hallucinations.  Moishe has suffered from mild depression for more than 4 years and is now experiencing a severe episode of depression that has kept him in bed for about 3 weeks. He would be best described as suffering from: double depression.  Who is most likely to be diagnosed as having schizophrenia? The sibling of a person with schizophrenia.  Dysthymia is the chronic counterpart to major depressive disorder, just as cyclothymia is the chronic counterpart to bipolar disorder.  Which of the following chemicals is considered a psychoactive substance? Cocaine, cocaine, nicotine, alcohol  Which of the following substance-related issues is considered a substance-use disorder? substance dependence.  People with depression generally exhibit a depressive explanatory style. As such, they tend to assign internal, global and stable attributions to negative events that they encounter.  In Freudian psychoanalysis, transference occurs when a patient consciously experiences emotions about his or her therapist that are really unconscious feelings about another significant person in his or her life.  The application of a painful or unpleasant stimulus immediately after the unwanted response or after cues that would normally bring on the response is a therapy technique called: aversion treatment.  It has been shown that people can overcome snake or spider phobias by watching other people handle the feared creature before trying it themselves. This illustrates the effectiveness of: modeling.  When seeking professional treatment, we can be least confident in a professional's educational background when he/she refers to his/herself as a therapist because the use of this term is unregulated.  Which of the following statements regarding psychological treatment is the most accurate? Symptoms should be assessed before treatment begins and after treatment has been administered.  For Rogers and others who practice Humanistic therapy, the client's worth as an individual must be expressed by the therapist through: unconditonal positive regard.  According to Albert Ellis, psychological problems are the result of: faulty cognitions  Which form of psychotherapy incorporates the manipulation of environmental variables to produce therapeutic change? Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy  Tardive dyskinesia is a neurological disorder that can occur when: a person has been treated with antipsychotic drugs for an extended period.  Most therapists today adopt a/an eclectic approach to psychological treatment Lesson 7:  Neuroscience: collaboration among psychologists, physiologist, neroanatomists, neurologists, biochemists, neroendocrinologists, biologists, engineers and computer scientists  Nervous System: o Central nervous system (CNS): includes the brain and spinal cord. The spinal cord communicates with all the sensory organs and muscles, except those of the head o Peripheral nervous system (PNS): includes cranial nerves and spinal nerves, which transmit sensory information from the body to the CNS and transmit motor and other commands in the other direction, from the CNS to the muscles, glands, and internal organs (skeletal)  Autonomic nervous system: component of PNS that receives information from and sends commands to the heart and other organs (sympathetic, parasympathetic)  CNS composed of broad cell classes o Neurons: specialized cells capable of transmitting information. Complex circuits made up of thousands of neurons sending and receiving signals are the functional bases of all that you think, feel, remember, perceive and know o Glia/neuroglia/glial cells: supporting cells. There are different kinds of glia and they serve supportive and protective functions – helping the neurons to do their work (they also supply oxygen and nutrients to neurons, remove dead cells and germs, and serve as protective insulation around the axons of neurons) (maybe also participate in communication in the brain  PNS divided into skeletal and autonomic portions o Skeletal portion controls the various muscles, relaying motor commands from the brain o Autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls “involuntary” muscles and many internal organs > important in maintaining homeostasis (tendency to regulate internal conditions)  Sympathetic division: promotes the „fight-or-flight‟ response, involves high arousal/alertness, mobilizes body  Parasympathetic division: promotes the „rest-and-digest‟ response, enhancing the internal processes related to the digestion of food  Neuron: individual nerve cell o Cell body: contains structures that maintain cell health and metabolism o Nucleus: contains genes (DNA) and makes the proteins that “run” the cell o Dendrite: Tree-shaped structures branching from the body of a nerve cell that take input from neurons o Axon: nerve fibre that carries messages away from the cell body toward the cells with which the neuron communicates o Nerve: always refers to a bundle of axon fibres, each fibre in the bundle is a long conduit (an axon) extending from a neuron‟s cell body. Nerves transmit information within the PNS and between the PNS and the CNS  Tracts: nerves that are entirely within the brain and spinal cord o Myelin: a sheath or covering that makes the axon faster and more efficient o Axon terminal or synaptic terminal: sends information across a synapse o Synapse: junction between the terminal button of one neuron and the membrane of a muscle fibre, a gland, or another neuron  Sensory neurons: detect information from the physical world and pass that information to the brain. Often called afferent neurons because they send signals from the body to the brain  Motor neurons: direct muscles to relax or contract, producing movement. They are efferent neurons, ending information from the brain to the body  Interneurons: any neuron that is not sensory or motor. They link sensory/motor neurons and work to integrate and communicate information, rather than to transmit information from the body to the brain or vice versa  Spinal reflex: neurons cooperate to move body away from pain, controlled entirely at the level of the spinal cord, the brain is not directly involved o Receptor → sensory neuron→ integration center (interneuron/spinal cord) →motor neuron → effector  Terminal button: is on the neuron sending the message, or the presynaptic neuron, and the postsynaptic neuron receives the message  Synapses o Excitatory synapses: activated when a terminal button releases a transmitter substance that excited the postsynaptic neurons on the other side of the synapse (this makes the postsynaptic neuron more likely to fire) o Inhibitory synapses: lower the likelihood that axons of postsynaptic neurons will fire when they are activated  Graded potentials: are small potentials (voltages) generated at postsynaptic membrane by the action potential at the cell body (if they are excitatory) or less likely (if they are inhibitory). Are summed in cell body; if the summed potential is excitatory enough, an action potential is generated  Action potential: firing of a neuron (all or one event) –refractory  Many drugs and chemicals affect the body‟s nervous system by interfering with some aspect of the release, uptake, or reuptake of one or more neurotransmitters  Neurotransmitters o Amines: includes dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and acetylcholine o Amino acids: include glutamate and GABA o Peptides: regulate emotions, pain perceptions and stress responses  Dopamine: involved in motivation, punishment, and reward  Epinephrine: causes a burst of energy when released (adrenaline)  Norepinephrine: involved in arousal and vigilance  Serotonin: associated with regulating mood  Acetylcholine: responsible for motor control at the junction between verves and muscles  Glutamate: primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain  GABA: primary inhibitory transmitter in the brain  Opioids: bind to the same postsynaptic receptors as opium and morphine, allowing the body to cope with pain  Substance that affects behaviour do so by : o Block or enhance neurotransmitter synthesis and release in the presynaptic neuron o Block or enhance binding at the postsynaptic receptors o Block or enhance neurotransmitter reuptake, the processes that chemically transform neurotransmitters so that they are no longer active  L-dopa: dopamine agonist that increase the synthesis of dopamine and is used to treat Parkinson‟s disease  Amphetamine: dopamine agonist that increases the release of dopamine and blocks the reuptake of dopamine back into the presynaptic cell so that it is more available to bond with postsynamptic receptors (wakefuleness and focus increase, for ADD)  Naloxone: treat opiate overdose and addition to opiates like heroin. Opiod antagonist that block opioid receptor sites without activating them  Nicotine: acetylcholine agonist that mimics acetylcholine by attaching to an acetylcholine binding site  Opiods: bind to same postsynaptic receptors as opium and morphine and heroin causing phenomenon of runner‟s high  Hormones: glands through the body, including the brain, similar to neurotransmitters, released into the blood system to be transported relatively long distances to their target cells  Aphasia: loss of ability to speak  Broca‟s aphasia: cannot speak but can understand language (left front brain damage)  Wernicke‟s aphasia: can speak, but speech produced makes no sense and there is difficulty understanding other‟s speech (left back brain damage)  Lesions: found in previously damaged humans  Ablations: made in animals to know exact effect of location of damage  Stimulation Studies: parts of brain missing affect  Non-human stimulation/recording: use of microelectrodes placed in difference subcortical structures to locate structures that drive various behaviours  Human Brain Stimulation and Imaging Techniques: technology allows the stimulation of human subjects‟ brains to record localized brain activity in several different ways  Left and right hemispheres: together, control much of your behaviour. The left is more specialized so speech and language, right is for appreciation of 3D space and spatial relationships  Corpus Callosum: nerve fibres (axon) that connect the two hemispheres.  Brainstem: lower part of brain, connects it with the spinal cord – important for consciousness, sleep, and life-maintaining functions like breathing and heartbeat (middle, one)  Cerebellum: pair of hemispheres resembling the cerebral hemispheres that are involved in motor control – ensures that movements are coordinated, well time, and precise (middle, one)  Subcortical :under cortex o Hypothalamus: controls the hormonal system, drives, and body temperature, where the behaviours are responses to these drives (middle, one)  Homeostasis: tendency of animals to regulate its internal conditions  Endocr
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