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PSYC 100

Psyc 100 Exam Notes (SOS and Weekly Objectives) Language and Communication:  Language is a form of communicating that has specific rules (semanticity, generativity, displacementcant be considered )  Example- moneys communicate by calling to each other, but because they can‟t communicate ideas about both present and other times and places, it can‟t be considered a language. Properties of Human Language: 1. Semanticity: Extent to which a form of communication can meaningfully represent ideas, events and objects symbolically 2. Generativity: The ability to use a limited number of words and a few rules to create an unlimited number of sentences 3. Displacement: The ability to convey messages talking about something not talking about right here and now (talk about the past, present and future) What Makes Something a Language? 1. Its Symbolic 2. It can be used to communicate novel ideas 3. It can be used to communicate something not happening here or now Components of Language (Rules) Phonology: the sounds (phonemes) a language uses Phonemes: perceptually distinct units of sound that serve to distinguish one word from another (ex. Rice vs Lice) Phonological Rules: govern how phonemes can be combined in a given language. Voice Onset Time= delay between the initial sound of a consonant and the vibration of the vocal chords. Phonetic Discrimination: Perception of a phoneme is effected by the sounds that follow it. (we recognize speech sounds in larger pieces than individual phonemes) Morphemes: The smallest unit of meaning in language (created by combined phonemes) Free Morphemes: meaningful on their own, can stand alone as words. Bound Morphemes: meaningful only when combined with other morphemes to form words. (Fastest) Syntax: (Grammar) words need to be in the right order to be understood. The understanding of syntax is automatic and learned implicitly. Syntactical Rules: grammatical rules for combining words to form phrases and sentences. Semantics: the meanings of words and the rules that govern those meanings. Semantic rules can be crucial for understanding. Prosody: use of stress, rhythm and changes in tone that accompany speech. Pragmatics: knowledge of intended meaning, rather than explicit meaning. Allows you to understand tone, body language (what people actually mean). Deep Structure: sentences are represented in the brain in terms of their meaning. Surface Structure: particular form the sentence takes (brain must transform the deep structure into the appropriate surface structure) Steps to Understanding Language: 1. Recognizing the sounds/phonemes 2. Identify words and associate them with meanings (morphology/semantics) 3. Analyze the syntax using syntactical cues 4. Interpret the message in its context (pragmatics, syntax, semantics) Brain Mechanisms: Broca‟s Area: (Speech Production) region of the brain that stores motor memories (muscle movements such as opening your mouth) If Damaged: 1. Broca‟s Aphasia: Language disorder characterized by slow, laborious, non-fluent speech. Can understand everything that is said to them. Great difficulty with speech, but can say more than one word. 2. Agrammatism: difficulty in producing or comprehending the grammar of speech. Effects comprehension, can understand the words, but doesn‟t put it together. Wernike‟s Area: where memories of the sequences of sounds that make up words are formed. If Damaged: 1. Wernike‟s Aphasia: poor speech comprehension and production of meaningless speech (they know how to talk, they just don‟t know what they are saying, as if all of a sudden I started speaking Russian, I would be speaking but I would have no idea what I was saying) *Produces Word Deafness- you might as well be deaf cause you don‟t know what anything means/cant understand anything 2. Isolation Aphasia: when there is damage around the Wernikie‟s area, you have all the symptoms of Wernikie‟s aphasia except difficulty in recognizing spoken words (can repeat speech and learn sequences of words, cant produce meaningful speech) How Speech is Produced:  Requires articulators to move very quickly (the way they form determines the sound)  Coarticulation: speech is contextual in nature. Happens because articulators are getting ready to produce the next sound before the last one is finished. Articulators not involved in the production of one phoneme are getting ready for the next one they are involved in.  Variability in speech can be caused by- people having different voices, people having different pronunciation of words and accents.  We rely on our experience and knowledge of language to understand speech Steps We Take To Speak: 1. Form an idea and decide to speak 2. Choose Meaning 3. Apply Syntax and Morphology 4. Map Words onto motor sequence 5. Analyze acoustic signal 6. Acoustic signal Categorical Perception:  Depends on knowledge and experience, allows us to perceive sounds as one phoneme or another, when the sound might actually be ambiguous  our ability to discriminate is better than our ability to label features of objects (eg. colour, brightness, etc) Skills Required in Learning How to Read:  Eyes make rapid jumps (saccades) as we read  We fixate more on content words than function words (the less frequently a word occurs in normal language, the greater the fixation time) Therefore, fixation time is influences by predictability of words in text.  Readers have 2 basic ways to recognize words 1. Phonetic Reading- sounding out words (word is unfamiliar) 2. Whole Word Reading- recognizing a word as a whole “sight reading” (word is familiar)  Surface Dyslexia: can read words phonetically, but have a deficit in whole word reading  Phonological Dyslexia: can read by the whole word method but cant sound out words. (provides evidence that whole word reading and phonological reading involve different brain mechanisms  Direct Dyslexia: Can read words, but cant understand them (recognizing a spoken word is different from understanding it)  Understanding the meaning of a word involves memories of objects, actions and their characteristics, meaning of function words are more abstract  Semantic Priming: recognize words more quickly if they have a meaning related to a word that was mentioned previously. (we are more likely to make out a fuzzy image of the word butter if we see the word bread before)  Phonemic Awareness: analyze phonemes in a way that is not necessary for language. (its not necessary to understand the same ending sounds in cat, bat, hat to understand the words) Nativism (Noam Chomsky)  Children are born with an innate knowledge of a universal grammar, the basic features that are apart of every language (LAD)  Language Acquisition Device: o Children make hypotheses about grammar that are confirmed or disconfirmed o An LAD guides their hypotheses- will never say certain sentences because of this o LAD makes reinforcement unnecessary o Critical period for learning language- LAD works best during childhood Evidence:  Only humans are capable of high competency in their native language- no other species can do this  Critical periods when humans must be exposed to something for development to occurred normally (ex. Genie- girl who was locked in a basement for 11 years was never exposed to a language, now she cant talk) Interactionists  View language acquisition as either a product of the infants social environment or as a learning experience guided by the infant itself  They believe that language development results from interaction among multiple biological and social influences  Your vocabulary/grammar improves with experience (correlation between vocab and grammar)  Social environment is structured around language (perfect environment to learn) Evidence:  Children can learn multiple languages  We are prepared to learn any language that we are born into (not set to learn one specific language) Infant Directed Talk: exaggerated, expressive verbal and non-verbal communication used with infants. *Some learning can occur prenatally because the infant recognizes the mother‟s voice How Children Learn Language:  They don‟t speak in a straightforward manner, they speak in detours  Their communication is considered a language because the over/under extensions of words are understood by their parents Language Development Milestones: 1. Crying (only) 2. Cooing- “ooo”, smaking lips, blowing bubbles 3. Babbling- consonant and vowel mix (mama, dada, baba,), sounds and rhythm reflect adult speech of their native language; take turns in a convo with adults. 4. Single Words- begin to produce their first real words (can understand more that their first words) 5. Two Words- children will begin to use two word sentences; these sentences usually consist of just nouns and verbs (ex. big puppy!) Problem of Reference: infants must decide which object a word refers to when surrounded by many possibilities. Over-extended Words: use a word to denote a larger class of items than is appropriate. (ex. referring to every man as dada) Under-extended Words: use a word to denote a smaller class of items then is appropriate (ex. calling your family dog “dog” and not the others you see on the street) DNA: Genetic material of all organisms that make up chromosomes; resembles a twisted ladder, with strands of sugar and phosphates connected by rungs made from nucleotide molecules of adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine. Gene: regions of chromosomes that encode particular proteins (the basic unit of heredity) Encode: transfer genetic info from DNA to proteins Chromosomes: Threadlike structures in the nuclei of living cells which contain genes (you have sex chromosomes and you have autosomes that are everything else) Basic Principles:  Sexual reproduction is caused by the union of a sperm and ovum o Sperm and ovum produced by meiosis o Each have 23 chromosomes o Combine to produce a cell with 23 pairs of chromosomes o Sperm can either have an X or Y chromosome, so the male determines the sex of the baby  Allele: genes come in alternative forms (one from mom, one from dad)  Homozygous: 2 alleles are the same on both chromosomes of the pair. 9ressecive trait only occurs when the individual is homozygous for that trait)  Heterozygous: 2 alleles are different (the dominant trait prevails when the individual is heterozygous for the trait)  Genotype: The genetic makeup of a trait/organism  Phenotype: How the trait is expressed Polygenic Inheritance:  When the genetic link is suggested by the fact that such disorders “run in the family”, that there is a greater possibility seeing the trait in relatives than among the general population  Your environment plays a huge role in how you express genes (ex. two twins, one of them is taller than the other, the shorter one is a vegetarian) o Identical Twins= Monozygotic and have identical genotypes o Fraternal Twins = Dizygotic and come from different eggs, so they are no more similar than any other siblings  Concordance Research: studied the degree of similarity expressed between twins (twins are concordant for a trait if both express it or both don‟t express it, and discordant if only one expresses it) o Identical twins are more concordant Heritability: the degree to which the variability of a particular trait in a particular population is a result of genetic differences among those organisms  Genetic influence is measured by heritability (h )  Applies to populations not individuals Heritability Misconceptions:  A trait that is inherited is a trait that is passed on through genes  Heritability estimates depend on the degree to which the individual in the studied population have a lot of genetics in common  Heritability is sometimes confused with inheritance, which is the tendency of a given trait to be passed from parent to child *Heritability doesn‟t apply to individuals; it pertains only to the variation of a trait in a specific population Behavioral Genetics:  Mendelain Trait: a trait showing a dominant or recessive pattern of inheritance  Non-Mendelain Trait: these traits are usually polygenic and show continuous variation in the phenotype (eg. Intelligence)  Artificial Selection: any heritable trait can be selected in breeding (we do this with vegetables and dog breeds and choose the favorable traits) Spearman’s Two Factor Theory (Intelligence Theory)  Performance on a test is determined by 2 factors o G-factor= general factor o S-factor=factor specific to a particular text  Factor Analysis: statistical procedure that identifies common factors around groups of tests (eg. If a person scores high on a set of tests, these tests likely measure the same factor)  Cattel performed a second-order factor analysis and found 2 major factors 1. Fluid Intelligence- culture free tasks such as the ability to problem solve and think critically 2. Crystalized Intelligence- culture dependent, what a person has accomplished with fluid intelligence (what someone learns in school) Information Processing Theory (Intelligence Theory)  Sterrnberg‟s triarchic theory of intelligence  Deals with 3 aspects of intelligence 1. Analytic Intelligence- mental mechanisms people use to plan and perform tasks 2. Creative Intelligence- ability to deal with new situations and solve problems automatically 3. Practical Intelligence- reflects behaviors that were subject to natural selection in 3 forms a. Adaptation: fitting oneself into the environment b. Selection: finding a good match between oneself and the environment c. Shaping: when adaptation and selection don‟t work, a person changes his environment to better suit his abilities  Three aspects contribute to successful intelligence (the ability to analyze ones strengths and weaknesses, use the strength to greatest advantage and minimize the impact of weakness by compensating for them) Neuropsychological Theory (Intelligence Theory)  Theory of multiple intelligences, rejects idea of single or few primary types of intelligence  Intelligence depends on culture, potentials may or may not be activated depending on the extent to which the culture values a potential  Believed each intelligence is the result of evolution, and has biological isolation (eg. Brain damage affecting musical intelligence spares interpersonal intelligence)  Distinct Intelligences: logical-mathematical, verbal-linguistic, visual-spatial, bodily- kinesthetic, etc.  Recognizes intelligences in different cultures Intelligence Testing Galton:  Differential Approach: uses tests that measure individual differences in peoples knowledge and abilities to solve problems  Noticed brilliant people often had brilliant relatives- suggested intelligence was heritable/biologically based  Thought intelligence must be related to other biologically based phenomena  Defined Correlation: degree to which variability in one measure is related to variability in another Binet-Simon Test:  Binet disagreed with Galton- simple sensory tests count determine intelligence (believed measurements of psychological ability were better)  Simon and Binet published the Simon-Binet Scale for the French government who had asked them to look into kids with learning difficulties o Obtained norms (the average scores for children of various ages) for each test o Provided a detailed description of testing procedure  Binet revised the test to asses both kids with and without learning disabilities o Provided an estimate for Mental Age (level of intelligence that is expected for an average child of a particular age) Stanford-Binet Test:  Revised the Simon-binet scale to produce the Stanford-Binet Scale  Contained a formula for computing the intelligence quotient (IQ) o Ratio IQ- mental age/chronological age x100 o If the mental age if equal with the chronological age, the child‟s intelligence is average o Problem is ones chronological age continues to increase, while ones mental age eventually stops increasing (not an issue when dealing with kids)  Deviation IQ- makes the IQ score relative compared to ones age group Wechsler Test:  Believed intelligence was made up of multiple abilities and could not be well represented by one or two scores  His test measured a number of subcategories of intelligence  Test is divided into 2 categories (verbal and performance)  Verbal and performance are then divided into subscales (average of scores on these subscales constitutes verbal and performance IQs)  Developed Wechsler‟s Adult Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Tests Must Be: Reliability: ensures the scores we got from the test are consistent. Validity: test must actually measure intelligence (assessed by the correlation of the test score and the criteria) Standardized: determine normal performance on the test in any given population Problem of Bias: results of some tests are strongly affected by what people have learned (hard to make bias free tests) Problem of Self-Fulfilling Prophecies: a persons expectations about what will happen leads the, to perform a specific way Heritability of Intelligence:  The heritability for intelligence are particularly convincing because of converging evidence from studies of identical and fraternal twins reared together and apart, siblings reared apart and adoption studies  Many investigators believe that genes effect psychological characteristics mostly indirectly through gene-environment correlation  One you are older, your environment has a huge effect on your IQ (you can chose whether or not you want to go to the library) Heredity and the Environment  We don‟t inherit a certain number of IQ points- we inherit genes that influence the development of intelligence  Shared environmental influences have little effect on variance of intelligence (unshared environmental influences such a birth order, friends, etc. have a greater effect)  Heritability estimate for intelligence is 0.5- this means that genetic differences are responsible for 50% of differences in IQ in a population  Estimate is 0.45 in childhood and 0.75 in late adolescence – heritability of IQ increases with age  Flynn Effect: there is a worldwide rise in intelligence with an increase of about 3-4 IQ points a decade o Possibly due to more complex cultures and better nutrition Ethnic Differences in IQ  Many studies have claimed to establish that race predicts intelligence  Although researchers recognizes that the work of the past was biased by prejudice, examination of difference in intelligence continued to produce an effect for race  The variations of scores within each race is far greater than the variations between the two races, in other words IQ scores overlap much more than differentiate  A more proactive stance that has gained a degree of popular currency is that racial difference scores on intelligence is caused by heredity  Defining intelligence is culture based! Prenatal Development 1. Germinal Period:  Begins with conception (point where a sperm unites with an ovum to produce a zygote)  Sperm and Ova are called Gametes (Gametes are Haploid, meaning they only have half he chromosomes of a normal cell. Zygote is diploid)  Lasts about 8-10 days  Ends when cells have attached to uterine wall  Zygotic cell divides multiple times through a process called cleavage (mass is called Morula after a few instances of cleavage)  DNA is the same in every cell (except gametes) but we all have different calls in our body because of epigenetic modification (some genes are turned on, while others are turned off- causes a different expression of proteins)  Stem cells: have the same DNA as other cells but not yet undergone epigenetic modification (every cell in the Morula can develop into anything- sometimes splits apart to form identical twins)  Two layers on cells begin to form o Inner cell mass- eventually becomes embryo o Throphoblast- protects and nourishes inner cell mass **Morula is called a blastocyst after two different layers are formed 2. Embryonic Stage  Begins once blastocyst has implanted in the uterine wall (about 2 weeks after conception)  Lasts until about 8 weeks after conception  Trophoblast layer becomes two parts (amniotic sac, sac that provides constant environment for the embryo to reside in and the placenta, acts as a filter/barrier, prevents mixing of mother and embryos blood, prevents transfer of harmful chemicals, etc.)  Embryo separates into 3 layers o Endoderm-inner layer, becomes digestive system, urinary tract and lungs o Mesoderm- middle layer, becomes muscles, bones and circulatory system o Ectoderm- outer layer, becomes skin, hair, teeth and CNS  Shortly after differentiation of layers, the neural tube forms (begins to develop into the brain and spinal cord, all the cells that make up CNS grow here_  Neural Migration: neurons move and organize themselves appropriately (follow genetic instruction for movement)  Heart begins to beat, most of major body structures are beginning to form (major features that define human body are distinguishable)  Embryo acts reflexively to stimulation  Most susceptible to teratogens (any substance or event that can cause birth defects) o Effects depend on time when organism is exposed to teratogens (worse effect earlier on) o Effects are different depending on the organism o Effects are worsened the longer the exposure  Begging of sexual development occurs o Develops a pair of gonads that will become ovaries or testes (if a Y chromosome is present, one of its genes cause the development of the testes)  Development proceeds in 2 patterns: cephalocaudal (head to toe) and proximodital (inside out)  Apoptosis: programed cell death (occurs in many stages in development, ex. cells in the webbing between fingers die) 3. Fetal Stage  Ninth week after conception to birth  Organ growth is completed  10 weeks- begins breathing like motions, provide muscle and nerve development to breath after birth  4 month- sleep and wake patterns are seen (large enough so that movements can be felt by mother) th  5thonth- fetus responds to sound, especially mothers voice  6 month- possible for fetus to live if born prematurely  7 month- fetus begins to put on weight rapidly until birth  9 month- fetus is born (exact time of birth is affected by mother‟s emotional state, stress level, and nutrition) Prenatal Perceptual/Behavioral Development  fetal experience with sensory stimuli can prepare the way for the newborns experience  playing a recording of the mothers voice outside her stomach increases the heart rate of her fetus  at the time of birth, a child‟s senses are already functioning  they can detect sounds, baby will show a reaction to loud sound  bright lights will cause eye closing and squinting  preference and discrimination will likely develop before birth as a result of the fetuses in utero exposure to the others voice Reflexes: specific complex actions that occur automatically in response to certain stimuli.  Some last through life like the eyeblink reflex (closing eyes in response to bright light)  Some disappear shortly after birth o Rooting reflex (when something touches an infants cheek, he turns his head in direction of touch and opens mouth) o Sucking reflex (infant sucks when something is put in his mouh) o Babinski Reflex (infant fans his toes out and curls them back in when the bottom of his foot is stroked) o Moro Reflex (infants throw their arms and grasp I they feel themselves dropping) o Stepping Reflex (infants produce walking movements if held over a flat surface) Development of Reaching/Grasping Reflex  In the first 3 months infants also exhibit a behavior called „pre-reaching‟ in which they make awkward and poorly guided arm movements in the vicinity of the stimuli of interest to them  At around 3 months, the grasping reflex is replaced by the intentional grasping, and infants gain the ability to visually guide their movement more accurately using visual feedback to alter the direction more appropriately  Its generally around 7 months that infants begin to make smooth and accurate reaches towards the targets they intent to reach Motor Milestones  Begins with a movement made by the developing fetus and continues to progress into adulthood  As the infant gains strength, coordination and the ability to move more freelu, the way the infant views and interacts with his environment also changes, which can itself affect the infants development  Stages/Typical Pattern of Development o Sit up unsupported o Pull themselves up, stand with support o Walk with support o Walk unsupported o Walk backwards, walk with toys o Run, kick and eat with utensils  Much variability among north American children, and children in different cultures (ex. mothers of Ache tribe carry children for the first 3 years, so these children begin walking later) Jean Piaget (Cognitive Development)  Noticed children engage in behaviors distinctive to their age and made the same mistakes in problem solving (though there must be a sequence of learning all children follow)  Operation: logical mathematical rule that transforms an object or concept into something else (operation can be reversed)  Schema: framework that organized information about a person, place or thing (basis of the concepts of adult knowledge)  Assimilation: new info is incorporated into an existing schema (ex. a boy has a schemata for what adults and children are like- adults are tall and drive cars, children are short and ride bikes)  Accommodation: existing schemata are changed by new experiences (ex. boys schema for adults will have to change when he meets a very short adult)  Equilibration: schemas are radically reorganized, this happens when assimilation and accommodation fail to adjust adequately because they no longer hold true. Stages of Cognitive Development 1. Sensorimotor Stage- the infant builds an understanding of their environment primarily through the use of their sensory and motor abilities. During this stage, infants will also begin to develop fragile mental representation 2. Preoperational Stage- transitional period between first being able to think symbolically and being able to think logically (children at this stage are very egocentric) 3. Concrete Operational Stage- children will develop the ability to form concrete reason. They will experience growth in their ability to understand the feelings and thoughts of others 4. Formal Operations Stage- This stage extends to adulthood. In this stage a person gains the ability to think about abstract concepts, as well as the ability to think about abstract concepts, as well as the ability to formulate and test hypothesis in a logical and scientific fashion. Limitations to Piaget‟s Theory:  Piaget dint always define his terms operationally (difficult today to interpret the significance of his generalizations)  Theory doesn‟t account for the variability in children‟s development (some kids understand conversation problems earlier than the period of concrete operations)  Underestimated ability of young children to understand another persons point of view (children are less egocentric at earlier ages) Vygotsky: Socio-Cultural Theory (Cognitive Development)  Agreed with Piaget that experience with the physical world is important  Believed the culture a child lives in plays a big role in cognitive development  The way children see and hear other people interact with the world influences them  Developed his sociocultural theory from this idea  Believed use of speech influences cognitive development  Intersubjectivity: the understanding between two communicators that allows them to communicate effectively about a topic. (its important in social learning because it encompasses both the concept of joint attention and social referencing)  Joint Attention: refers to the way in which people can focus on an external object in the nearby surrounding  Social Referencing: the way in which people take cues from others when dealing with unfamiliar circumstances  Social Scaffolding; the process through which people with more knowledge can help a child reach a higher level of thought than they might have reached on their own.  Zone of Proximal Development: the difference between what a child might be able to achieve on their own and what they can do with help from a more knowledgeable other. Skills that fall within the proximal development at any time are those that fall between being too easy- engaging and being too difficult to grasp at all. Rouge Test:  Used to test the presence of sense of self in people and animals using a dot of red colour on the nose of the child/animal (the test subject is place in front of a mirror and observed to see if recognition occurs)  Humans are first able to pass this test between 15-24 months  Additional evidence comes from a study that found that kids around the age of 3 months are able to identify themselves in a picture  The only animal that can pass this test is a chimp Sense of Self  The development of self continues as language skills increase  Children at the age of 2 can refer ti themselves verbally, either by name or by pronoun  Kids between the ages of 3-4 also describe their personal characteristics verbally (eg, physical traits, emotional states)  Self descriptions tend to be positive in nature because they don‟t know anything else (eg. I am strong because I can lift this toy, not because I can and someone else cant)  At 8, children become more likely to use knowledge about themselves to evaluate and modify their behavior  Autobiographical Memory: memory for specific experiences that make up a persons life story; influences development of self concept (how we view ourselves)  Social Comparisons: evaluating ones abilities and opinions by comparing oneself with others  Imaginary Audience: adolescent thought process in which they believe they are on a stage and everyone is watching them, attending to their every move and mistake. This concern of how they are perceived by others drops off later in life as they gain a stronger, more coherent concept of who they are as individuals. Influences on Self Concept:  Different cultures around the world place different levels of importance on the individual and the group (people from collectivist cultures vs people from individualist cultures)  Different parenting styles can affect the time at which an infant can pass the rouge test Theory of Mind  The ability to reason about what other people might know or believe, and how those beliefs and knowledge will relate to their actions  Testing Theory of mind using False Belief Tests o Container test- false belief test that asks children to reason whats outside the container, or what was in the container and adjust as they learn the truth (ex. smarties box filled with pencils) o Displacement test- explores how kids reason through a change in location from two different perspectives Precursors of ToM:  Intersubjectivity- infants will imitate facial expressions of others and follow gaze of others  Infant Habituation: the simplest form of learning in qhich a given stimulus is presented repeatedly. The child learns not to respond to an unimportant event that occurs repeatedly  Lying begins at 3 years of age and is considered part of normal cognitive behavior. (if you lie, that means you know th
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