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SOCY 303 Final: Final (Main Concepts)

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Queen's University
SOCY 303
W.Andrew Silver

SOCY 336 – Main Concepts: 1. Cultural matching/cultural fit (Rivera 2012): * Cultural matching between candidates, evaluators, and firms = Employers sought candidates who were not only competent but also culturally similar to themselves in terms of leisure pursuits, experiences, and self-presentation styles * Companies are interested in hiring individuals that can be more than just a worker * What specific factors might determine how well an individual “fits” with the firm? ▪ (1) Family ties, (2) background, (3) sexual orientation, (4) gender, (5) religion, (6) ethnicity, (7) race, (8) education, (9) self-presentation (self-image), (10) age, (11) similar leisure activities, (12) political views, and (13) class position (most dominant factor). * Social status and location shape entry to workplace  most dominant factor 2. Phenomenology: * Phenomenology  is the study of structures of consciousness as experienced from the first- person point of view (individual’s understanding of social reality) * All social knowledge in interpreted through individual subjectivity * How does it relate to symbolic interactionism? ▪ It is interpretivist ▪ Social constructive approach ▪ Social interactionism meaning is derived through interactions and phenomenology is derived through perceptions * Bevort and Sabbady (2016): ▪ Phenomenology  people inhabit professional organizations ➢ “Over time, the core beliefs of institutions and their habits or reproduction become typified and so taken-for-granted that they become externalized. As a result of their exteriority institutions become reified or take on the life of their own that appears distant and separate from the individuals who created and habitually reproduce them” ❖ Structures, norms, and values are not concrete but are reinforced by individuals 1 ▪ Social construction  on subject’s experience and how they use the experience by using their senses 3. Logic of professionalism vs. bureaucratic logic: (Bevort and Sabbady 2016) * Logic of professionalism  experienced through regulation, self-monitoring, etc. ▪ Rooted in a code of ethics ▪ Orientation is inwards towards professional values norms and standards ▪ Emphasis on public interest over self-interest * Bureaucratic logic  shifts inwards (towards the organization) and is accountable to the manager instead of the client ▪ Internal orientation ▪ Interdependency ▪ Specialized roles ▪ Manger-employee relationships ▪ Efficient ▪ Unit goal achievement 4. Traditional normative controls for professionals: (Bevort and Sabbady 2016) * What are “traditional normative controls” for professionals? ▪ Center around weak strategic controls ▪ They didn’t have specific targets ▪ Non-structured work ▪ Diminished professional autonomy 5. Rites of passage for professionals (socialization): * Socialization  Socialization process that is forcing people to conform to a dominant identity (ironically losing some autonomy even though professions are associated with autonomy) ▪ Pre and post-professional ▪ Gender-role socialization ▪ Ongoing socialization on the job 2 * Rites of Passage (Van Gennep 1961)  a ceremony that marks the transition from one stage of life to another ▪ Separation  separating from previous status ▪ Transition ▪ Incorporation ▪ Example of rites of passage  hazing 6. Mentorship (constellation of mentoring): (Kay and Wallace 2009) * Mentoring and mentorship ▪ Single vs. constellation of mentoring relationships ▪ Gendered dynamic of mentoring * Constellation with mentoring: if you have more than one mentor you have access to a larger social network and thus more social capital * Constellation of mentoring relationships refers to the idea that more than one mentor is importance (a networked approach to mentorships where the person has many mentors) * Mentoring relationships constitute conduits for the communication of professional norms- a set of norms that may be unclear to new workers * These norms may include expectations about hours on the job, access to coveted files, honing of talents, and appreciation for unspoken views/commitments 7. Social capital: (Kay and Wallace 2009) * Social capital  Trust between people developed through interactions (norms, obligations, and shared identification) * Social capital as shared knowledge, understandings, norms, rules, and expectations about patterns of interactions that individuals bring to a recurrent activity * Highlights roles of social networks and explores benefits that social capital provides for the individual or for select groups of individuals * Weak ties are more valuable to individuals because they allow greater diffusion to people outside one’s own social circle, and provide greater resources * Loose ties to several mentors may offer precious windows of access 3 8. Rambo litigators (Pierce 2005): * Rambo litigators  “highly stylized, super-masculine role Sylvester Stallone plays in his action movies”. They follow their own rules, dominate and boss other employees, they are like the alpha male lawyer * Pierce focuses on how litigators have to perform their emotions as a key part of their work (emotional component key to all litigation work) ▪ Thus, emotional labour in relation to Rambo litigators can be explained through being caring through violence, aggression, being protective of colleagues, charming and manipulating others. ▪ For instance, Pierce explains “Litigators make use of their emotions to persuade juries, judges, and witnesses in the courtroom, in depositions, and in communications with opposing counsel and with clients. ▪ However, in contrast to the popular image, intimidation and (p.52) aggression constitute only one component of the emotional labor of lawyering. Lawyers also make use of strategic friendliness, that is, charm or flattery to manipulate others” * Spectrum of emotions ▪ (1) workers who engage in work because they care and (2) workers who engage in work because they need to get work done ▪ Workers feel emotional dissonance when they are inauthentic in their work * Instrumental use of emotions * What are the “unexamined, masculinized emotional norms of litigation practice” (p. 53) that Pierce identifies as being key to litigation work? ▪ Gamesmanship and the adversarial model ➢ Requiring strategy, skill, and expertise ➢ provokes an emotional response: part of playing the game is to elicit an emotional response ➢ the games are played within a system that has rules where there will be one winner and one loser ▪ Intimidation ➢ Lawyers practice aggressiveness 4 ➢ here is where practices related to intimidation are tied to cultural notions of masculinity ➢ goal is to destroy the witness and testimony ➢ Those who do this type of intimidation well be viewed as manly ▪ Strategic friendliness ➢ Important to sometimes play nice and be welcoming while other times they’re aggressive ➢ their use of strategic friendliness represents the instrumental use of emotions and is related to gamesmanship (trying to win) * Lawyer as “conman”  The concept of the conman emphasizes the acting that goes on ▪ Very carefully constructed presentation of self that litigators engage in ▪ Requires surface acting and deep acting where they can evoke strong emotional feelings 9. Mothering paralegals (Pierce 2005): * Mothering paralegals  dual identity of these workers: (1) Identity as workers and (2) nurturers as mothers ▪ One task as formal (paid and recognized) and one that is informal (related to the emotional intelligence required to perform their work) (not part of their job description: mothering) * Main components of mothering paralegals: ▪ Deference  happens in reaction to the litigators ➢ Reproduces hierarchies ➢ Constructed in relations to combative litigators ➢ Objectification ➢ Invisibility ▪ Caretaking ➢ Caring for others ➢ Reassurance as caregiving ❖ Handholding ❖ Therapy ❖ Massaging ego 5 * Mothering paralegals try to maintain emotional stability for the lawyers by doing these 2 things: by doing this they reproduce gender norms in the workplace (most females who provide these services are women while most of the lawyers are men): reproduces the gender hierarchy within the organization * Content of paralegal work is consistent with cultural perceptions of the appropriate behavior of wives and mothers * The question of paralegal autonomy  Should paralegals become licensed/regulated by state of California? ▪ One on hand paralegals wanted to professionalized because they wanted autonomy, but on the other side litigators were a key component for paralegals to professionalize in California (said they didn’t have the necessary skills for autonomy) 10. Feeling rules: * Feeling rules  socially shared norms that influence how people want to try and feel emotions in given social relations (Hochschild). * Structurally, at the most basic level, women paralegals must comply with “feeling rules” because of the gendered constraints they encounter in the occupation (p.156). However, they do not respond in a uniform way. At the level of behavior and identity, women perform different kinds of emotional labor as a way of doing gender, that is, a way of interacting that is consistent with their notions of gender-appropriate behavior * In both the private firm and in the legal department at Bonhomie Corporation, paralegals constructed a variety of strategies (Bourdieu 1979) to resist the “feeling rules” implicit in their 6 occupational roles and, at the same time, resolve dilemmas about self-respect on the job. The underlying purpose of resistance strategies lies in answering two questions: How can I make myself feel important in a job where I am required to be deferential and do caretaking at the same time that I am denigrated for doing it? And how can I maintain my core sense of gendered self under these conditions? 11. Emotional labour: (Hochschild 1983) * Emotional labour  The “management of feeling to create a publicly observable facial and bodily display” (p. 7) 6 * Requires workers “to induce or supress feeling in order to sustain the outward countenance that produces the proper state of mind in others” (p.7). * Advancing the concept of emotional labour: ▪ Intersectional approach (gender, race, and class) ➢ E.g. Forseth (2005): gender, class, and emotional labour in banking work ❖ Dutiful daughters ❖ Caring mothers ➢ E.g. Stasiulis and Bakan (2003): racialized assumption about emotion work for foreign caregivers ▪ Authenticity and dissonance: ➢ One-off encounters vs. “relationships” ❖ Disconnect or gap between emotions experienced and emotions performed ❖ Worker who might be angry has to pretend that s/he is happy ❖ Close relationships between coworkers that unfolds over long periods of time than that work is less likely to experience emotional dissonance ❖ Service provides that engage in one-off encounters  high levels of emotional dissonance because they don’t have a relationship with the customer ➢ “Emotional proletariat” (Macdonald and Merrill, 2009) ❖ High levels of emotional labour  higher levels of dissonance  workers experience higher levels of alienation ❖ Low levels of emotional labour  lower levels of emotional dissonance  workers experience lower levels of alienation ▪ Affective consequences of emotional labour (Wharton 1993): ➢ Performing emotional labour: ❖ Can be emotionally exhausting (or not) ❖ Can have negative impact on job satisfaction o Workers that have high levels of autonomy so we would expect that professional workers would have more positive experience in their work than low sector work ❖ Can have positive impact on job satisfaction 7 o Workers that have high levels of autonomy so we would expect that professional workers would have more positive experience in their work than low sector work ➢ “Experience” (affective consequences) of emotional labour shaped by: ❖ Job autonomy ❖ Job involvement ❖ Gender o Women were more satisfied than all male-counter parts when engaged in emotional labour - Wharton says that women are better prepared due to gender socialization to engage in EL than men ▪ Competing motivations for engaging in emotional labour ➢ Bolton’s (2000) “emotion management” ➢ Typology that “distinguishes between emotional labour and emotion management based on non-commercial motivations” (Cranford & Miller 2013, p. 786) ➢ Spectrum: commercial/instrumental  genuine/caring ❖ Commercial/instrumental  means to an end – win the competition – no pretense to be authentic ❖ Genuine/caring  workers engage their emotions because they genuinely care about their customers – develop authentic relationships with customers o Workers that have high levels of autonomy so we would expect that professional workers would have more positive experience in their work than low sector work ▪ Emotional labour the worker-customer context (everyday experiences of emotional labour) 12. Double bind: (Pierce 2005) * Difficult position of female lawyers as they have to be feminine but have to perform their job is a musicalized environment (“double bind”) * Women attorneys were criticized for being “too nice to the witnesses,” “not forceful enough,” “too bashful,” and “unaggressive,” at the same time that they were admonished for being “too aggressive.” Men, on the other hand, were sometimes criticized for being “too aggressive” and not listening carefully to the witness but were more likely to be praised for their ruthlessness. 8 * This double bind emerged not only in the aggressive component of gamesmanship, but in its less confrontational—though equally manipulative—form, strategic friendliness. For example, when male attorneys used cajoling and placating strategies to achieve an instrumental end, they received support and encouragement from their colleagues. Women who adopted similar tactics, were accused of using their “feminine wiles” to get their way with the witness or opposing
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