FNF 100- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 14 pages long!)

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11 Oct 2017
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Ryerson
FNF 100
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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1
FNF100 - Population Aging, Older Families and the Challenges Ahead
Canadian Families Are Aging
Canadian population much older than turn of the century
The 2011 Census revealed 15 percent of population people were over the age of 65
With increased life expectancy, the proportion of population over 65 projected to increase 25% by the
year 2031
1921-2041, increase in 75-84 and 85+ and slight decrease of 65-74 in 2041
21st Century Changes…
21st century will be characterized by greater heterogeneity in marital status for the older population
o Smaller percentages of older people will be married than today
o Drop in the proportion of married older men (69%)
Marital disruption will be more likely from divorce as from death of a spouse, especially for women
Future of Long-term Marriage…
Expectation is that a smaller proportion of older adults will be in long-term marriages
o Mostly due to later ages at marriage and higher divorce rates
Those that stay in long-term marriage are more likely to stay together out of choice
o Resulting in higher levels of satisfaction with marriages than older couples today
Older Single People…
Larger proportion of older adults in the future are expected to be single or formerly married than today:
o Dramatic increase in the number of never and unmarried men and women
o 37% drop in widowhood
Single older people will be an very important demographic group
o Politicians, marketers and policy makers will need to pay greater attention
Reconstituted Families…
Given that divorce and remarriage is now an acceptable and legitimate option for many couples:
o Likely see the continuation of this pattern in the future remarriage will become more common
21st century families will likely consist of many more older people who are previously married and have
step children
Divorce and Aging…
Divorce will have a more important roles in the lives of older people numbers will be much higher than
before
Important psychological and emotional effects in later life
Women may be economically disadvantaged, but feel greater self-empowerment
Divorced men report feeling more depression and having less friendships than married men outside
the loop
Gendered Differences in Social Support
Post divorce adjustment in contingent on getting adequate support through social networks
o Continue to see differences in availability and use of social support by men and women
o Explains gendered outcomes
o Women are more likely than men to depend on friends, family and children for emotional support
during and after the divorce process
Support Issues Continue…
Social support issues will continue to an important social determinant of health in the future:
o Poorer health, and poorer health status is associated with divorce
o Older divorce men are especially vulnerable often become isolated and distance
o Being unmarried is a greater mortality threat for men than women,
o Divorced men have the highest mortality rates to married men - 2.5 X greater in the United States
Structural Changes in Older Families
As family age, new roles and responsibilities develop over time:
o Increased inter-generational relationships & older children caring for aging parents
o Grand parenthood
o Old parenthood
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Structural Changes II
Substantial increases in the duration of family ties across generations:
o The duration of marriage and marital ties is longer than ever
o Parents and children to share as many as 50 years together
o Persons born in the 1960’s will likely have at least one parent still alive when they are 50
Structural Changes III
Older family ties have increased
Grandparent role more enduring
o Can expect to see one or more of their grandchildren grow to adulthood
o In case of divorce and custody, grandparents are increasingly becoming involved in parenting their
own grandchildren
o Provide support and housing for adult children
Emerging Issues in Inter-Generational Relations
The relationship between older parents and their adult child
Empirical evidence, suggests that older people are not abandon in later life
o Data tells us that older adult children have frequent contact with an older parent
o Enjoy on-going and supportive bonds with aging parents - majority live within one hour’s drive
Gendered Practices in Older Families
The relationship between older parents and their adult children are highly gendered
o Elder care is most commonly provided by women on families
o Wives, daughters and daughter-in-laws are far more likely than their male counter parts to provide
on-going support for older relatives
o 61 percent female Vs. 39 percent male
General Social Survey on Social and Community Support (2012) N=13,000
Participation in Care-giving by Canadian Men and Women Care-givers (2012)
The Mid Life Crunch…
One in five women over the age of 30 are caregiver for older parents and relatives
Women in older families are often responsible for caring for two or more generations of family members
Most often the attending to the needs of their elderly parents and their own children
The Politics of Caring...
Gender expectations and gender ideologies get played out in family life
The expectation being that women assume the predominant role in “caring for” and ‘caring about” family
members across generations and across households
Politics of Caring II
Women are caregivers, not out of choice, but because many feel there is no one else to take on this
responsibility
Women’s centrality in the keeping of kinship relations, particularly in older families, is an important
factor
It has resulted in women assuming or being assigned roles as caregivers
“Gender ideologies are created in the ideologies and practices of family life.” (Mandell and Duffy,
2000)
Compulsory Altruism...
Women’s involvement in care giving in family life is generally expected
Caring expectation further reinforced by the rhetoric or social policy shifts that require women to do
more caring
This caring is often not recognized, and/or remains hidden in families and households
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