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GEO605 - CH1-8 Notes

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Ryerson University
GEO 605
Valentina Capurri

CH1 – Northern Perceptions  Canadians = resource frontier (economically)  Aboriginals = homeland, sense of place (attachment)  North has 2 biome (natural) regions = Arctic + Subarctic o Biome – broad, continental type of ecosystem characterized by distinctive climate & soil conditions, & biological community; natural vegetation o Arctic = 3 Territories + Quebec, Newfoundland, Ontario & Manitoba o Subarctic = Northwest Territories + Yukon Territory + 7 Provinces (no Maritimes)  Characteristics o Coldest (warmest < 10’C), permafrost, largest Canadian region, divided between Territorial North & Provincial North, small population with strong Aboriginal composition, climate change o Coldest & longest winters. Winter solstice = Dec 21 = darkest day o Bushed – individuals not from north exposed to complete darkness for long periods of time will suffer in mental & physical state, difficult to adapt  Isolation – non-Aboriginals affected by sense of isolation, limited transportation network (air travel only), companies & governments use incentives to attract workers  Political North (dual political structure) o 7 provinces control Provincial North o Ottawa dominates 3 territories rd  Aboriginal governance emerging as 3 level of government  Ethnic government = Aboriginals only  Public governments = Nunavut residence  Nordicity – Hamelin in 1979 – degree of northness, 10 variables o Physical measures (coldness): latitude, summer heat, annual cold, types of ice, total precipitation, natural vegetation cover o Human measures (accessibility & development): accessibility other than air, air services, resident population, degree of economic activity o 200 = southern limit of north o Core/Periphery model – resource frontier in north CH2 – Physical Geography of the Canadian Arctic  Biomes have different climates, natural vegetation, soil, wildlife  Arctic o Coldest, warmest is less than 10’C, tundra vegetation & cryosol (soil formed in permafrost), vegetation has 2 zones (Low & High Arctic) o Tundra (Finnish word = Tunturia = treeless plain)  Treeline = boundary where trees can no longer grow normally  Youngest biome (10k years old) o Low Arctic = tundra, vegetation (nearly complete plant cover) o High Arctic = no vegetation, polar desert  Subarctic o Largest natural region in North America o Vegetation = Boreal forest o Cold & long winters, warm short winters o Different wildlife o Closed boreal forest = dense forest; northern areas of province; wetlands o Forest parkland = transition area adjacent to Prairies; forest + grasslands, small bushes  Arctic Climate o Extremely cold, less solar radiation, little precipitation, mostly snow, windy  Climate = minimum 30 years, different intensity of solar radiation on Earth o 25,000 years ago = ice age start, 15,000 years ago started to melt since Earth warm o Climate change caused by natural or anthropogenic (human) reasons  Natural: sun, solar radiation, orbit change, volcanic activity, meteorites  Anthropogenic: 1800s = industrial revolution ; Today = greenhouse effect  Greenhouse effect – absorption of terrestrial radiation by gases in atmosphere; cause temperature to rise o Global circulation system – transfers heat from low to high latitudes o 3 processes for variation in annual mean surface temperatures: radiation, energy storage, energy movement o Climate change (overall ) ≠ global warming (green house gas) o Measured by  Proxy Measurements (estimate past climates based on indirect evidence)  Ice cores (trapped gases & concentrations, age of isotopes)  Sediment cores o IPCC – by World Meteorological Organization & United Nations  Assess information dealing with human-induced climate change & on identifying potential impacts & options for countering these impacts  Findings issued every 6 years  Polar ice pack diminish in size; boreal forest extend north; warm temperatures reduce time that rivers & lakes are frozen = permafrost thaw o Consequences  Land surface – permafrost degradation, vegetation shift  Wildlife – change in habitat  Sea ice – reduce cover & change to patterns, reduce Albedo  People – change in lifestyle  Geomorphic Regions (physical geography) o Canadian Shield, Interior Plains, Cordillera, Hudson Bay Lowlands, Arctic Lands  Glaciation o Formation, advance & retreat of glaciers  25,000 years ago, ice age START  15,000 years ago, ice age END o 2 geomorphic processes  Advancing ice sheet = glacial erosion  Retreating ice sheet deposit debris on land  Ice sheet melt, water released & form glacial lakes  Permafrost – frozen ground (at least 2 years), treeline = continuous permafrost line o Active layer thaws in summer; depth depends on vegetation, summer temperature, soil type o Types of permafrost  Continuous – 80% of ground permanently frozen; no tree growth  Discontinuous – 30-80% frozen; some tree growth  Sporadic – less than 30% frozen; some tree growth  Alpine – presence found in mountainous setting (BC & Alberta)  Periglacial Environment o Process of freezing & ice formation, landforms created/affected by processes o Eg. Pingos (periglacial landform hills)  Frost shattering – water freeze, expands 10%; splits rock through cracks  Vegetation – short growing season (June to mid August) o Short stature plants (low lying); warmth; wind protection o Adapt to photosynthesis for cool temperatures, use more sun energy o Don’t seed every year to save energy  Arctic animals (birds, mammals, insects, fish) o Birds – only 11 permanent residents, the rest migrate to arctic to breed  Snowy owl (largest)  Ptarmigan o Mammals (land & sea) – food chains  Northern Hydrology o Active (spring/summer) & inactive (winter); low precipitation o 4 drainage basins: Arctic, Hudson Bay, Atlantic, Pacific  Sea Ice – polar regions, made of frozen ocean water o Salt droplets = Brine, brine gets squeezed out & becomes fresh water o Keeps polar regions cool, reflects sunlight o Regulates climate; Provides life support for residents & animals o Reduction in sea ice consequences  Environmental (reduce habitat, increase ocean temperature)  Habitat for animal homes, hunting grounds, birthing  Socio/economical – Inuit (hunting, species change, country food sustainability, transportation)  Northwest Passage (Canadian Sovereignty) CH3 – Canadian North st  1 phase: Pre-contact & early contact period o Old World hunters & Beringia (Siberia & Alaska attached by bridge)  Paleo-Indians & ice-free corridor  Paleo-Eskimos: Denbigh, Dorset, & Thule o Terra Nullius = empty land, no ownership th o Arrival of Europeans: Vikings in 10 century, & Martin Frobisher (1576)  L’Anse aux Meadows  Frobisher brought back Aboriginals as slaves, no gold or diamonds (found quarte) o Aboriginal Peoples at contact: Athapascans, Algonquians, Inuit  2nd Phase: Fur-Trade Era o Hudson Bay Company (British); North West Company (French in Quebec) o Price wars for furs (beaver) o 1821 amalgamate of HBC & NWC o Pemmican = dry buffalo meat, Aboriginal food, non-perishable o Sir John Franklin Expedition 1845 o Dutch Whalers Hunting  Use whale oil for lighting, bones for corsets  Wintering over – come in spring, hunt whales in summer, spend winter with Aboriginals so more time efficient  Brought tools, alcohol, & diseases to Aboriginals by Europeans rd  3 Phase: Resource development period o 1867 – Canada born: Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick o 1896 – Klondike Gold Rush in Yukon o WWII: Goose Bay o Post-WWII: Iron Ore Company – exploit iron in USA for manufacturing machines o 1957 John Diefenbaker (Canada’s PM after WW2) & Northern Vision  Use Canada’s North for resources = $$$ o 1950s – relocate Aboriginals, brought dependency on government (not enough space)  Aboriginal Title to the Land o 1763 – Royal Proclamation  European vs. Aboriginals; Aboriginal title exists until there is land treaty o 1973 – Calder Case  Court recognizes Aboriginal title on land. Unless negotiate & have treaty, cannot take over land  Berger Inquiry o 1974-1976 Mackenzie Valley Pipeline (Alaska to USA via Canada) o Considered potential social, environmental & economic impacts of constructing gas pipeline o Open meetings with Aboriginal residence, televised meetings & their concerns  Aboriginals finally visible for the first time across Canada  Awakening for Aboriginals, want say in what’s happening  Pipeline never happened, empowering moment, still able to make change with no political power  Arctic Sovereignty o Sovereignty by exploration & settlement  1985 Polar Sea controversy – USA send ship to Arctic without asking permission from Canadian government CH4 – Population Size & its Geographic Expression  Population density o 3.5 persons/km2 in Canada; 0.1/km2 in North o Most population near southern Canada & subarctic; highest in southern Ontario  Ontario highest:  Close to USA border  Receive highest # of immigrants (Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver)  Population change o Fertility (birth), mortality (death), migration (moving) o 4 phases of northern population  Slow by steady increase (fertility)  Rapid increase (migration for resources & employment)  Constant population size  Possible population decline (corporate fly workers) o 3% arctic, 97% subarctic; more Aboriginals in Nunavut, non-Aboriginals in Yukon  Aboriginal peoples increase: out-migration of non-Aboriginal population (working); & high rate of natural increase among the Aboriginal population (fertility) to maintain group identity  Migration 1950-1980 for resource industry  Natural increase – higher for Territorial North than for provincial north due mainly to Aboriginal fertility rate; Yet, Aboriginal fertility rate declining: o Aboriginal women remain in educational system longer, then enter workforce o Shortage of housing for newly formed families o Acceptance of family planning  Urban population (in capital cities) o Regional centres (hospitals & etc) o Resource towns (boom & bust cycles) o Native settlements  Labour force o Fluctuating due to resource economy o Subject to inflow of southern skilled workers o High unemployment rate (of Aboriginals) o Abundance of unskilled nor
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