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Ryerson University
Graphic Communications
GCM 230
Diana Brown

History of Type Pictograms and Ideograms go way back to 3100BC - egyptian hieroglyphs - roman numerals The Alphabet The proto-sinatic script phonecian alphabet started in Ancient Egypt  In 1445-1500, information exploded due to mass production of books (10 million copies worldwide) Type Classification SERIF Visual aids in form of flourishes that help you guide your eyes; est. 1800s HUMANIST (Renaissance or Old Style)  Closely connected to calligraphy  Roman type face of 15/16 century emulated classical calligraphy  Sabon was designed by Jan Tschichold 1966, based on 16 century type faces of Claude Garamond TRANSITIONAL (Baroque)  More abstract/less organic (sharper serifs)  Vertical axis than humanist  Type face of John Baskerville were introduced, mid 1800s, their sharp forms and high contrast were considered shocking MODERN (Enlightenment)  Sharp contrast btw/ thin and thick strokes  Type faces designed by Giambattiata Bodoni, 1800-1900, are radically abstract.  Thin, straight serifs, vertical axis, and sharp contrast form thick/thin strokes EGYPTIAN (Slab Serif)  Bold and decorative, heavy/slab=like serifs  1800s for use in advertising***  Numerous bold and decorative typefaces were introduced in 1900s TRANSITIONAL SANS SERIF  Uniform and upright (like traditional sans serif letters)  Helvetica designed by Max Miedinger in 1957  World’s most widely used typefaces, “anonymous sans serif” HUMANIST SANS SERIF  Common in 20 century (calligraphic notes)  Gill Sans designed by Eric Gill in 1928 GEOMETRIC SANS SERIF  Futura “o” is perfect circle  A and M have sharp triangles  Designed by Paul Renner in 1927 The Letter I ANATOMY Baseline The line on which main body of letter rests Cap Height The height of uppercase letters Ascender The vertical stroke that extends above the main body of letters (b, h, f) Descender The vertical stroke or tail that hands below the baseline of letters (g, j , p) X-Height The size of the main body of a type face’s lowercase letters SIZE: ABSOLUTE UNITS – fixed RELATIVE UNITS – based on size of type currently using  Page dimension (inches)  If the type size increases or decreases, units will  Line lengths (picas and points) increase or decrease  Type size and line spacing (points)  Em space – M(widest letter) - 12ptx12pt  En space – half an M – 6ptx12pt  Thin space – I (quarter of Em) – 3ptx12pt Width horizontal measure (condensed/normal/expanded) Set Width body of letter plus silver space to cushion letter Weight bold, semibold, light, medium Style (posture) is the inclination of a letter around vertical axis (Roman letters, italics, obliques) LEADING; Set Solid leading that is equal to it’s point size (12/12 or 12 on 12) Adding Lead spreading lines apart (12/13 = 1 extra point lead) Negative Leading leading less than pt. size of type (10/8) Default Leading 1.2 times pt. size of the type TYPOGRAPHICAL MATH 1 inch = 2.54 cm, 6 picas, 14 agates, 72 points Points = expression of type measurement Picas – commonly used to express column width  points are sub units of picas (12 pts in 1 pica) 8 picas = 8p 8 points = 8pt, p8 8 picas, 4 points = 84  a tool used to measure type (type gauge or e-gauge) 8 1/3 picas = 96 4/100 points 8, 1/16 inches = (72x8) =576, 1’’=72pts (72/16) =4.5, 576+4.5 = 580.5 points 86 points = 7.166 picas The Letter II FONT FORMATS Postscript/Type  developed for desktop computer systems by Adobe, created for generating hi-res images on paper  Type I font consist of: screen font, printer font (install both files in order to fully use these fons) TrueType  Created by Apple and Microsoft  Eater to install than Type I fonts, consist of one font file OpenType  Created by Adobe, works on multiple platforms  Supports up to 65,000 characters  Allow for multiple styles, character variations in one font file  Ligatures and special characters are apart of main font  Commonly labeled “Pro” CAPS and SMALL CAPS  don’t type in all caps, harder to read because all the tops are the same  small caps are easier to read (mix of upper and lowercase), more differences in shapes  designers prefer to use small caps for running text and sub headings  when using CAPS, adjust leading to make spaces btw/ lines to look even, they look un even because CAPS are full w/no ascenders SMALL CAPS  designed to match x-height of lowercase letters  used for subheads, by lines, invitations  many designers prefer to use all small caps, reading a clean line w/ no ascending elements PSEUDO SMALL CAPS  shrunken versions of full size caps  Helvetica was never meant to include small caps  automatically generated characters look puny and starved TRUE SMALL CAPS  integrate peacefully w/ lowercase letters  Scaler Pro  only use when officially included w/in type family  working w/ OpenType fonts (labeled Pro)¸access small caps in InDesign Character Options>OpenType  older formats list small caps as a separate file in the Type>Font menu MIXING TYPE  creates contrast within the design  2 similar type faces is not effective, seen as a mistake, not enough difference  From same family (too close in weight)  2 similar type styles NUMERALS  Lining o Uniform widths that allow letters to line up when in columns o Appear large due to same height as cap letters, bulky when used in running text (monospaced) o Futura Bold, Helvetica Neue Bold  Non-Lining o Proportional w/ individual set widts o Have ascenders/descenders (‘text’ or ‘old style’ numerals) o Usually serif fonts Text set w/ non-lining numerals  Integrate visually w/ text  Different math/currency symbols are designed to match diff numeral styles. Smaller currency symbols look better w/ non-lining numerals PUNCTUATION  Important aid that allows us to understand the author’s message  Often used for emphasis, misunderstood for typographical  Hatchmarks  Apostrophes  Quotation Marks  Hanging Punctuation o Make cleaner edge by pushing into margin o Prevents from taking a bite out of the crisp edge of a text book o to create hanging punctuation marks in InDesign, insert a wordspace before quotation mark Press Option Key, use left arrow key to back the quotation mark into margin o also use optical margin alignment or indent here tools ORNAMENTS  many typefaces are designed w/ ornaments  used to decorate sections of text when printed letterpress (historically)  can be used in-line w/ text separated to create new forms today  use small caps w/in a block of text to create more cohesive design and better readability  when mixing type, strive for contrast not harmony The Text I TEXT The ongoing sequence of words, distinct from shorter headlines and captions  Body text/running text: flow across pages, columns, text boxes  Typography helps navigate this flow  Help readers avoid “reading”  Solid or liquid, body or blood READABILITY The speed or ease with which long passages of txt can be read continuously  We read by recognizing word forms not individual letters  Typically Serifs are used for long text to help guide the eye LEGIBILITY The measure of the degree of which typeset characters and words can be deciphered by the eye  Has to do w/ appearance of the letter and word forms  Don’t always have to have readability, but legibility is a MUST. SPACING  Design is 50% marking and 50% spacing  Typography makes text into an “object” w/ dimensions and location  The alphabet represents sounds but can’t function w/o the silent marks  “white space” is challenged online, w/ designers populating each screen w/ as much data as possible o it’s the designers job to help readers navigate this space o while most times typography is passive, other times it asserts meaning  Historically, majority of spa
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