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Midterm

GCM 230 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Product Placement, Initial, Brand


Department
Graphic Communications
Course Code
GCM 230
Professor
Diana Brown
Study Guide
Midterm

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History of Type
Pictograms and Ideograms go way back to 3100BC
- egyptian hieroglyphs
- roman numerals
The Alphabet
The proto-sinatic script phonecian alphabet started in Ancient Egypt
In 1445-1500, information exploded due to mass production of books (10 million copies worldwide)
Type Classification
SERIF
Visual aids in form of flourishes that help you guide your eyes; est. 1800s
HUMANIST (Renaissance or Old Style)
Closely connected to calligraphy
Roman type face of 15/16 century emulated classical calligraphy
Sabon was designed by Jan Tschichold 1966, based on 16th century type faces of Claude Garamond
TRANSITIONAL (Baroque)
More abstract/less organic (sharper serifs)
Vertical axis than humanist
Type face of John Baskerville were introduced, mid 1800s, their sharp forms and high contrast were
considered shocking
MODERN (Enlightenment)
Sharp contrast btw/ thin and thick strokes
Type faces designed by Giambattiata Bodoni, 1800-1900, are radically abstract.
Thin, straight serifs, vertical axis, and sharp contrast form thick/thin strokes
EGYPTIAN (Slab Serif)
Bold and decorative, heavy/slab=like serifs
1800s for use in advertising***
Numerous bold and decorative typefaces were introduced in 1900s
TRANSITIONAL SANS SERIF
Uniform and upright (like traditional sans serif letters)
Helvetica designed by Max Miedinger in 1957
World’s most widely used typefaces, “anonymous sans serif”
HUMANIST SANS SERIF
Common in 20th century (calligraphic notes)
Gill Sans designed by Eric Gill in 1928
GEOMETRIC SANS SERIF
Futura “o” is perfect circle
A and M have sharp triangles
Designed by Paul Renner in 1927
The Letter I

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ANATOMY
Baseline
Cap Height
Ascender
Descender
X-Height
The line on which main body of letter rests
The height of uppercase letters
The vertical stroke that extends above the main body of letters (b, h, f)
The vertical stroke or tail that hands below the baseline of letters (g, j , p)
The size of the main body of a type face’s lowercase letters
SIZE:
ABSOLUTE UNITS fixed
Page dimension (inches)
Line lengths (picas and points)
Type size and line spacing (points)
RELATIVE UNITS based on size of type currently using
If the type size increases or decreases, units will
increase or decrease
Em space M(widest letter) - 12ptx12pt
En space half an M 6ptx12pt
Thin space I (quarter of Em) 3ptx12pt
Width
Set Width
Weight
Style
horizontal measure (condensed/normal/expanded)
body of letter plus silver space to cushion letter
bold, semibold, light, medium
(posture) is the inclination of a letter around vertical axis (Roman letters, italics, obliques)
LEADING;
Set Solid
Adding Lead
Negative Leading
Default Leading
leading that is equal to it’s point size (12/12 or 12 on 12)
spreading lines apart (12/13 = 1 extra point lead)
leading less than pt. size of type (10/8)
1.2 times pt. size of the type
TYPOGRAPHICAL MATH
1 inch = 2.54 cm, 6 picas, 14 agates, 72 points
Points = expression of type measurement
Picas commonly used to express column width
points are sub units of picas (12 pts in 1 pica)
8 picas = 8p
8 points = 8pt, p8
8 picas, 4 points = 8p4
a tool used to measure type (type gauge or e-gauge)
8 1/3 picas = 96 4/100 points
8, 1/16 inches = (72x8) =576, 1’’=72pts (72/16) =4.5, 576+4.5 = 580.5 points
86 points = 7.166 picas
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