ITM 100 Study Guide - Final Guide: Business Process Management, Personalization, Material Requirements Planning

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Chapter 1:
1. Business-driven information systems: systems that are implemented to support a company’s
competitive business strategy
2. Business process: a standardized set of activities that accomplishes a specific task, such as
processing a customer’s order
3. Business-to-business (B2B) marketplace: applies to businesses buying from and selling to each
other over the internet
4. Buyer power: high when buyers have many choices of whom to buy from and low when their
choices are few
5. Chief information officer (CIO): responsible for (1) overseeing all uses of information systems
and (2) ensuring the strategic alignment of IT with business goals and objectives
6. Chief knowledge officer (CKO): responsible for collecting, maintaining, and distributing the
organization’s knowledge
7. Chief privacy officer (CPO): responsible for ensuring the ethical and legal use of information
within an organization
8. Chief security officer (CSO): responsible for ensuring the security of IT systems and developing
strategies and IT safeguards against attacks from hackers and viruses
9. Chief technology officer (CTO): responsible for ensuring the throughput, speed, accuracy,
availability, and reliability of an organization’s information technology
10. Competitive advantage: a product or service that an organization’s customers place a greater
value on than similar offerings from a competitor
11. Data: raw facts that describe the characteristics of an event
12. Environmental scanning: the acquisition and analysis of events and trends in the environment
external to an organization
13. First-mover advantage: an organization can significantly impact its market share by being first
to market with a competitive advantage
14. Five forces model: helps determine the relative competitive attractiveness of an industry
15. Information: data converted into a meaningful and useful context
16. Information systems (IS): computer-based tools that people use to work with information and
that support the information and information-processing needs of an organization
17. Information technology (IT): the acquisition, processing, storage, and dissemination of vocal,
pictorial, textual, and numerical information by a microelectronics based combination of
computing and telecommunications
18. Knowledge: actionable information
19. Loyalty programs: reward customers based on the amount of business the do with a particular
20. Management information systems (MIS): the function that plans for, develops, implements, and
maintains IT hardware, software, and applications that people use to support the goals of an
21. Private exchange: a B2B marketplace in which a single buyer posts its need and then opens the
bidding to any supplier who would care to bid
22. Reverse auction: an auction format in which increasingly lower bids are solicited from
organizations willing to supply the desired product or service at an increasingly lower price
23. Rivalry among existing competitors: high when competition is fierce in a market and lower
when competition is more complacent
24. Supplier power: high when buyers have few choices of whom to buy from and low when their
choices are many
25. Switching costs: the costs that can make customers reluctant to switch to another product or
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26. Threat of new entrants: high when it is easy for new competitors to enter a market and low
when there are significant entry barriers to entering a market
27. Threat of substitute products or services: high when there are many alternatives to a product
or service and low when there are few alternatives from which to choose
28. Value chain: views an organization as a series of processes, each of which adds value to the
product or service for each customer
Chapter 2:
1. Analytical information: encompasses all summarized or aggregated transactional data, and its
primary purpose is to support the performing of higher-level analysis tasks
2. Artificial intelligence (AI): stimulates human intelligence, such as the ability to reason and learn
3. As-is process models: represent the current state of the operation that has been mapped,
without any specific improvements or changes to existing processes
4. Benchmarking: the process of continuously measuring system results, comparing those results to
optimal system performance (benchmark values), and identifying steps and procedures to
improve system performance
5. Benchmarks: baseline values the system seeks to attain
6. Business-facing processes: invisible to the external customer but essential to the effective
management of the business; include goal setting, day-to-day planning, performance feedback,
rewards, and resource allocation
7. Business intelligence: applications and technologies that are used to gather, provide access to,
and analyze information to support people’s decision-making efforts
8. Business process improvement: attempts to understand and measure a business process and
make performance improvements on that process accordingly
9. Business process management (BPM): integrates all of an organization’s business processes to
make individual processes more efficient
10. Business process model: a graphic description of a process showing the sequence of process
tasks, which is developed for a specific purpose and from a selected viewpoint
11. Business process modeling (mapping): the activity of creating a detailed flow chart, work flow
diagram, use case diagram, or process map of a work process showing its inputs, tasks, and
activities, in a structured sequence
12. Business process re-engineering (BPR): the analysis and redesign of workflow within and
between enterprises
13. Consolidation: involves the aggregation of information and features simple roll-ups to complex
groupings of interrelated information
14. Customer-facing processes: the result in a product or service that is received by an
organization’s external customer
15. Decision support system (DSS): models data and information to support managers, analysts, and
other business professionals during the decision-making process for more analytical purposes
16. Digital dashboards: integrates information from multiple components and tailors the
information to individual preferences
17. Drill-down: enables users to view details, and details of details, of information
18. Effectiveness IS metrics: measures the impact IS has on business processes and activities
including customer satisfaction, conversion rates, and sell-through increases
19. Efficiency IS metrics: measures the performance of the IS itself such as throughput, speed, and
20. Executive information system (EIS): a specialized DSS that supports senior level executives
within the organization
21. Expert systems: computerized advisory programs that imitate the reasoning processes of experts
in solving difficult problems
22. Fuzzy logic: a mathematical method of handling imprecise or subjective information
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23. Genetic algorithm: an artificial intelligence system that mimics the evolutionary, survival-of-the
fittest process to generate increasingly better solutions to a problem
24. Goal-seeking analysis:
25. Intelligent agent: a special-purpose knowledge-based information system that accomplishes
specific tasks on behalf of its users
26. Intelligent systems: various commercial applications of artificial intelligence
27. Key performance indicators (KPI): measures that are tied to business drivers
28. Neural network (artificial neural network): a category of AL that attempts to emulate the way
the human brain works
29. Online analytical processing (OLAP): the analysis of summarized or aggregated information
sourced from transaction processing systems data, and sometimes external information from
outside industry sources to create business intelligence in support of strategic decision making
30. Online transaction processing (OLTP): the capturing of transaction and event data using
information systems to (1) process the data according to defined business rules, (2) store the data,
and (3) update existing data to reflect the new information
31. Semi-structured decisions: managerial decisions which occur in situations in which a few
established processes help to evaluate potential solutions, but not enough to lead to a definite
recommended decision
32. Sensitive analysis: the study of the impact that changes in one (or more) parts of the model have
on other parts of the model
33. Shopping bot: software that will search several retailer websites and provide a comparison of
each retailer’s offerings including price and availability
34. Slice-and-dice: the ability to look at information from different perspectives
35. Structured decisions: operational decisions which arise in situations where established
processes offer potential solutions
36. To-be process models: shows the results of applying change improvement opportunities to the
current (as-is) process model
37. Transaction processing system (TPS): the basic business system that serves the operational
level (clerks and analysts) in an organization
38. Transactional data: encompasses all of the information contained within a single business
process or unit of work, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of daily operational
39. Unstructured decisions: strategic decisions which occur in situations in which no procedures or
rules exist to guide decision makers towards the correct choice
40. Virtual reality: a computer-generated environment that can be simulated work or a imaginary
41. What-if analysis: checks the impact of a change in an assumption on the proposed solution
Chapter 3:
1. Application programming interface (API): a set of routines, protocols, and tools for building
software applications
2. Application service provider (ASP): a company that offers an organization access over the
internet to systems and related services that would otherwise have to be located in personal or
organizational computers
3. Associate (affiliate) programs: businesses can generate commissions or royalties from an
internet site
4. Banner ad: small ad on one web site that advertises the products and services of another
business, usually another e-business
5. Brick-and-mortar business: a business that operates in a physical store without an internet
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