Study Guides (390,000)
CA (150,000)
Ryerson (10,000)
PSY (500)
PSY 302 (80)

PSY 302 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Observational Learning, Categorical Perception, Habituation

Course Code
PSY 302
Lixia Yang
Study Guide

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 12 pages of the document.
View of hildre’s ature
How children change their knowledge through their environment
o Ex. number conservation test a child cannot understand numbers in all three aspects
Constructivist: a child will construct their knowledge through interaction of their environment
o They are active in this exploration
Three basic assumptions
o Active (little scientists) set up questions, collect data, make a conclusion, etc.
o Learning many important lessons on their own (discovery)
The do’t need to talk to learn but as long as they have their senses they can
o Intrinsically motivated to learn they are curious and always wish know more
Central development issues
Nature and nurture
interact to produce cognitive development
Adaption adjust or respond to the environment
o Assimilation / absorb, accommodation / adjust
Organization integrate observations / experiences into coherent knowledge
o Schemas are put together by the child and are always improved and grown upon
Sources of continuity (continuous and discontinuous) three processes
Assimilation interpret new experiences with existing knowledge structure
o Knowledge of a bird being a flying thing may carry into airplanes
Accommodation modify existing knowledge structure to interpret new experiences
o Oe oties that this ojet is’t flappig its igs ad does’t hae feathers
o The difference makes you change your perspective
Equilibration balance assimilation and accommodation to create stable understanding
o The structure is modified
o There are birds and there are planes
Sources of discontinuity
Distinct, hierarchical stages of cognitive development, each building on the previous one (this is
the stage theory regarding development)
Qualitative change the measure of difference is distinct for every stage
o A child is also like this when they pass stages like the number conservation test
Broad applicability the characteristics within every stage can be applied to different aspects
Brief transitions between stages there are transitions
Invariant sequence the have to go through all these stages to complete their development
find more resources at
find more resources at

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Sensorimotor Stage Birth-2 years
Sensory inputs and motor capabilities become coordinated
Knowledge is sensorimotor in nature
Problem solving learn by acting
o More and more intentional means and ends
o Problem solving skills through action and physical objects
Motor abilities are present
Object permanence increase in ability to hold mental representations
Learning by doing
Stage 1 Reflex activity
o Primary + primitive engagement (rooting, sucking)
o 0 1 months
Stage 2 primary (own body) circular reactions
o Exploring body parts + repetitive
o 1 4 months
Stage 3 secondary (other bodies) circular reactions
o Attention elsewhere + repetitive
o 4 8 months
Stage 4 coordination of secondary schemes
o There is combination of schemes to solve a problem with intention
o 8 12 months
Stage 5 tertiary circular reactions
o Little scientists
o They will learn from errors and try many different approaches to lead to rewarding
o 12 18 months
Stage 6 symbolic problem solving
o Act out in head before applying it
o They will learn words
o Socially aided behaviours are played out
o 18-24 months
Object Permanence
The knowledge that objects continue to exist even when they are out of view
It appears around 8 months
A-not-B error
o The tendency to search where objects have been found before, rather than where they
were last hidden
o Infants make this error around 8-12 months
o There is object permanence but there is an error in the search
o They are relying on their behaviour knowledge
o They believe their experience should determine where the object should be
Deferred imitation the epetitio of othe people’s ehaiou afte a dela
o Occurs around 18-24 months
o Persisting mental representations
find more resources at
find more resources at

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Preoperational Stage 2-7 years
A i of auisitios ad liitatios. The logi easoig ehid it is’t thee et.
o Symbolic Representation: Their actions are determined by the objects
meaning/purpose. But sometimes the meaning doesn't make sense.
o Deficits in reasoning (e.g., Egocentrism)
o Centration: They pay attention to only one dimension of the meaning
o Lack of the conservation concept
Symbolic Representation
Use of symbols increases
o Symbolic Function: Ability to make one thing stand for something else.
o Symbolic/Pretend Play: Pretend to be people they are not. Social roles in the world are
Deloahe’s Model Roo Studies 1: That a smaller representation of reality can be
connected around 3 years (big snoopy and little snoopy are in the same spot).
Dual Representation Errors: Could be memory development but also could be symbolic
Deficits in Reasoning
Animism: Attribute lifelike qualities to objects
Egocentrism: Look at the world from their perspective and assume others do as well.
Appearance/Reality Distinction: If someone wears a mask, they have trouble telling the
diffeee etee hat is eal ad hat is’t
Ituitie Reasoig: Thee is o logi. It’s ot dinnertime until I have a nap
The tede to peeie the old solel fo oe’s o poit of ie. Fo eaple:
Three-Mountain Task: Two children looking at a model. They will have ego.
Egocentric Conversations: They will self talk, as they do not engage with others in conversation.
Can Preoperational Children Conserve?
Conservation: The ability to realize that certain properties of objects remain unchanged when
the ojets’ appeaaes ae alteed i soe supefiial a.
o Ex. The two water cups being different sizes, but still carrying the same amount. They
fail to see numbers as an amount, instead looking for one dimension of the number
Centration: The tendency to focus on a single dimension of an object or event (e.g., the Balance
Scale task; there is not only size but distance affecting)
o They fail to conserve due to:
Centration: They do not understand other dimensions of the activity
Lack of Reversibility: There is sometimes the possibility to redo the action
Concrete Operational Stage 7-12years
Thinks more logically about real concrete objects and experiences
Understand conservation: Decentration and reversibility
Relational logic
o Mental Seriation: Sort the objects in one dimension (smallest to biggest)
o Transitivity: They anchor a fact and determine things from there
find more resources at
find more resources at
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version