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Terms for Chapters 5,6,7,8,11,12,15

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Ryerson University
PSY 105
Genevieve Quintin

Psychology Chapter 6: Learning Learning: some experiences that result in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner. Habituation: A general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in reduction in responding. Classical Conditioning: When a neutral stimulus evokes a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally evokes the response. (e.g Ivan Pavlov dog & bell stimulus) Unconditioned Stimulus (US): Something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism. (e.g food[stimuli] makes a dog salivate) Unconditioned Response (UR): A reflexive reaction that is reliably elicited by an unconditioned stimulus. (e.g: the salivation [response] to the food) Conditioned Stimulus (CS): A stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism. (e.g bell) Conditioned Response (CR): A reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus. Acquisition: The phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together. Extinction: The gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the US is no longer present. (E.g no more food when bell is rung) Spontaneous recovery: The tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period. Generalization: A process in which the CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the original one used during the acquisition. Discrimination: The capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli. John B. Waston: He tested Pavlovs theory with Rosalie Rayner. He showed 9 month old little Albert a bunch of different stimulus (white rat, dog, rabbit, different masks). He then struck a large steel bar with a hammer which made little Albert cry. He then struck the steel bar with a hammer every time the child was presented with the white rat. Little Albert soon cried and trembled at the site of the white rat. The sight of a white rabbit, a seal-fur coat and a Santa claus mask all produced the same kind of fear reactions in the child. 1)He wanted to prove that relatively complex reactions could be conditioned using Pavlovian techniques. 2)Watson proposed that fear could be learned just like any other behavior. 3)He wanted to confirm that conditioning could be applied to humans as well as to other animals. Biological preparedness: A propensity for learning particular kinds of associations over others. Operant conditioning: A type of learning in which the consequences of an organisms behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future. (behaviors are active.) Law of Effect: Behaviors that are followed by a satisfying state of affairs tend to be repeated and those that produce an unpleasant state of affairs are less likely to be repeated. Reinforcer: Any stimulus or event that functions to increase the likelihood of the behavior that led to it. Punisher: any stimulus or event that functions to decrease the likelihood of the behavior that led to it. Overjustification effect: circumstances when external rewards can undermine the intrinsic satisfaction of performing a behavior. In classical conditioning responses are usually hardwired- behaviors that animals already display such as salivation for fear. In operant conditioning you can produce new behaviors. Shaping: Learning that results from the reinforcement of successive approximations to a final desired behavior. Successive approximation: A behavior that gets incrementally closer to the overall desired behavior. Fixed interval schedule (FI): An operant conditioning principle in which reinforcements are presented at fixed time periods, provided that the appropriate response is made. (e.g barely do any work but when exam time comes study like crazy) Variable interval schedule (VI): An operant conditioning principle in which behavior is reinforced based on an average time that has expired since the last reinforcement. (e.g radios have hourly prizes) Fixed ratio schedule (FR): An operant conditioning principle in which reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made. (e.g buy 5 car washes get one free) Variable ratio schedule (VR): An operant conditioning principle in which the delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses. (e.g casino slots)
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