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Psychology chapter 13.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 604
Professor
Anne Miller
Semester
Winter

Description
Psychology Chapter 13: Stress, Coping, and Health Biopsychosocial Model: holds that physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. Health Psychology: concerned with how psychosocial factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of health and with the causation, prevention, and treatment of illness. Stress as an Everyday Event: - Stress can be caused by major issues such as natural disasters. Ex: earthquakes - Stress can also be caused by small events throughout the day such as shopping for gifts, waiting in line, etc. - A major stressful event (ex divorce) can trigger minor stressful events (ex: finding a lawyer) - Minor stress can result in significant harmful effects on mental and physical health (minor stress does not always mean minor effects) - Stress adds up; routine stress such as homework and a job can be minor individually, but collectively add up and create greater strain Appraisal: Stress lies in the Eye of the Beholder: - Feeling stressed depends on what events a person notices and how they choose to interpret them (ex: some people find going on a date with someone new stressful, while others find it exciting) - People arent very objective in their appraisals of potential stressful events (sometimes they over-think the situation and get more stressed out than they would otherwise be). Major Types of Stress: - Acute stressors: threatening events that have a relatively short duration and a clear endpoint. Ex: dealing with the challenge of a major exam - Chronic stressors: threatening events that have a relatively long duration and no readily apparent time limit. Ex: demands of caring for a sick family member over a period of years Four Major Types of Stress: 1) Frustration occurs in any situation in which the pursuit of some goal is thwarted. In other words, you experience frustration when you want something and you cant have it. Most frustrations are brief and insignificant; some can be sources of significant stress. Ex: failures and losses are two common types of frustration that are highly stressful 2) Conflict (Should I or Shouldnt I?) occurs when two or more incompatible motivations or behavioural impulses complete for expression. Higher levels of conflict are associated with higher levels of anxiety, depression, and stress. Conflicts come in three types: 1. Approach-approach conflict: a choice must be made between two attractive goals. This is the least stressful type of conflict. 2. Avoidance-avoidance conflict: a choice must be made between two unattractive goals. These conflicts are most unpleasant and highly stressful. 3. Approach-avoidance conflict: a choice must be made about whether to pursue a single goal that has both attractive and unattractive aspects. Ex: Career promotion that has a large increase in pay, but youll have to move to a city where you dont want to live. These conflicts produce vacillation you go back and forth, beset by indecision. 3) Change any noticeable alterations in ones living circumstances that require readjustment. Positive events, such as marriage, produce stress because they produce change. Changes can be stressful even when the changes are welcomed because they catch people off-guard and force them to face situations they did not expect, or did not think too much about. 4) Pressure involves expectations or demands that one behaves in a certain way. You are under pressure to perform when youre expected to execute tasks and responsibilities quickly, efficiently, and successfully. Pressures to conform to others expectations also cause stress. Responding to Stress: 1. Emotional Responses: when people are under stress, they often react emotionally. - Researchers have begun to uncover links between specific cognitive reactions to stress and particular emotions Ex: self-blame leads to guilt, helplessness leads to sadness, etc. - Common emotional responses to stress include: annoyance, anger, rage, apprehension, anxiety, fear, dejection ,sadness, and grief - Positive emotions also occur during periods of stress. Ex: during a stressful time, people may count their blessings and feel gratitude Positive emotions counter negative emotions in three ways: 1. They alter peoples mindsets by broadening their scope of attention and increasing their problem solving creativity 2. They indo the lingering effects of negative emotions 3. They promote rewarding social interactions that help to build valuable social support, coping strategies, and other enduring personal resources High emotional arousal can interfere with attention and memory retrieval and can impair judgment and decision making Inverted-U hypothesis task performance should improve with increased arousalup to a point after which further increases in arousal deteriorate performance. The level of arousal at which performance peaks is known as the optimal level of arousal for a task As a task becomes more complex, the optimal level of arousal (for peak performance) tends to decrease Therefore, a high level of arousal is optimal for simple tasks, and performance should peak at a lower level of arousal on complex tasks 2. Physiological Responses: physiological changes that accompany the elicited emotional responses. The Fight-or-Flight Response: a physiological reaction to threat in which the autonomic nervous system mobilizes the organism for attacking (flight) or fleeing (flight) an enemy. - This response is mediated by the sympathetic division of the ANS. - Leads to an increase in breathing rate, heart rate, blood pressure, and a reduction in digestive processes - This response can also be seen in humans, and it is a leftover from humanitys evolutionary past - The response may differ slightly in males and females, since females allocate more time to taking care of their offspring rather than just fighting or fleeing in terms of their own personal safety - Despite minor gender differences, the basic neuroendocrine core of stress responses is largely the same for both genders The General Adaptation Syndrome (Hans Selye): a model of the bodys stress response, consisting of three stages alarm, resistance, and exhaustion. 1. Alarm reaction occurs when the organism first recognizes the existence of a threat. The body prepares its resources to combat the chal
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