Anatomy and Physiology HAP101 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Gastrocnemius Muscle, Scaphoid Bone, Osteoarthritis

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Published on 7 Dec 2017
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Chapter 6 Skeletal System
Function
1. Provides support
2. Protects the internal organs (brain, heart, etc.)
3. Assists body movements (in conjunction with muscles)
4. Stores and releases salts of calcium and phosphorus
5. Participates in blood cell production (hemopoiesis)
6. Stores triglycerides in adipose cells of yellow marrow
Structure of a long bone
o Diaphysis (bone shaft)
o 2 epiphyses (both ends of the bone at the joints)
o 2 metaphyses (region between diaphysis and epiphysis)
o Articular cartilage covering both epiphyses
o Periosteum (connective tissue surrounding the
diaphysis)
o Medullary cavity (hollow space within diaphysis)
o Endosteum (thin membrane lining the medulary cavity)
Types
o Bones
Long Bones
Greater length than width and slightly curved
for strength
o Femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, ulna, radius,
phalanges
Short bones
Cube-shaped and nearly equal in length and width
o Carpal, tarsal
Flat bones
Thin and composed of two nearly parallel plates of compact bone tissue enclosing a layer of
spongy bone tissue
o Cranial, sternum, ribs, scapulae
Irregular bones
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Complex shapes that cannot be grouped into any of the previous categories
o Vertebrae, hip bones, some facial bones, calcaneus
Sesamoid bones
Protect tendons from excessive wear and tear
o Patellae, foot, hand
Sutural bones
Small bones located in sutures of cranial bones
o Cells
Osteogenic cells (bone stem cells able to differentiate into the other types of cells)
Osteoblasts*** (bone-building cells that secrete matrix)
Osteocytes (mature bone cells)
Osteoclasts*** (remodel bones and cause them to release calcium)
Chapter 7 Axial Skeleton
Surface markings
o Depressions and openings
Allow the passage of blood vessels and nerves
Form joints
o Processes
Projections or outgrowths that form joints
Spinous process is a slender projection from a vertebrae.
A foramen is an opening in bone through which blood vessels and/or nerves pass.
Serve as attachment points for ligaments and tendons
If a bony process is large, round, and articular, it might be called a condyle.
o The condyles of the humerus are the Trochlea and the Capitulum.
An epicondyle is a bony protuberance above a condyle.
A fossa is a shallow depression in bone.
o See humerus and ulna/radial joints
A tubercle is a small rounded projection. Ischial tubercle
A tuberosity is a large bony prominence that is not articular. (e.g. Tibial tuberosity)
The trochanters are two very large bony projections on the femur.
Skull - 22 bones
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o Paranasal Sinuses
Cavities within cranial and facial bones near the nasal cavity. Secretions, produced by the
mucous membranes which line the sinuses, drain into the nasal cavity. Serve as resonating
chambers that intensify and prolong sounds
o Fontanels
Areas of unossified tissue. 󴊅󴊸 󴊦󴊭󴊶󴊸󴊬, 󴊹󴊲󴊳󴊷󴊷󴊭󴊪󴊭󴊩󴊨 󴊸󴊭󴊷󴊷󴊹󴊩 󴊷󴊴󴊥󴊧󴊩󴊷, 󴊧󴊳󴊱󴊱󴊳󴊲󴊰y 󴊧󴊥󴊰󴊰󴊩󴊨 󴌉󴊷󴊳󴊪󴊸 󴊷󴊴󴊳󴊸󴊷󴌊
link the cranial bones. Eventually, they are replaced with bone to become sutures
Provide flexibility to the fetal skull, allowing the skull to change shape as it passes through
the birth canal
o Facial
Bones (14)
Nasal Bones
o Form the bridge of the nose
Maxillae
o Form the upper jawbone
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Document Summary

Secretions, produced by the mucous membranes which line the sinuses, drain into the nasal cavity. Serve as resonating chambers that intensify and prolong sounds: fontanels, areas of unossified tissue. (cid:23428)(cid:23479) (cid:23461)(cid:23468)(cid:23477)(cid:23479)(cid:23467), (cid:23480)(cid:23473)(cid:23474)(cid:23478)(cid:23478)(cid:23468)(cid:23465)(cid:23468)(cid:23464)(cid:23463) (cid:23479)(cid:23468)(cid:23478)(cid:23478)(cid:23480)(cid:23464) (cid:23478)(cid:23475)(cid:23460)(cid:23462)(cid:23464)(cid:23478), (cid:23462)(cid:23474)(cid:23472)(cid:23472)(cid:23474)(cid:23473)(cid:23471)y (cid:23462)(cid:23460)(cid:23471)(cid:23471)(cid:23464)(cid:23463) (cid:23560)(cid:23478)(cid:23474)(cid:23465)(cid:23479) (cid:23478)(cid:23475)(cid:23474)(cid:23479)(cid:23478)(cid:23561) link the cranial bones. 12 thoracic are posterior to the thoracic cavity: 5 lumbar support the lower back. 1 sacrum consists of five fused sacral vertebrae. 126 bones: primarily concerned with movement, pectoral girdle, shoulder including the clavicle and scapula, pelvic girdle, made up of two hip bones (os coxa, coxal bones) that articulate with the sacrum posteriorly. Hip bone is made up of three individual bones: the ilium, the ischium, and pubis. The two bones articulate anteriorly at the pubic bones (pubic symphysis). There is a disc of fibrocartilage between the two bones. The distal row (trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hammate: feet 26, 7 ankle bones - talus, calcaneus (heel), navicular,

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