Unit 2-Study Q's.docx

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 110
Leah Esplen

Study Questions 1. Define the following terms: o Peristalsis—wave-like muscular contraction o Segmentation—periodic contractions at intervals along the GI tract that alternate forward and backward movement of the contents, thereby breaking apart chunks of the food mass and mixing in digestive juices o Enzyme—large proteins in the body that accelerate the rate of chemical reactions (catalyze) but are not altered in the process o Hydrolysis—the reaction that breaks molecules into two o Facilitated diffusion—Carrier (transport) proteins in the cell membrane transport substances into or out of cells down a concentration gradient o Active transport—Movement of substances into or out of cell against a concentration gradient. Active transport requires energy (ATP) and involves carrier(transport) proteins in the cell membrane o Lactose intolerance—Where the stomach cannot digest lactose leading to intestinal irritation causing diarrhea o Ketosis—abnormally high concentrations of ketone bodies in body tissues and fluids o Gluconeogenesis—synthesis of glucose within the body from non-carbohydrate precursors such as amino acids, lactate, and glycerol. Fatty acids cannot be converted to glucose o Glycemic index o Hypoglycemia o Hyperglycemia o Hyperinsulinemia—A condition in which there are elevated levels of insulin in the blood o Insulin insensitivity (or insulin resistance)—inability of the body to use the insulin it produces 2. List the anatomical components of the digestive tract and briefly describe their functions. 3. Compare and contrast the functions of the stomach and the small intestine in digestion and absorption. 4. List and briefly explain the functions of carbohydrates - Provide glucose for energy - To provide glucose to synthesize glycogen for energy storage - To spare body protein from being used to synthesize glucose - To prevent ketosis by facilitating the
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