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BPK 140 Study Guide - Maltose, Galactose, Fructose

14 Pages
Fall 2013

Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 140
Mandana Salajegheh

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Chapter 5: Nutrition,
Eating for optimum Health 03/13/2014
Nutrition: The science that investigates the relationship between physiological function and the essential
elements of the foods we eat
Nutrients: Constituents of food that sustain us physiologically
Hunger: feeling associated with physiological need to eat
Blood glucose goes down, feel dizzy
Appetite: Learned psychological desire to eat
Why is nutrition important?
Nutrition can prevent disease
Diseases caused by nutrient deficiency
Scurvy: lack of vitamin C
Goiter: lack of iodine
Rickets: lack of vitamin D for bones, only children can develop
Iron deficiency anemia: especially women may feel tired or fatigue.
Possibility of death
Diseases influenced by nutrition
Chronic diseases ex:
Heart diseases
Some forms of cancer
Diseases in which nutrition plays a role
Osteoarthritis: loss of joint cartilage
Osteoporosis: loss of bone density
Some forms of cancer
Eating well with Canada’s food guide
Objectives: official food rules to eating well with Canada’s food guide
Meets nutrient needs
Reduces risk of health problems ( risk)
Supports a healthy body weight ( body weight)
Reflects diversity of foods available
Importance of healthy eating and physical activity
Highest portion to lowest portion:
Green to red
Nutrition deficiency:
Chronic diseases:
calories is a unit of measure that indicates the amount of energy we obtain from a food
Nutritious diet:
1. Adequacy
2. Balanced diet, proportion of food groups veggies>grain>milk>meats
3. Moderation of caloric intake and nutrients
4. Variety
Digestive System
Oral cavity, teeth, tongue:
mechanical processing, moistening, mixing with salivary secretions
Salivary gland: secretion of lubricating fluid containing enzymes that break down carbohydrates
Pharynx: pharyngeal muscles propel materials into the esophagus
Esophagus: transport of materials to the stomach

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Chapter 5: Nutrition,  Eating for optimum Health 03/13/2014 Nutrition: The science that investigates the relationship between physiological function and the essential  elements of the foods we eat Nutrients: Constituents of food that sustain us physiologically Hunger: feeling associated with physiological need to eat Blood glucose goes down, feel dizzy Appetite: Learned psychological desire to eat Why is nutrition important? Nutrition can prevent disease Diseases caused by nutrient deficiency Scurvy: lack of vitamin C Goiter: lack of iodine Rickets: lack of vitamin D for bones, only children can develop Iron deficiency anemia: especially women may feel tired or fatigue. Possibility of death Diseases influenced by nutrition Chronic diseases ex: Heart diseases Diabetes Some forms of cancer Diseases in which nutrition plays a role Osteoarthritis: loss of joint cartilage Osteoporosis: loss of bone density Some forms of cancer Eating well with Canada’s food guide Objectives: official food rules to eating well with Canada’s food guide Meets nutrient needs Reduces risk of health probles  risk) Supports a healthy body weigh  body weight) Reflects diversity of foods available Importance of healthy eating and physical activity Highest portion to lowest portion: Green to red Nutrition deficiency: Chronic diseases: calories is a unit of measure that indicates the amount of energy we obtain from a food Nutritious diet: 1. Adequacy 2. Balanced diet, proportion of food groups veggies>grain>milk>meats 3. Moderation of caloric intake and nutrients 4. Variety Digestive System Oral cavity, teeth, tongue:  mechanical processing, moistening, mixing with salivary secretions Salivary gland: secretion of lubricating fluid containing enzymes that break down carbohydrates Pharynx: pharyngeal muscles propel materials into the esophagus Esophagus: transport of materials to the stomach Liver: secretion of bile (digestion), storage of nutrients, many other vital functions Gallbladder: storage and concentration of bile Stomach: chemical breakdown of materials via acid and enzymes; mechanical processing through  muscular contractions Pancreas: exocrine cells secrete buffers and digestive enzymes; endocrine cells secrete hormones Large intestine: 1/3 absorption and digestions, dehydration and compaction of indigestible materials in  preparation for elimination Small intestine: 2/3 absorption and digestions, enzymatic digestion and absorption of water, organic  substrates, vitamins, and ions Six classes of essential nutrients 1. Carbohydrates 2. Proteins 3. Lipids 4. Water 5. Vitamins 6. Minerals Obtaining Essential Nutrients Water: Critical for survival Dehydration: abnormal depletion of body fluids 50­60% of body weight average size man vs. woman, men have higher concentration of muscle therefore they have more water  than woman varies from person to person Dietary Reference Intake of water: Males (19­50): 3 litres beverages Females (19­50): 2.2 litres beverages Depends on climate, food that you eat and other factors Best way to see if you are hydrated: Proteins: major component of every cell Functions: tissue development and repair, protection, regulation, transportation, balance Composed of 20 amino acids of which 9 are essential amino acids Incomplete proteins lack one or more essential amino acids Key food groups of protein:  meat and alternative milk and alternatives legumes nuts and seeds Provides 4 cal/g Carbohydrates: major source of energy, 4 Cal/g Circulate in the body as glucose Simple carbohydrates (sugars): Sources: table sugar, syrups and fruits Recommend <10% calories Complex carbohydrates Sources: grains, cereals, various fruits and vegetable Starches: majority (eg breads and potatoes) Glycogen: storage form of carbohydrate in the body Fiber Monosaccharaides: glucose, galactose, Fructose Disaccharides: sucrose, maltose, lactose Fibre: Aids digestion and helps decrease the risk of certain cancers, heart disease, diabetes and  overweight DRI is 25 g/day for woman and 38 g/day for men Soluble and insoluble Soluble: Dissolves in water (ex citrus fruits) Lowers cholesterol  Insoluble: Don’t dissolve in water (ex apples) Good for weight management To increase intake: drinking more water helps digest fibers Select whole grains Choose foods with at least 2­3 grams of fiber Choose fresh fruits and vegetables and eat peel or skin when possible Eat legumes frequently Carbohydrates and athletic performance High concentration of sugar may be counterproductive Sports drink, after >60 min of high level activity Increase glycogen stores that can benefit endurance through a process known as carboh
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