An ideology is “a package of cultural and social assumptions that influence a person’s
understanding and action. Ideology is what seems to you to be entirely natural and
obvious, but to others appears strange, annoying or threatening” (M. Sharples, 159).
Level 1: Duality
Authorities have the answers, and if I work hard and read every word, I will learn them
Level 2: Multiplicity
Good Authorities don’t give me the Right Answer, which they possess; instead they give
me problems that will show me how to find the Right Answer.
Level 3: Relativism
In certain areas, the Authorities disagree among themselves, but this is only because
they are still working on getting the Right Answers.
Level 4: Commitment to Relativism
a) In situations where authorities don’t know the Right Answer, all options are equally
b) In certain areas, Authorities are less interested in having me come up with a Right
Answer, than in my learning to think in a certain way, i.e., to support my opinion than
merely asserting it. Lower level thinking supports higher level thinking therefore, we must be able to identify
and understand the elements of good/bad arguments, like the difference between a fact,
opinion and inference before we can evaluate, critique and build on the arguments of
What rumour studies teach us
Perception is fallible. What we see is not necessarily the sense we make.
Ambiguity is “filled-in” so we can make sense of events.
Analytical reading is thoughtful reading that requires active engagement with the
material. It requires reading a selection more than once.
Step 1: Preview the material
Step 2: Read thoughtfully
Step 3: Review and write for study and retention
Why does writing take so long?
85% of the writing process is preparation:
15% of the process is what your audience sees and evaluates. Messages in Bottles
“There can be no ideal view of the world, free of perception, only different ones. There is
no single truth for a reader to unpack from the text; rather each reader evokes a
different interpretation of each reading. The message is not in the bottle, but in the
interaction between writer and reader” (M. Sharples, 156).
Forming a Research Question
A good research question is
-goes beyond simply answering “what”
-calls for an analytical respo