Final Exam Review
COGS 100: Exploring the mind
Tiana Chan - Nov 2012 1. Basic anatomy of the neuron.
Dendrite: Receive inputs and carry them to the cell soma.
Soma: Main body of the cell and it contains the nucleus.
Nucleus: Processes and transmits info through electrical and chemical signals.
Axon: Carries the signal to the target.
Myelin sheets: Extension of glial cells. Composed of fatty substance that wraps around
the axon of a neuron.
Nodes of Ranvier: Gaps formed between the myelin sheaths.
Neuron: Cell that processes and transmits info through electrical and chemical signals. A
chemical signal occurs via synapse. Neurons connect to each other to form neural
networks. 1. Gross anatomy of the brain
*Lobes – FPOT
*Supporting lobes - CPMSC
1. Lobes – Each lobe has a different set of functions
The brain: Made of 100 billion nerves that synapses with trillions of connections.
Frontal lobe: attains maturity ~25y. Parietal lobe: Occipital lobe: Temporal lobe: two
smallest of the four temporal lobes –
- Attention and concentration - Sense of touch - Visual perception - Memory
- Self-monitoring - Spatial perception - Movement - Understanding
- Organization - ID of size, shapes - Colour recognition language
- Speaking / Language and colours - Sequencing
- Motor planning and initiation - Visual perception - Hearing
- Awareness of abilities and limitations - Handwriting - Organization
- Mental flexibility
- Inhibition of behaviour
- Problem solving
- Planning and anticipation
- Motor function. 1. Temporal lobes – Left vs. Right
Left temporal lobe - Verbal memory
Right temporal lobe - Visual memory
They both: Distinguishing and discrimination of smell and sound from other smells and
sounds respectively. Control hearing, speech and memory. Contains primary auditory
cortex. Responsible for all auditory processing.
1. Brain anatomy
Cortex: The outermost layer of brain cells. Thinking and voluntary movements.
The brain stem: Responsible for basic functions like breathing and sleep.
The basal ganglia: @center of the brain. Coordinates messages between other brain
The cerebellum: @the base and the back of the brain. The cerebellum is responsible for
coordination and balance. 1.2 Supporting lobes
Cerebrum: Most superior region of the vertebrate central nervous system. Most anterior
region. Controls all voluntary actions in the body. (AKA Brain)
Cerebellum lobe functions: Balance, skilled motor activity, coordination, visual
Brain Stem Functions: Breathing, arousal and consciousness, attention and
concentration, heart rate, sleep and wake cycles. 1.2 Structures and functions
Location Area Function
BRAIN & SPINAL CORD Control the autonomic nervous system by secreting
hormones and by modulating muscles. The
Autonomic system affects heart rate, digestion,
respiration rate, salivation, perspiration, urination
and sexual arousal. Most not under direct voluntary
Spinal cord Nerves Contains motor neurons that directly activate
Midbrain Contains motor neurons that directly activate the
Hindbrain Cerebellum Calibrates precision and timing of movements
Forebrain Basal ganglia Action selection on the basis of motivation
Frontal lobe Motor cortex Direct cortical activation of spinal motor circuits
Premotor Groups elementary movements into coordinated
Prefrontal Planning and other executive functions
1. Functions of the brain - Each structure and function is
programmed in the DNA of the genes.
Amygdala: Emotions, learning and memory. (Fear, anger and anxiety)
Brain stem: Very specific functions, like particular movements and sensations associated
with the cranial nerves.
Broca’s area: Speech production.
Cerebellum: (tumor lookalike at the end of the Medulla) Movement trajectories.
Cortex: COG appraising. Planning behaviours.
Pons: Respiration and cardiovascular functions. Eye coordination, movements and
Hippocampus: Long-term memory. Involved with memory storage and retrieval.
Hypothalamus: Body’s vegetative functions
Limbic system: Emotions, learning and memory. (Hippocampus, Amygdala, Thalamus)
Medulla: (Stem of brain) Autonomic basic functions.
Thalamus: Rooting info to higher areas.
Wernicke area: Speech, understanding of written and spoken language. 2. Marr’s three levels of explanation.
Physical/Computational theory What does the system do? What problems does it
solve? Why does it do these things?
Representation and algorithmic How does the system do what it does? What
representations does it use and what processes does it employ to build and manipulate
Computational/Hardware implementation How is the system physically realized? Bio:
What neural structures and neuronal activities implement the visual system?
What did Marr do?
Proposed three different levels for the understanding of information processing
systems. One of his most important contributions was made in the level of
representation and algorithm when he proposed a representational framework for
INPUT IMAGE: Perc