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Final Exam Review.docx

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PSYC 100
Jaime Palmer

Final Exam Review COGS 100: Exploring the mind Tiana Chan - Nov 2012 1. Basic anatomy of the neuron. Dendrite: Receive inputs and carry them to the cell soma. Soma: Main body of the cell and it contains the nucleus. Nucleus: Processes and transmits info through electrical and chemical signals. Axon: Carries the signal to the target. Myelin sheets: Extension of glial cells. Composed of fatty substance that wraps around the axon of a neuron. Nodes of Ranvier: Gaps formed between the myelin sheaths. Neuron: Cell that processes and transmits info through electrical and chemical signals. A chemical signal occurs via synapse. Neurons connect to each other to form neural networks. 1. Gross anatomy of the brain *Lobes – FPOT *Supporting lobes - CPMSC 1. Lobes – Each lobe has a different set of functions The brain: Made of 100 billion nerves that synapses with trillions of connections. Frontal lobe: attains maturity ~25y. Parietal lobe: Occipital lobe: Temporal lobe: two smallest of the four temporal lobes – lobes L&R. - Attention and concentration - Sense of touch - Visual perception - Memory - Self-monitoring - Spatial perception - Movement - Understanding - Organization - ID of size, shapes - Colour recognition language - Speaking / Language and colours - Sequencing - Motor planning and initiation - Visual perception - Hearing - Awareness of abilities and limitations - Handwriting - Organization - Personality - Mental flexibility - Inhibition of behaviour - Emotion - Problem solving - Planning and anticipation - Judgment - Motor function. 1. Temporal lobes – Left vs. Right Left temporal lobe - Verbal memory Right temporal lobe - Visual memory They both: Distinguishing and discrimination of smell and sound from other smells and sounds respectively. Control hearing, speech and memory. Contains primary auditory cortex. Responsible for all auditory processing. 1. Brain anatomy Cortex: The outermost layer of brain cells. Thinking and voluntary movements. The brain stem: Responsible for basic functions like breathing and sleep. The basal ganglia: @center of the brain. Coordinates messages between other brain areas. The cerebellum: @the base and the back of the brain. The cerebellum is responsible for coordination and balance. 1.2 Supporting lobes Cerebrum: Most superior region of the vertebrate central nervous system. Most anterior region. Controls all voluntary actions in the body. (AKA Brain) Cerebellum lobe functions: Balance, skilled motor activity, coordination, visual perception. Brain Stem Functions: Breathing, arousal and consciousness, attention and concentration, heart rate, sleep and wake cycles. 1.2 Structures and functions Location Area Function BRAIN & SPINAL CORD Control the autonomic nervous system by secreting hormones and by modulating muscles. The Autonomic system affects heart rate, digestion, respiration rate, salivation, perspiration, urination and sexual arousal. Most not under direct voluntary control. Spinal cord Nerves Contains motor neurons that directly activate muscles Midbrain Contains motor neurons that directly activate the eye muscles Hindbrain Cerebellum Calibrates precision and timing of movements Forebrain Basal ganglia Action selection on the basis of motivation Frontal lobe Motor cortex Direct cortical activation of spinal motor circuits Premotor Groups elementary movements into coordinated cortex patterns Prefrontal Planning and other executive functions cortex 1. 1. Functions of the brain - Each structure and function is programmed in the DNA of the genes. Amygdala: Emotions, learning and memory. (Fear, anger and anxiety) Brain stem: Very specific functions, like particular movements and sensations associated with the cranial nerves. Broca’s area: Speech production. Cerebellum: (tumor lookalike at the end of the Medulla) Movement trajectories. Cortex: COG appraising. Planning behaviours. Pons: Respiration and cardiovascular functions. Eye coordination, movements and balance. Hippocampus: Long-term memory. Involved with memory storage and retrieval. Hypothalamus: Body’s vegetative functions Limbic system: Emotions, learning and memory. (Hippocampus, Amygdala, Thalamus) Reflexes. Medulla: (Stem of brain) Autonomic basic functions. Thalamus: Rooting info to higher areas. Wernicke area: Speech, understanding of written and spoken language. 2. Marr’s three levels of explanation. Physical/Computational theory  What does the system do? What problems does it solve? Why does it do these things? Representation and algorithmic  How does the system do what it does? What representations does it use and what processes does it employ to build and manipulate the representations Computational/Hardware implementation  How is the system physically realized? Bio: What neural structures and neuronal activities implement the visual system? What did Marr do? Proposed three different levels for the understanding of information processing systems. One of his most important contributions was made in the level of representation and algorithm when he proposed a representational framework for vision. INPUT IMAGE: Perc
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