PSYC 325 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Headache, Basal Ganglia, Aspirin

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Operant conditioning: organisms learn to make responses in order to obtain/avoid outcomes. Stimulus (s) -> response (r) -> outcome (o) Outcome occurs only if the organism makes the response. Classical conditioning: by contrast, us occurs whether or not the organism makes a cr. Outcome that an organism will work to obtain = reinforcer; outcome an organism will work to avoid = punisher. Four basic types of operant paradigm: positive reinforcement, positive punishment, negative reinforcement, negative punishment. Positive & negative denote whether the outcome is added or subtracted. Reinforcement & punishment denote whether the response increases or decreases as a result of learning. Schedules of reinforcement define whether the outcome o follows every response r. Available after some number of responses or available only after some time interval. Behavioural economics = study of how organisms choose of allocate their time and resources among various response that result in different outcomes.