*Note in slide 23 of lecture 11, it should say that serotonin levels decrease (not increase) with
Final exam format:
50 multiple choice
15 Fill in blank
35 short answer
Outline the major infectious diseases including the STIs. Outline their symptoms, the
type (not the name) of pathogen that causes it and the available treatments (if available).
Common cold (rhinovirus)- spread by coughs, sneezes, and touch
Influenza (flu)- more severe symptoms than cold; symptoms such as fatigue fever nausea
SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)- breathing problems
Meningitis- inflammation of the brain meninges; infection of the fluid and membranes around the
brain and spinal cord
Hepatitis- inflammation of the liver; swells and shrink and gets hard; yellow skin, abdominal
Mononucleosis- “kissing disease”; symptoms include tired, fever, cough
Chlamydia and Gonorrhea- increased discharge; antibiotics help treat it
Herpes- virus that is for life and can affect the mouth; cold sores; lesions
HPV(Human papilloma virus)- spread through intercourse and oral sex
Pubic Lice and Scabies- tiny creatures that burrow into skin that feed off of blood
Outline strategies for protecting one’s self from colds and flu.
-wash hands frequently with hot water and soap
-get adequate sleep and exercise
-eat a balanced diet
-don’t share drinks and food
-don’t touch eyes, mouth and nose after being with someone who has cold symptoms
-use tissues rather than cloth handkerchiefs
-limit intake of alcohol
Why are humans becoming resistant to antibiotics? What are the potential future
outcomes? How can we reduce this risk at a personal level? Humans are becoming resistant to antibiotics due to natural selection causing many bacteria to
be resistant to antibiotics. Potential future outcomes would be that humans won’t be able to take
any medications to kill strong and/or smart bacteria leading to death. We should not rely on
antibiotics for every bacterial infection, build up immune system, etc.
What is different about the skin of the genitals that increases the risk of contracting a
sexually transmitted disease?
Tough outer skin covers the outside of your body, including lips and hands. Viruses and bacteria
enter when skin is rupture.
Fragile inner skin lines the inside of your vagina or penis, anus or mouth. Viruses and bacteria
enter when skin is torn during sexual contact.
Differentiate between the different chambers of heart and their functions.
Atria receive blood from heart. Ventricles pump blood to all parts of the body.
How can you reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease?
• Physical activities
• Diet-> Fat; good reduces LDL, bad transport fats in blood -> fish omega-3 fatty acids;
reduces blood viscosity -> veggies and fruits -> fibre and whole grains -> soy reduces
LDL levels -> B vitamins -> moderate alcohol consumption
How can you lower your cholesterol?
• Lower intake of saturate fats
• Eating small meals 6 or more times per day versus times per day
• Increase the amount of fibre (soluble) you eat
How does high blood pressure affect the body?
• Eye damage- damage to retinal blood vessels causes impaired vision and eventually
• Heart attack- increased cardiac work load leads to decreased reserve capacity and
enlargement of the heart muscle leads to decreased efficiency
• Kidney failure- impaired blood flow leads to decreased kidney function and ultimately
• Stroke- increased incidence of aneurism and clots leading to stroke
• Damage to artery walls- turbulent blood flow leads to rough artery walls and plaque
formation How are smoking and cardiovascular disease/cancer related?
It over stimulates the heart. Carbon monoxide inhaled replaces some of the oxygen in the blood,
which reduces the oxygen supply to the heart muscle. It increases blood clotting due to tars and
other smoke residues making it easier for cholesterol to build up.
What is atherosclerosis and what are the potential consequences of it?
Atherosclerosis is the narrowing of blood vessels. It begins with lesions, in which cholesterol
from a high saturated fat diet deposits in the lesions. Macrophages try to help, fill with
cholesterol and explode = worse. Smooth muscle covers it up. Increased blood pressure is one
of the consequences.
What is a myocardial infarction and how does it occur? What are its signs?
Myocardial infarction is when part of the coronary artery supplying blood to the heart is blocked
due to build up of fat and other deposits, which causes part of the heart tissues to die. Signs
include a tight ache, heavy, squeezing pain, or discomfort in the center of the chest; anxiety;
chest pain that radiates to the shoulder, arm, neck, back or jaw; sweating or cold, clammy skin;
nausea and vomiting; shortness of breath; and dizziness, fainting, or loss of consciousness.
What are the two major treatments for coronary artery disease?
Treatments include a bypass surgery, replacing blocked/ narrow coronary arteries with healthy
segments of other arteries, and angioplasty; enlarging an artery by using a balloon-type
Outline the causes, consequences, signs and types of strokes.
Causes of stroke: Ischemic stroke is when a blockage disrupts blood flow to the brain.
Hemorrhagic stroke is when blood vessels ruptures in the brain.
Signs include sudden weakness or loss of strength; numbness of face, arm or leg; loss of
speech, or difficulty speaking or understanding speech; dimness or loss of vision, particularly
double vision in one eye; unexplained dizziness; change in personality; and change in pattern of
What is cancer? How does it result in death?
Cancer is caused by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells, which divides to create
other abnormal cells. Malignant cells leads to death.
Know the words: infiltration, metastasis, malignant, benign,
Infiltration- invasion of cancerous cells replacing healthy cells
Metastasis- spread to other parts of the body via bloodstream or lymphatic system
Benign- not life treatening Outline the 7 strategies offered by the course material for reducing the risk of cancer
1. Cancer-Smart nutrition- increase antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables e.g., vitamin C, D,
2. No Tobacco Smoke
3. Avoid possible carcinogens- e.g./ nickel, chromate, asbestos, vinyl chloride
4. Early detection- account for half of all new cancer cases
5. Keep a healthy weight
6. Physical activity
7. Be Sun smart
What is the most common type of cancer in Canada?
• Lung (#1 mortality)
• Skin (#1 incidence)
• Breast (#2 incidence females)
• Prostate (#2 incidence males)
What are the 7 warning signs of cancer?
• Change in bowel habits
• A sore that doesn’t heal
• Unusual bleeding or discharge
• Thickening of lump in breast, testis, or elsewhere
• Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
• Obvious change in a wart or mole
• Nagging cough or hoarseness
For the cancers discussed in lecture know the signs/symptoms, risk factors and
Differentiate between Diabetes Types I and II.
Type I- is genetics where the body doesn’t make insulin Type II- is lifestyle related where the body doesn’t respond to insulin anymore
Differentiate between drug misuse and abuse.
Drug misuse is for the purpose or by the person other than it was medically intended to. Drug
abuse is the excessive use of drugs that is inconsistent with accepted medical practice.
Outline the different routes of administration and their potential risks
• Inhalation- damages the lungs and/or respiratory system.
• Oral dosage-doesn’t reach the bloodstream