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Unit Tests Ch. 6-10.pdf

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University of Alberta
Dan Syrotuik

Unit Tests Ch. 6-10 November-04-12 11:07 AM Chapter 6: Emergence of Hominids 1.Besidesbipedalism, what marks a watershedin human evolution? swinging of the arms. recession of the nose. brain expansion. shrinking of the pelvis. 2. As a scientist, you are studying the evolution of the jaw in the Homo species. What best describes the reasoning you have come up with for the difference in current human jaws as opposed to larger jaws of earlier primates? Eating fruits and berries produced a chemical in the body that eventually made the jaw recess. Food became easier to chew, so those with small jaws could survive just as easily as those with large jaws. Those with smaller jaws were considered more attractive, mated more often, and produced more children. As early forms of dental care began, decaying teeth were removed and a smaller jaw formed as a result. 3. A scientist has discovered the remains of a corpse that appears to date back 2.3 million years ago. What type of species has the scientist found? Homo sapiens Homo habilis Homo floresiensis Homo erectus 4. Frank is examining the possible hominid, Orrorin tugenensis, for evidence of bipedalism. What should he look for to confirm that Orrorin was bipedal? an outer indentation on the bone attaching to the hip wide, circle-shaped ankle bones a long, angled top on the femur a short, flat bottom on the knee 5. What does the recent dating of H. erectusfossils in Java and Dmanisi to 1.7 million years ago suggest? H. habilis may have left Africa before H. erectus. H. erectus evolved independently in Europe and Asia. The dates for H. erectus in East Africa at 1.6 mya are wrong. H. erectus left Africa later than previously thought. 6. The name that describes the African populations of Homo erectus is Homo sapiens Homo habilis Homo ergaster Homo heidelbergensis 7. Stones with facets missing from both sides are called Oldowan tools. flaking tools. unifacial tools. bifacial tools. 8. Why have paleoanthropologists reconsidered adaptation to a savanna environment as the impetus for bipedalism? Primates living in tropical forests also stand upright much of the time. The environment inhabited by the early hominids was a mix of woodland and open country, not savanna. Other savanna dwelling primates did not adopt bipedal locomotion. The savanna did not emerge until millions of years after bipedalism developed. 9. What was the cranial capacity of Homo habilis 2.3 million yearsago? 630–640cc 870–890cc 1,100–1,300cc 380–530cc 10. What best describeswhat can be done with Oldowan tools? pounding heavy objects into the ground digging nuts and seeds out of hard dirt prying items off of other objects chopping tough animal joints 11. What do researchersthink the Olduvai sites with concentrations of stone tools and animal bones represent? Hunting grounds. Home bases. Ritual centers. Food processing sites. 12. What makes the Ardipithecus ramidus unique? They had bipedal locomotion, a hominid-like mouth, and a hominoid skeleton. ANTH 101 Page 1 They had bipedal locomotion, a hominid-like mouth, and a hominoid skeleton. They were bipedal, had a hominoid skeleton, and hominid-like dentition. They had ape-like locomotion, a hominoid skeleton, and hominid-like dentition. They were bipedal, had a hominid-like skeleton, and an ape-like dentition. 13. What best describesthe skull of Homo erectus? It had high brow bones and low prominent cheek bones. It included a short snout with a prominent frontal area. The width was very thin and lacked brow bones. It had prominent browridges and a flat frontal area. 14. Where does bipedalism fall in the scheme of hominid evolution? It appears to be an essential precursor to other physical changes. It is a secondary adaptation to the loss of brachiating ability. It occurred millions of years after the expansion of the hominid brain. It followed the modification of the female pelvis that allowed bigger-brained babies to be born. 15. Which genus name means “beside humans”? Hylobates Macaca Paranthropus Colobus 16. How are scientists able to determinethat Australopithecines were able to climb and move around in trees? the width of their pelvis versus rib width the curvature of their feet their arm versus leg length the length of their fingers 17. Why did bipedal hominids have a bowl-shaped pelvis? to allow sideways movement of the legs to support internal organs to balance the upper and lower body to aid in jumping movements 18. Why is the evidence for the controlled use of fire by H. erectusinconclusive? We are unable to date sites that have been subjected to fire. No fossils have been found in conjuntion with sites that show deliberate use of fire. It is impossible to differentiate deliberate fires from natural ones. Fire destroys the evidence that would be used to support such a conclusion. 19. Why are scientists now questioning whetheror not A. robustus was strictly a vegetarian? the emergence of electron microscopy the shape of their molars in the back of their mouths their massive jaw and flat face the strontium–calcium ratios in their teeth 20. The canines of Sahelanthropus were sharp and used for carnivorous eating. were thickly enameled. were large and flat. did not extend past the tooth row. 21. Walking on two legs is also called bipedal locomotion. natural selection. evolutionary movement. brachiation. 22. How is food consumption potentially tied to the developmentof bipedalism? Bipedalism enabled them to run faster after prey. It made it easier to carry food to a safe place. Bipedal females were able to gather more food for their offspring. With the use of both hands, hominids were able to plant seeds to grow their own food. 23. As a bipedal hominid, what problem would the hominid named Lucy have experienced? Supporting the head in an upright position made Lucy’s shoulders ache from the weight. Gravity made it difficult for Lucy to achieve adequate blood supply to the brain. Lucy’s feet were more prone to getting sticks and stones caught in them. The newness of carrying objects in the hands made Lucy’s hands more stressed. 24. Which of the following may have had the greatestinfluence on the evolution of human culture? The sexual division of labor. Ideologies of sharing. The ability to make stone tools. Prolonged infant dependency. 25. What is a difference betweenA. garhi and A. afarensis? ANTH 101 Page 2 25. What is a difference betweenA. garhi and A. afarensis? A. garhi was bipedal, and A. afarensis was not. A. garhi had much larger molars than A. afarensis. A. garhi had an enlarged brain, and A. afarensis did not. A. garhi had more elongated arms and legs than A. afarensis. ***************************************************************************************************************************** ********* Chapter 7: Homo Sapiens Chapter 7: Homo Sapiens 1)Mousterian tool assemblage is associated with which period of cultural history? Middle Stone Age Middle Paleolithic Upper Paleolithic Neolithic 2)The term Homo heidelbergensis represents the “transitional” species between Homo erectus and H. sapiens. Australopithecus. sapiens sapiens. H. neandertalensis. 3)A Homo sapiens sapiens fossil dated to about 160,000years ago was found in which country? Israel Australia France Ethiopia 4)The multiregional theory is primarily supported by high mtDNA variation in modern African populations. hair lice found on H. erectus and modern humans. Y chromosome analysis between Neandertals and H. sapiens. skeletal continuities between Homo erectus and Homo sapiens. 5)What type of archaeological evidence offers the best support for the theory that Neandertals were driven to extinction? fossils of Neandertals murdered by H. sapiens tools fossils of starved Neandertals fossils of Neandertal “hybrids” fossils of “refugee” Neandertal populations in Iberia 6)Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the Upper Paleolithic period? personal ornaments cave art blades axes 7)How were atlatls used? to launch spears to carve needles to make blades to catch fish 8)The term Middle Paleolithic refers to the period of cultural history of Neandertals living in which geographical area? Asia and Australia Europe and Africa Europe and the Near East Africa and the Near East 9)What was the earliest evidence to suggest that Homo sapiens and Homo neandertalensis were related? theorized rates of interbreeding skeletal traits consistent with bipedalism finding of shared tool technology comparisons of mtDNA from fossils 10)Which of the following could have contributed to the disappearance of Neandertals? the need for a high-calorie diet limited brain capacity absence of tool technology lack of variety in food sources 11)Supporters of the multiregional theory believe Neandertals were driven to extinction by H. sapiens. were an evolutionary step toward H. sapiens. interbred with H. sapiens. developed tool technology independently of H. sapiens. 12)Which of the following is NOT consistent with the single-origin theory? Modern humans replaced Neandertals. ANTH 101 Page 3 Modern humans replaced Neandertals. Modern humans emerged in the Near East. Modern humans spread out from Africa. Modern humans evolved from H. erectus. 13)According to Steve Churchill, which trait gave Homo sapiens sapiens an advantage over Neandertals? bipedalism stockier bodies smaller muscle mass larger brain capacity 14)Which of the following was NOT a result of indirect percussion and pressure flaking? more efficient use of flint production of flakes that have a predetermined size increased working edge on blades invention of smaller blades 15)How do archaeologists explain the overrepresentation of cave and rock shelters as identified Middle Paleolithic homesites? Neandertals did not process the skills to build homesites. Neandertals lived exclusively in these natural structures. Cave and rock shelters are longer lasting than open homesites. Open homesites would not have provided Neandertals with adequate protection. 16)Why did the Levalloisian method require toolmakers to start with large pieces of flint? to create tools which could be easily repaired to increase the amount of usable edge on flakes to produce tools that could be attached to a shaft. to prevent the production of random-sized flakes 17)Some archaeologists argue that modern humans had a biological advantage over Neandertals. This idea primarily supports which explanation of the absence of Neandertals today? Neandertals were unable to effectively compete for resources. Evolutionary pressures caused Neandertals to evolve into modern humans. Modern humans used their advantage to kill off Neandertals. Neandertals interbred with modern humans. 18)What was one result of the evolution of Homo erectus to Homo sapiens? stronger bones smaller jaw bones a smaller brain cavity larger face 19)What environmental changes pushed modern humans to develop new tools toward the end of
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