Sep 21/12: Human Biological Diversity
7:51 AM Sep 21, 2012
Why the Concept of Biological Races is Rejected
- There is no natural way toclassify humansinto biologicallymeaningful categories
- There are no "pure" races because all populations have beenin contact (interbreeding)with othersduringtheirhistory and they are constantly changing.
- There is more geneticvariation withingroups thanbetween groups.(we are more similaron the insidethanon the outside)
- Phenotypesimilaritiesmake up a very small fraction ofsimilaritiesin the human race - genotype similaritiesare far far more!
- The Human Genome project showed the above
- There is very littlegeneticdiversity in thehuman species asthey haven'tbeen around that long
- All humanshave a common ancestorof Chimpanzees
- Chimpanzeeshave20x more diversity than humans
- Races are no more than cultural constructionsbased on arbitrary characteristics
- Cultural Construct:somethingthat people have madeup. In different culturesthey have different conceptionsof groupings(different culturesgroup people
usingdifferent physical features)
- Biological characteristicsare not linkedwith abilitiesor behaviours.
- Primatology:The study of livingprimates
Why Study Primates?
- We havea relatively recentcommon ancestor
- We sharemore physical characteristicswith primates than with otherorganisms
- Our earlyancestors evolvedin environmentssimilarto thosewhere primateslivetoday
- All primatessharecommon qualities(all primatesare mammals)
- Mammalsare distinctbecausethey breastfeed theiroffspring,the give birthto live young,they have fur/hairthat cover's theirbody,they maintain
constantbodytemp., they have a specifickindof teeth (eterodonts),
○ Reduced snout and less reliance on sense of smell (terrible sense of smell)
○ Binocularvision(aka. Stereoscopicvision) and colourvision (fairly goodvision)
Binocularvisionmeans we can see depth
Advantageof binocular vision:can easilyjump through treesand grab branches/huntingabilities/
Birds of prey alsohave binocularvision
Advantage to see in color: stayingsafe (i.e. differentcolorscan be good or poisonous)/hunting
○ Tactilepads and dermal ridges on digits forgreater prehensility
Finger pads allow us to sense a change in texture and temperature
Dermal ridges are what creates our fingerprintsand they create friction to grasp objects
- Teeth and Diet
○ Generalized dental pattern (2-1-2-3 or 2-1-3-3)
Primates retained the4 original teeth
Front (insicors), canine,pre-molars, molars
Incisors:cut/ pre-molars& molars: chewing/
ANTH 101 Page 1 Sep 24/12: Primates Cont'd....
7:57 AM Sep 24, 2012
Generalized dental pattern (2-1-2-3 or 2-1-3-3) Cont'd...
□ Eterodonts means that something has different kinds of teeth
Lack of specializationin teeth and diet
Means everythingBUT the skull
Prehensile hands and feet with pentadactily (means 5 fingers on each hand/foot)
Opposable thumb and big toe
Retention of the collar bone (clavicle)
□ Allows us to use tools
Large brain-to-body size ratio
□ People use to refer to this as the measure of intelligence
□ It's actuallyan indicationof how long an individual grows after birth and how much behavior is learned.
Erect upper body
□ Means we don't need our hands to balance and can use them to grasp and manipulate objects
Diversity of modes of locomotion
□ 4 Basic types:
Vertical Clinging and Leaping
◊ These type of animals tend to live in environments where the trees are relatively small so most of the food is not on far away
branches, it's more in the middle.
◊ Are propelled by jumping
◊ Not very adaptive to life on the ground
◊ Very long legs, short arms
◊ Arms/hands/fingers are very long compared to their legs
◊ They livein tropical rainforest
◊ Mainly consume fruits
◊ Not overly adaptive to lifeon the ground (vulnerable on the ground)
◊ Long hands/arms/fingers make them adaptive to livingin trees
◊ Support weight on knuckles
◊ Palms are sensitive
◊ Relativelylong arms compared to legs however not to the extent of Brachiation
◊ Adult male Gorillas do not climb very much (too large), the female ones will climb more
◊ Walks on all fours
◊ Legs are larger than arms however not to the extent of Vertical Clinging/Leapers.
◊ Well suited for both trees and ground
◊ Often have long tails and use them as counterweight
- Life History
○ Long gestation period and period of infancy
The bigger the animal the longer the gestation period
Primates for their size, the gestation period is quite long
How we can categorize species in terms of their reproduction - basically how many offspring a specials can have at one time.
You can be either k-selected OR r-selected (this is a relativecategorization)
Few offspring at a time and spend a great amount of time taking care of them
○ Relativelylong life span
- Geographical and Niche Distribution
○ Tropical to temperate environments
○ Desert to tropical rain forests
○ Arboreal and terrestrial
○ Nocturnal and diurnal (active at night vs. day)
○ Primates can live in a variety of environments as we are able to adapt
- Socioecology studies the relationshipbetween ecological factors and social behaviour (ex. Social organization)
- Nocturnal primates tend to be small and to live alone or in very small groups. (the majority are less than 500g)
○ Nocturnal advantage - less predators
○ Small body advantage - easier to hide during the day and quieter
○ Small group advantage - easier to hide all members of pack
- Diurnal live in much larger groups and are larger in body size
○ Large body advantage - Protection from predators or to deter predators
○ Large group advantage - Protection, and by cooperating can obtain more food
- Arboreal species live in smaller groups and are generally smaller in body size.
Small body size advantage - Can move around in trees easier
ANTH 101 Page 2 ○ Small body size advantage - Can move around in trees easier
- Terrestrial species livein larger groups and are generally larger in body size.
○ Large body size advantage - Protection, have to face larger predators so they need to be bigger, more resources on the ground
○ Large group advantage - Better protection against predators (safety in numbers), predators can choose others to attack
- Monogamous species tend to be monomorphic for body size and canine size. (Gorilla males are larger than the females due to needing to fight with other
males to have a chance to stay close to the females to possibly mate)
ANTH 101 Page 3 Sep 26/12: Primates Social Structure
7:56 AM Sep 26, 2012
- Monogamous species tend to be monomorphic body size and canine size
○ Refers to the group structure (one adult male & one adult female)
○ This doesn't mean there's no competition between males for females
○ They look for a mate & a territory
○ Why wouldn't the males be bigger than the females? Because females have to do the same thing (both have to find a mate & territory).
○ It's in the females best interest to let the males defend themselves so that they can prove that they are a better and stronger mate.
○ If a female tries to replace another female the males do not interfere for the same reasons that the females don't interfere.
○ The only time the male will defend the female is if the female is carrying a very young offspring that can't take care of themselves.
○ Less than 10% of species are monogamous
- Species living in one-male/multi-femalegroups tend to have more extreme sexual dimorphism than species living in multi-male/multifemale groups.
○ One-male/multi-female(ex. Gorilla) & multi-male/multi-female (ex. Chimpanzees)
○ Different kinds of competitiions (Gorillas: if a male can keep all other males away then he can mate with multiple females and produce more
○ When females can forage in close proximity (i.e. when food resources are clumped), males can prevent other males from getting close to the
females, i.d. form one-male/multi-femalegroups.
Females feed in close proximity to each other and therefore it's easier for the males to watch for other males trying to take of the group of
Chimpanzees,feed on many things throughout their environment and therefore females scatter and feed, therefore it's hard for the males to
keep track of all the females together - to solve this problem, several males will collaborate to keep a group of females - this is why
Chimpanzees don't have to be very much larger than females (there's more cooperation than fighting and fighting is dispersed among a group)
ANTH 101 Page 4 Sep 26/12: ArcheologicalMethods
8:22 AM Sep 26, 2012
- Context in archeology helps determine what objects are, what they were used for, by who, and how.
The archeological Process
Finding sites or localities
- Site: a place where you find evidence of human occupation
- Locality: is where you find fossils of these individuals
- Done carefully
- Record everything (otherwise it's difficult to interpret what was found)
- Determining how old the fossils/artifacts are
How to find sites or localities
- Simplest way to find objects
- Items are coming up to the surface through ground erosion
- Looking for evidence that there may be something worth digging up (i.e. a camp or settlement)
- Advantage is to find tiny things and make a judgement whether it's worth excavating
Aerial photographs & Satellite images
- Not searching for tiny objects but rather much larger signs and evidence of human occupation
Soil marks & crop marks
- Is the evidence that past buildings have left on the surface
- Crop Marks: different vegetation grows on top of the surface
- Soil marks: the different colors of the soil due to a different Ph balance.
- Sometimes vegetation cannot grow on top of what was left behind and therefore when you fly over it you can see patterns on the soli
Ethnohistorical Data (maps, folklore)
- Stories from people
- Biblical archeology: using the bible as a source
- Things brought to the surface naturally by erosion (i.e. Africa rain and dry season)
- Dig to make buildings/roads etc. and accidentally find fossils and sites.
- If you find fossils and artifacts, leave them there and get an archeologist and bring them to the site. It's easier to tell what things are if they are seen at
- Most important part of an archeological investigation (basically you're destroying a site and it can't be redone)
- Establishing a grid system and a datum point
○ Divide area into smaller areas and this allows you to record precisely where things were found in relation to something else (what they were
○ Excavation can't usually be done in one season and therefore the grid system is taken away and reburied to preserve the site and artifacts.
Reburying protects from further erosion.
○ The Datum point allows you to re-establish exactly where the grid system was the year before. Something permanent in the environment that
will allow you to know exactly where the site is. This gives the excavation precision.
ANTH 101 Page 5 Sep 28/12: Archeological Methods Cont'd.
7:56 AM Sep 28, 2012
- Establishing a grid system and a datum point
○ Datum: allows us to re-establishthe grid system precisely year after year
- Record keeping and Screening
○ Record very precisely where in the unit the object was found (ex. 8cm from the North wall of unit 62/ 5cm from the south wallof unit 62/ and 3cm
○ Recording is important because you are destroying the site as excavation moves on. No one can come back and duplicate the excavation.
○ Very tedious and precise work.
○ For smallerobjects (liketiny bones or pottery), all the soil is recorded, removed, bagged, and then screened.
○ If you record all the information well, the site will be able to be duplicated on the computer in 3D.
- Determining the function of the artifacts.
○ What are they? What are they for? Was is used daily? Was it decorative.
○ Markings/ Residue/ Damage/
○ Some items have obvious uses and others are judged by the artifacts found in its vicinity
○ Ritual object (basicallymeans the archeologist is unsure exactly what the object was)
- Identifyingplant and animal remains
○ Can be used to date artifacts found
○ Determine diet, pets, medicines,
○ Also, humans tend to attract animals and therefore the animal found may not have been domesticated but rather wildand feeding off of what
humans throw out, the other animals humans attract (mice), etc.
- Other Common Questions:
○ Is it a permanent or a seasonal site?
The difference between the two could be found by the type of shelter; type of clothing found; amount of items found.
Seasonal: Remnants of types of plant/food material that may have only been available duringa particular time of year. Also,migrant species of
○ What changes occurred over time?
During excavation, the deeper you go the further back in time you go and therefore recording in 3D allows you to figure out items that may
have came first.
○ Why did changes occur?
○ Why was the site abandoned?
- Today, archeologists need to have a very specific question in mind in order to validate the excavation and the funds needed to excavate.
Relative Dating Methods
- Relative dating methods: determiningwhether an object or site is younger or older than another one.
- There are 2 main dating methods
- Stratigraphy: the older the fossil is the deeper it's found and vice versa. However this isn't always true, items could be purposely buried; the land could
have changed (i.e. tectonic plate shift or landslides).
○ Also, sites located very far apart cannot be compared against each other due to the possible events that happened at each site.
- StylisticSeriation: Using the objects themselvesto figure out how old the item(s) is. The sequence of changes in items (ex.Pottery) of styles. Sometimes it's
what they look like.Sometimes it's the method they were used. Sometimes it's the decoration found on the item. You must knowthe sequence to begin
with in order to date an object with this method
- Faunal Analysis: Dating items based on plants found in the area
- Palynology: Dating items based on the animals found in the area.
- Fluorine Method: Based on the accumulation of fluoride in bones, teeth, and pottery. The longer the items are buried, the more fluoride it willhave. In
comparing items through this method, location of items found is important.
- Varves: Depositions at the bottom of lakes. Patterns seen on the bottom of seasonal lakes.
**These methods only allow you to tell if an item is older, younger, or the same age as something else**
Chronometric Dating Methods
- Absolute (chronometric) dating methods: determining the age of an object or site in number of years.
- There are 2 main dating methods
- Radiocarbon dating: The carbon14 isotope in the atmosphere is breathed in by organisms. When an organism dies it is assumed that it is no longer taking
in oxygen. You can measure how much Carbon14 is inside the organism that is found. The age is based on the fact that after the organism has been dead
for 5730 years, half of the carbon is gone - after another 5730 years, it halves again to a quarter.
- Basics of C-14:
ANTH 101 Page 6 - Basics of C-14:
○ Can only be used on organic matter
○ Is relatively precise up to 40,000 years ago and not useful after 70kya
○ Future use of C-14 will not likelywork for our time period because of changing C-14 ratios.
- Potassium-Argon dating: Potassium changes to Argon and can be used for much older organic matter that is found. It takes 1.3 Billion years for half of
Potassium to change to Argon.
- Basics of K-AR:
○ Half lifeis 1.3 Billionyears.
○ Only useful for volcanic material.
○ Is used to date volcanic material up to 3 billionyears old.
ANTH 101 Page 7 Oct 3/12: Human Evolution
???Ardipithecus Ramidus (5.8-4.4mya)???
(Ardipithecus Kadabba: 5.8-5.5?)
- Splitter or Lumper
- Small Canines
- Teeth size proportions between apes and hominins
- Lived in forested environment
- Social Organization
○ Lived in monogomous pairs (based on a set of foot prints found) - this is just a guess as no concrete evidence has been found for this.
- For the 3 earliest species, there is no concrete connection that explains how they are connected
Missing Link: a fossil that will allow us to make a connection to others
The Australopithecines (4.5-1.9mya)
Anamensis (4.5-4 mya)
- A. Afarensis (4.3-3 mya)
- A. africanus (3-2.4 mya) - first discovered in the 1920's (called the "Mighty")
- A. garhi (ca. 2.5 mya)
- A. sediba (1.9mya)
- Small brain size (350cc to 450cc) - compared to body size, this is only about 1/3 of modern human brain size
○ Brain size compared to body size isn't changing that much
- Increase in body size (1.0 to 1.5m) - could be used to explain why brain size is increasing
○ Live in a mosaic environment which includes both grassland and forests
- Reduction of front teeth
○ Why would natural selection favor smaller front teeth?
Change in diet
Maybe their not using their front teeth as tools (because they've created tools?)
Realistic theory: the type of food being eaten has changed. Need to chew food more now and large canines would get in the way therefore
canines are not as useful anymore and begin to decrease in size.
Another theory is sexual selection: when you bare your teeth it's a show of aggression. Therefore when males were trying to find a mate, the
females would choose the less intimidating small teeth mates.
- Sexually dimorphic
- Possible osteodontokeratic culture:
○ When the first ancestor was found, people believed that it would be able to make tools.
○ Osteo - Bones Donto - Teeth Keratic - Karotin (nails/claws/horns/antlers)
- Meat eating from scavenging
- No evidence of hunting
- Group Structure?
○ Monogamous? (footprints)
○ One male / multifemale? (dimorphism)
○ Multimale / multifemale? (how much dimorphism)
ANTH 101 Page 8 Unit Tests Ch. 1-5
Chapter 1 Test
1. Which of the following is a definition of basic research?
statistical support of a theory
research driven by curiosity
repetitive tests of a theory
research driven by compassion
2. A group of anthropologists (including linguists, archaeologists, paleoanthropologists, and climatologists) comes together to study an ancient Mayan calendar.
What does this group’s assembly most demonstrate?
the scientific orientation
the anthropological curiosity
the holistic nature of anthropology
the scope of anthropology
3. What is usually the last step in testing a theory?
determining and measuring the sample
defining the variables
confirming or rejecting the theory
evaluating the data
4. What is paleoanthropology?
the discovery and study of ancient human artifacts
the study of the prehistoric earth
the study of human evolution
the study of how and why contemporary human populations differ biologically
5. Why does the author cite the Mayan temple of Chichén Itzá along with broken pottery and garbage heaps?
to illustrate the variety of artifacts archaeologists study
to describe how Mayans lived
to demonstrate which artifacts give more information
to demonstrate which artifacts have lasted longest
6. What is usually the first step in testing a theory?
confirming or rejecting the theory
determining and measuring the sample
defining the variables
evaluating the data
7. Examine Table 1.1 on page 17. What could be done to improve the statistical significance of Whiting’s findings?
remeasure the 27 societies with low protein and long sex taboos
remeasure the 20 societies with low protein and short sex taboos
remeasure the 47 societies with high protein and short sex taboos
remeasure the 25 societies with medium protein and long sex taboos
8. What is the value of anthropology in today’s world?
It gives us confidence that no matter what we do to the environment, we will find a way to survive.
It produces models of the best cultures and societies.
It provides inside information about our political enemies.
It helps us understand each other in an increasingly interconnected world.
9. What negative message might a powerful country convey when it tries to help other countries?
the message that humanity is powerless
the message that the future is hopeless
the message that it wants a violent confrontation
the message that it thinks the other countries are inferior
10. Why does the author include the example of North Americans’ changing to live more like San people of the Kalahari Dessert in South Africa?
to demonstrate how anthropology can help people solve their personal problems
to illustrate how anthropology helps people live better lives
to give an example of how anthropology helps avoid misunderstandings between peoples
to illustrate how anthropology helps end violence between cultures
11. What are the two types of explanations that are sought in science?
customs and observations
observations and theories
associations and theories
actions and associations
12. Read the Applied Anthropology box on page 9. Which type of anthropology did Anita Spring begin in the 1980s?
basic ethnology research
applied ethnography research
13. Which of the following questions would interest an ethnologist?
ANTH 101 Page 9 13. Which of the following questions would interest an ethnologist?
How were the first cave paintings produced?
Can chimpanzees learn sign language?
Why do we give wedding presents?
Does God exist?
14. Why would paleoanthropologists study plant and animal populations?
to help present-day humans interact better with their environment
to clarify human evolutionary relationships
to give present-day humans a sense of their shared past and connection with the environment
to see how early humans compared to other species
15. Dr. Samson wants to compare health habits among contemporary island populations in the South Pacific. How is he MOST likely to do this?
He will most likely examine physical and written artifacts concerning health from each island.
He will most likely gather ethnographer accounts from different populations and look for patterns.
He will most likely construct statistical data on the physical environments of each island.
He will most likely conduct his own ethnography research with each population and look for patterns.
16. Examine the photo and its caption on page 6. Why are archaeologists studying this site?
to preserve the information before the site is destroyed
to test theories about human evolution
to help the present population living around it
to demonstrate both humanity’s humility and confidence
17. What makes Anthropology a holistic science?
Anthropologists are mainly interested in the big picture, rather than specifics.
Anthropologists integrate information about many facets of human experience.
There is little specialization within the field.
Anthropology focuses on traditional practices, such as holistic medicine.
18. Which is an essential question that all anthropologists ask?
How do these studies affect and assist the population being studied?
How does a given artifact support or negate a theory about human development?
What are the typical characteristics of human groups?
How and why do populations organize themselves differently around the globe and throughout the ages?
19. Examine the photo and its caption on page 13. Why does the author include this image in this section of the chapter?
to illustrate how thermometers work
to illustrate that anthropology is both a physical and a social science
to illustrate how cold snow is
to illustrate how anthropologists must work in many types of climates
20. Which of the following fields is most likely to include applied anthropologists?
21. What is the scientific orientation toward knowledge?
that it is uncertain
that it is understandable
that it is unknowable
that it is absolute
22. Explanations of human behavior and variation should __________.
make intuitive sense
be supported by evidence
reflect the absolute truth
incorporate the researcher’s biases
23. Which types of anthropologists study the origins of human language?
ethnologists and archaeologist
applied anthropologists and cultural anthropologists
biological anthropologists and linguists
24. Dr. Amini notes that in one society, only men plant yams, whereas women plant and harvest all other vegetables. What is Dr. Amini’s study an example of?
a statistical association
25. How does applied or practical anthropology relate to the other fields of anthropology?
It cuts across them.
It distinguishes each one.
It excludes them.
It ties them all together.
Chapter 2 Test
ANTH 101 Page 10 Chapter 2 Test
1. How are ethnographers related to ethnohistorians?
They use the exact same research methods.
They use all of the same sources of evidence.
Ethnographers provide data for future ethnohistorians.
Ethnographers provide data for past ethnohistorians.
2. Read the New Perspectives on Gender box. How can knowledge about gender roles be recovered?
by studying where people lived (e.g., closer or further from food sources)
by studying what people ate (e.g., how much protein their diets contained)
by comparing materials from today that are associated with particular genders
by finding, recording, and analyzing materials associated with gender
3. Why is cross-cultural research more generally applicable than regional studies?
because the specific sampling of worldwide cultures is more representative
because ethnographical research is more reliable than data analysis
because the random sampling of worldwide cultures is more representative
because data analysis is more reliable than ethnographical research
4. What are indicator artifacts?
specimens that are representative of a regional culture
specimens that establish a strata for relative dating
minerals that decompose, indicating absolute dating
minerals that were typically used for lithics
5. Why do you think context is so important in archaeological research?
Objects are more visually appealing when placed in a natural context.
It is only with all the contextual pieces in place that we can know the true meaning of an object from the past.
Context gives information as to how and why the object was created and used.
Without context, it is impossible to accurately date an object.
6. Which of the following would be LEAST likely to create an ethical dilemma for an ethnographer?
Witnessing ritual practices of homosexuality.
Returning to the field to conduct a follow-up study a decade later.
An invitation to the wedding of a key informant’s enemy.
Being asked to be god-parent to the chief’s new son.
7. Examine the photo and caption on page 28. What step in the research process are these anthropologists most likely conducting?
recording horizontal and vertical levels
9. How do features relate to ecofacts?
Features may include ecofacts.
Ecofacts indicate features.
Ecofacts determine features.
Features are made up of ecofacts.
10. If you discovered what looked like a Homo habilis fossil, which dating technique(s) would you choose?
Radiocarbon dating and relative dating.
Radiocarbon dating only.
Relative dating and potassium-argon dating.
Potassium-argon dating and radiocarbon dating.
11. In which area would we most likely find fossils?
the ocean floor
a rain forest
a limestone quarry
12. What is paradoxical about archaeology?
Archaeologists use other specimens to relatively date artifacts and use minerals to absolutely date them.
Archaeologists must be subjective participants and objective observers.
History is most important to archaeologists, yet they focus on artifacts rather than written documents.
Context is most important to archaeologists, yet they destroy context during excavation.
13. Examine Table 2.1. An epidemiologist is studying the recent eradication of smallpox from the face of the earth. Where on the chart would this
anthropologist’s study fall?
Worldwide sample, Nonhistorical
Worldwide sample, Historical
Single case, Historical
14. How are ethical dilemmas similar for ethnographers and archaeologists?
They both are obligated to report honestly.
They both need to be aware of looting.
They both need to be aware of gift giving.
They are both likely to affect context.
ANTH 101 Page 11 They are both likely to affect context.
15. A museum curator creates a display of pots of similar use and period but from different regions. What has the curator paid little heed to?
16. Why would an anomaly in the Earth’s magnetic field be of interest to archaeologists?
It suggests that a meteorite may have destroyed the site.
It could indicate the presence of an archaeological site.
It indicates that the artifacts have been magnetized.
It is evidence of a dramatic climate change in the past.
17. Examine the diagram on page 32. Where does carbon change into nitrogen?
in the sky
in the tree
in the ground
in the water
18. Examine the photo and caption on page 28. How can these anthropologists best preserve the context of this site?
by recording the horizontal and vertical locations
by not excavating it
through remote sensing
through pedestrian survey
19. Examine the photo and its caption on page 23. What type of research is Margaret Kieffer most likely conducting?
20. Which of the following is an example of an artifact found in conjunction with an ecofact?
An animal bone found near a patch of burnt earth.
A mosaic floor covered with volcanic ash.
A bronze sword laying next to a human skull.
A clay pottery shard coated with wheat pollen.
21. Which of the following is the best way to resolve the ethical issues involved in excavating a burial ground?
Avoid excavating burial grounds and focus on the surrounding area.
Meet with the descendants of those buried to see if there are ways to conduct the research respectfully.
Promise to reinter the human remains and artifacts after they have been fully studied.
Do not become distracted by local superstitions and continue with your research.
22. What assumption is made when using the stratigraphic dating technique?
The layers were formed naturally and are uniform around the world.
Absolute dating methods would not work on the sample.
Objects found in deeper layers are older.
The older the artifact, the more degraded it will be.
23. Why might an anthropologist conceal the name of the community that he/she studied?
People studied are generally proud of their culture.
Geographic information is usually important to studies.
Informants generally wish to remain anonymous.
People can usually figure out where anthropologists were studying.
24. What are the advantages of pedestrian survey?
It requires no equipment and little training, yet it can yield great results.
It is the most widely and longest practiced, so it is the most effective in finding sites.
It can be done anywhere by anyone, advancing anthropological research significantly.
It is simple, cheap, and effective in revealing surface elements.
25. Examine the photo and its caption on page 26. What type of evidence is most visible here?
Chapter 3 Test
1. Why did Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection cause widespread controversy?
It claimed that humans had not yet achieved their perfect form.
It proved that the common ancestor of apes and humans was extinct.
It implied that humans were descended from nonhuman forms.
It proposed that humans and apes were members of the same genus.
2. According to the text, how does human activity such as industrialization affect insects?
It decreases their abilities to adapt.
ANTH 101 Page 12 It decreases their abilities to adapt.
It increases their abilities to adapt.
It changes their colors.
It changes their food sources.
3. How did Linnaeus’ classification system affect the theory of evolution?
Linnaeus’ system provided evidence for the theory of evolution.
Linnaeus’ system contradicted the theory of evolution.
Linnaeus’ system provided a framework for the theory of evolution.
Linnaeus’ system supported the theory of evolution.
4. How are segregation and crossing-over related?
They are both involved in the process of determining sex.
They both result in adaptive mutations.
They are both involved in the process of mitosis.
They both result in shuffling chromosomes.
5. Examine the picture and its caption on page 49. Why would legs instead of antennae most likely be a harmful mutation for a fruit fly?
It couldn’t ingest its food well.
It couldn’t reproduce well.
It couldn’t fly well.
It couldn’t sense its surroundings well.
6. What makes a sex-linked trait distinct from other traits?
The expression of a sex-linked trait will occur during sexual intercourse.
The expression of a sex-linked trait depends on how much sex the organism has.
The expression of a sex-linked trait will occur during sexual reproduction.
The expression of a sex-linked trait depends on the sex of the organism.
7. What is meiosis?
the process of DNA creation
the process by which the reproductive cells are formed
the process of forming a new organism
the process of chromosome creation
8. Which of the following is needed in order for natural selection to work?
differential reproductive success
millions of years
9. Examine the photo and its caption on page 55. What is the author likely illustrating with this image?
how humans and dogs are similar
heritable cultural learning
how humans and dogs are different
10. Which of the following analogies for the interaction of DNA and mRNA is the most accurate?
DNA is the architect and mRNA is the building.
DNA is the master plan and mRNA is phase I.
DNA is the blueprint and mRNA is the fax machine.
DNA is the quarterback and mRNA is the kicker.
11. Which aspect of DNA would you consider most important for understanding human evolution and variation?
Its patterning of genetic information.
Its chemical composition.
Its helical structure.
Its ability to replicate.
12. How are genotypes similar to phenotypes?
They are both the result of recessive traits.
They are both the result of dominant traits.
They both affect appearances.
They both are the result of heredity.
13. According to the text, which animals exhibit inherited cultural learning?
14. Bacteria’s becoming resistant to antibiotics is an example of what kind of natural selection?
15. What is “crossing-over” in genetic recombination?
the exchange of codes between one sex cell and another
the exchange of characteristics between one species and another
ANTH 101 Page 13 the exchange of characteristics between one species and another
the exchange of sections between one chromosome and another
the exchange of traits between one gene and another
16. Which of the following is the most common barrier to speciation?
17. Which of the following contradicts the classical notion of a “chain of being?”
The classification of humans as primates.
The genetic similarities of chimpanzees and humans.
Fossils of extinct species.
18. What evidence does the author provide for his suggestion that the intelligent design movement is political?
Their stated aim is to replace current scientific thinking with science in alignment with theistic convictions.
Their discourse is violent and insulting, penetrating all aspects of public life: education, entertainment, and health care.
Their membership includes prominent politicians.
They spend as much on lobbying as they do on educational efforts.
19. Which of the following is an example of a heterozygous allele grouping?
20. How is healthcare responsible for passing on maladaptive traits?
It increases their reproduction through fetal genetic modification.
It increases their reproduction by preserving people with said traits.
It decreases their occurrences through fetal genetic modification.
It decreases their reproduction by preserving people with said traits.
21. What is a potential consequence of the mounting evidence of hybridization?
We might have to alter our definition of a species.
Individuals might start to lose their unique features.
We might have to reconsider the assumptions of natural selection.
The number of adverse traits in a given population might increase.
22. What does “adaptive” mean in science?
fewer environmental problems
greater reproductive success
better able to handle challenges
23. Which of the following is a good example of a cultural practice that could result in perpetuating a negative genetic mutation?
Over using x-ray technology in airport security.
Curing a genetically-based fatal illness.
Encouraging marriage between first cousins.
24. Which of the following ideas is challenged by the attributes of genetic clines?
Race is more of a cultural construct than a scientific fact.
Humans can be categorized according to race.
The boundaries separating populations with different traits are indistinct.
Gene flow reduces the number of genetic differences between groups of people.
25. The blue-winged warbler is a bird that lived in the central Midwest of the United States. When New England farmland reverted back to brush and woodland,
some blue-winged warblers migrated there. They mated with golden-winged warblers, producing breeds known as Lawrence’s Warbler and Brewster’s Warbler.
Of what is this an example?
Chapter 4 Test
1. The sickle-cell allele tends to be found where there is a high incidence of what disease?
2. Which statement accurately represents Bergmann’s rule?
People who live in warmer areas of the earth have bodies that are more slender than those who live in cold areas.
The protruding body parts of animals that live in cold areas are shorter than those of animals that live in warm areas.
ANTH 101 Page 14 The protruding body parts of animals that live in cold areas are shorter than those of animals that live in warm areas.
Populations of mammals and birds that live in warmer areas have darker skin, fur, and feathers than populations that live in cooler areas.
The average height of populations can increase significantly in just a few generations due to improvements in nutrition.
3. What is the name of this rule?: The amount of melanin in the skin of human beings is related to the climate of the person’s environment.
4. What is the name of the reproductive strategy that involves having fewer children but spending considerable effort to raise each one?
5. In the opinion of the author, which of the following types of humans has the best chance of survival in the future?
a human developed from genetic engineering
a “perfect” and invariable human being
humans evolved through natural selection
a cloned race
6. Which group of people would be most likely to be decimated by exposure to tuberculosis?
Those who have had long-term contact with the disease.
Those who have never had contact with the disease.
Groups that have adapted to live in harsh environments.
Groups that have developed immunities to similar diseases.
7. Cloning, genetic engineering, and stem cell manipulation all have the possibility of being used to do what?
exactly replicate an animal
create engineered human beings
8. When did the first large-scale intelligence testing begin in the United States?
9. Mangrove plants grow in wet, salty environments. They have evolved strange-looking projections from their roots known as “knees.” These knees help plants to
maintain adequate root respiration. This description is a botanical application of what process?
10. Which of the following is most often used by the public to classify a “race”?
11. Which of the following is probably NOT a factor that contributes to the height and size of human beings?
12. Which of the following would be considered a form of acclimatization?
the greenhouse effect
more natural spray tans
13. Which of the following could account for why so many Native Americans died from infectious diseases after European contact?
There was a high degree of genetic homogeneity in the indigenous population.
They did not respond well to European medicines.
Climate conditions exacerbated the spread of disease.
They had poor dietary habits.
14. To discredit the theory that some “races” exhibit biological inferiority by the primitive nature of their cultures, the author cites several early sophisticated
civilizations that were more advanced than European counterparts of the time. Which civilizations are cited?
Indian, Mayan, and Ghanaian
Chinese, Mayan, and Ghanaian
Indian, Aztec, and Ghanaian
Indian, Mayan, and Aztec
15. What term is defined by this phrase: “a change to the structure of a gene”?
ANTH 101 Page 15 natural selection
16. Who documented the fact that the lowest body weights in human beings were found among people who occupied areas with the highest mean annual
D. F. Roberts
17. Which of the following factors can make a population of people more susceptible to a disease?
a high degree of genetic heterogeneity
the arduous nature of hunter-gatherer life
a high degree of genetic homogeneity
the practice of isolating sick people
18. When would it be a good idea to take vitamin D supplements?
Whenever you go to the beach.
During cold winter days.
If you are lactose intolerant.
If you live in the tropics.
19. What is one cultural way that Americans produce physical variations?
using wrinkle repair serums
wearing high-heeled shoes
correcting poor vision
20. What enzyme breaks down the sugar in milk to form sugars that are easier to digest?
21. Which of the following ultimately determines the reproductive success of people with certain traits?
22. Which of the following human variations have caused the most frequent instances of racism?
susceptibility to disease
IQ test results
23. Approximately how many people in the New World died when Europeans introduced diseases to their populations?
24. Why are people with long limbs and thin bodies better suited to live in the tropics than fat, short people?
Tall, slim people are more likely to be dark skinned.
Their build facilitates the retention of body heat.
Their build facilitates dissipation of body heat.
Tall, slim people are better hunters.
25. According to William Durham’s studies, natural selection favors what factors in populations that live at higher altitudes than those that live at the equator?
lactose reduction and lighter skin
lactase production and darker skin
lactase production and lighter skin
lactose reduction and darker skin
Chapter 5 Test
ANTH 101 Page 16 Oct 15/12: Human Evolution
Homo Erectus/ergaster behaviour
- Frist to migrate out of Africa
- New tools (Acheulean tools)
- Hunters or scavengers?
- Possibly controlled fire
- Made shelters (?)
Two groups of Humans:
- Homo Erectus: first name given to fossils found in Asia/Mainland China
○ Very few stone tools ever discovered in Asia
○ Possibly made tools from Bamboo
- Homo Ergaster: name given to fossils found in Africa
○ Made stone tools
Home Base: A place they would have to return to regularly (ex. Streams, lakes)
- 1m Tall
- Small brain (420cc)
- Island effect (secluded animals get smaller in size. Due to limited resources and predators)
- Used fire
- Stone Tools
Archaic Homo sapiens - Middle to Late Pleistocene (900-40kya)
- Homo heidelbergensis found in Europe, Africa and Western Asia
- Neandertals (250-40kya)found in Europe
- Homo antecessor(?)
Characteristics of Archaics
- Large brain size (1200-1500cc)
- Modern human stature
- More robust built
- Massive supraorbital torus
- Occipital torus
- Most likely hunted large game
- Stone tools are known as Mousterian
○ Tools are adapted to specific tasks
○ Tools are getting smaller (may suggest better manual dexterity)
Characteristics and Behaviors of Neandertal
- Very robust built
- Very large incisors
- Short limbs (compared to body size proportions)
- Adapted to life in cold climates
- Deliberatelyburied their dead
- Evidence of portable art (music)
- Evidence of care for the elderly
Origins of Modern Humans (H. sapiens) Origins of Modern Humans (H. sapiens) Oct 19/12: Mesolithic and Neolithic Revolutions
Homo Sapiens Dispersal
- 40,000yr Euro
- 67,000yr Asias
- 100,000yr N. Africa
- 130,000yr Mid/S. Africa
- 40-60,000yr Australia
- Faster pace of cultural change
- Tools evolve rapidly
- Art is more present
- Changes in lifestyle (no longer just concerned with survival. Now devoting more of their time on "unnecessary activities")
○ In the beginning art is mostly utilitarian
○ Two basic types of animals represented in paintings are (1) the type of animals that they hunt (2) the large predators
Origins of Agriculture
- Domestication of plants and animals took place in several different places at the same time throughout the world
- Domestication: is the systematic, artificial selection of traits in plants or animals to make them more useful to human beings.
- Cultivation: is the systematic planting and harvesting of plants to support the subsistence activities of a population.
Characteristics of Domesticated Animals
- Jared Diamond: studied a list of species and wondered why we did not domesticate more of them.
- Bottom of food chain.
- Quick growth rate, early sexual maturity.
- Simple breeding ritual
- Not programmed for flight response
- Social structure of dominance hierarchy
Evidence of Animal Domestication
- Occurrence of a species outside its natural distribution.
- Dramatic increase in the exploitation of a species.
- Change in age structure and sex ratio
- Decrease in size or change in morphology
- Increase in milk teeth at site, pathologies.
- Cultural associations - burials.
Large Mammal Domestication
Dog (>12 ka)
Sheep 10ka FC
Goat 10ka FC
Pig 10kz FC, China
Cow 6ka FC, Indian, N. Aftica?)
Horse 4ka Ukraine
Donkey (4ka Egypt; water buffalow 4ka China?; Camels 2.5ka Bactrian/Central Asia, Arabian
ANTH 101 Page 19 Oct 22/12: Origins of Domestication
Abu Hureyra (Syria)
- The revolution of domesticationhad physical effects on the first people
○ Living was very laborious (i.e. on hands and knees grinding grain into flour). This has
impacts on parts of the anatomy.
- Lack certain nutrients (they are not creating enough variety/plants to get all the proper
- Cultural revolutioncame at a cost which is in the relative health of these populations
Advantages of Domestication?
- Production of a surplus
- Reliable food supply
- Becoming more sedentary (?)
○ There can also be disadvantages to being sedentary.
Overuse of soil
Sanitation issues (spread of diseases)
May become very labour intensive to keep safe
- Supports larger populations (?)
○ There can also be disadvantages to having a larger population.
More conflict (need moreresources)
More people to feed
- Allows moretask specialization
○ Now not everyonemust produce food and thereforepeople are available to
learn/performother specialized tasks.
Disadvantages of Domestication?
- More susceptible to famine (natural disasters)
- Spread of contagious diseases
- Less varied diet (in the beginning)
- Demands more work
- Conflicts over land and crops
- Beginnings of social inequalities
Models for the Origins of Domestication
- Population growth models
○ As populations grow, production of food becomesnecessary.
- Climate change
○ Climate change force populations to look for new food sources and food production.
- Trading networks
○ Some food items are cultivated for trade, but later becomestaple food sources
- Increased knowledge of plants and animals
○ Grew crops because we could (too simplistic)
- Expansion into the new environments Oct 22/12: Origins of State-organized Societies
What are Complex Societies?
- They have increased task specialization
- There are increased inequalities in access to wealth and power Oct 31/12: Language
Other differences in Communication
- Paralanguage:extralinguistic noises thataccompanylanguage (grunts,moans,pitch,pauses,etc.)
- Proxemics:the studyof how peoplestructurethe spacearound themwhen interactingwith others.
- Kinesics:the studyof body movementsthataccompany speech asa component ofcommunication
- Why do languages change?
○ Ex. When we invent new things we must come up with a new word for it.
○ Syntax rarelychanges
○ Pronunciation rarelychanges
○ Great vowelshift -> vowels beganto sound quite different
○ The come in contact with otherlanguages and borrow words fromone another.
- How are languages related to one another?
○ The more you havein common you have with anotherlanguagethe more likely you havesomethingin common with another ancestor.
○ Ex. English is considered to be part of the Germanicfamily of languages- meaningat one point it came from the same population
- What wereancestral languages like?
○ More fiction that real science as we would needto have all languages around.
○ The problemwith this is that today there are more languages that are extinct than exist. Lots of necessary evidence missing(i.e. speech,writing)
- How longago have languages separated?
Linguists have developed anumberof methods(i.e. datingmethods) to find out when new languages occurred.
- The studyof the use of languageand howit reflects thesocial settingin which itis used.
- Age, gender,class,ethnicity influencethe use of languageas does familiarity and relativestatus ofspeakers.
○ Ex. Women are more likely to add a "tag" at the end of what they say-> "I didn't like that movie, did you?" Men wouldsay "that movie was terrible"
- Languages can also giveus information aboutthe culture ofa people.
- Vocabularycan tell us whatis importantto a culture.(Ex. Inuithavea lotof expressions withthe word"snow"in it)
- Syntax can tell us about values and worldviews
○ Ex. There are some languages wherethe personal pronoun "I" doesn'texist- this may tell us that they are much more focused on the collective rather
than the individual.
- The beliefthatinterpretations ofreality are influencedby the language one speaks
○ The language you learn influences you to view your worldin a specific way (this is alsoknown as the Saphere/Warf theory)
- For example,some languagesdon't have a word for work.Whatdoes thisimply?
- The debate is howmuch does language influence ourviews of reality and in whatway
******THIS CONCLUDUESTHE MATERIAL COVERED ON THE MIDTERM*******
ANTH 101 Page 22 Unit Tests Ch. 6-10
Chapter 6: Emergence of Hominids
1.Besidesbipedalism, what marks a watershedin human evolution?
swinging of the arms.
recession of the nose.
shrinking of the pelvis.
2. As a scientist, you are studying the evolution of the jaw in the Homo species. What best describes the reasoning you have come up with for the difference in
current human jaws as opposed to larger jaws of earlier primates?
Eating fruits and berries produced a chemical in the body that eventually made the jaw recess.
Food became easier to chew, so those with small jaws could survive just as easily as those with large jaws.
Those with smaller jaws were considered more attractive, mated more often, and produced
As early forms of dental care began, decaying teeth were removed and a smaller jaw formed
as a result.
3. A scientist has discovered the remains of a corpse that appears to date back 2.3 million years ago. What type of species has the scientist found?
4. Frank is examining the possible hominid, Orrorin tugenensis, for evidence of bipedalism. What should he look for to confirm that Orrorin was bipedal?
an outer indentation on the bone attaching to the hip
wide, circle-shaped ankle bones
a long, angled top on the femur
a short, flat bottom on the knee
5. What does the recent dating of H. erectusfossils in Java and Dmanisi to 1.7 million years ago suggest?
H. habilis may have left Africa before H. erectus.
H. erectus evolved independently in Europe and Asia.
The dates for H. erectus in East Africa at 1.6 mya are wrong.
H. erectus left Africa later than previously thought.
6. The name that describes the African populations of Homo erectus is
7. Stones with facets missing from both sides are called
8. Why have paleoanthropologists reconsidered adaptation to a savanna environment as the impetus for bipedalism?
Primates living in tropical forests also stand upright much of the time.
The environment inhabited by the early hominids was a mix of woodland and open country, not savanna.
Other savanna dwelling primates did not adopt bipedal locomotion.
The savanna did not emerge until millions of years after bipedalism developed.
9. What was the cranial capacity of Homo habilis 2.3 million yearsago?
10. What best describeswhat can be done with Oldowan tools?
pounding heavy objects into the ground
digging nuts and seeds out of hard dirt
prying items off of other objects
chopping tough animal joints
11. What do researchersthink the Olduvai sites with concentrations of stone tools and animal bones represent?
Food processing sites.
12. What makes the Ardipithecus ramidus unique?
They had bipedal locomotion, a hominid-like mouth, and a hominoid skeleton.
ANTH 101 Page 23 They had bipedal locomotion, a hominid-like mouth, and a hominoid skeleton.
They were bipedal, had a hominoid skeleton, and hominid-like dentition.
They had ape-like locomotion, a hominoid skeleton, and hominid-like dentition.
They were bipedal, had a hominid-like skeleton, and an ape-like dentition.
13. What best describesthe skull of Homo erectus?
It had high brow bones and low prominent cheek bones.
It included a short snout with a prominent frontal area.
The width was very thin and lacked brow bones.
It had prominent browridges and a flat frontal area.
14. Where does bipedalism fall in the scheme of hominid evolution?
It appears to be an essential precursor to other physical changes.
It is a secondary adaptation to the loss of brachiating ability.
It occurred millions of years after the expansion of the hominid brain.
It followed the modification of the female pelvis that allowed bigger-brained babies to be born.
15. Which genus name means “beside humans”?
16. How are scientists able to determinethat Australopithecines were able to climb and move around in trees?
the width of their pelvis versus rib width
the curvature of their feet
their arm versus leg length
the length of their fingers
17. Why did bipedal hominids have a bowl-shaped pelvis?
to allow sideways movement of the legs
to support internal organs
to balance the upper and lower body
to aid in jumping movements
18. Why is the evidence for the controlled use of fire by H. erectusinconclusive?
We are unable to date sites that have been subjected to fire.
No fossils have been found in conjuntion with sites that show deliberate use of fire.
It is impossible to differentiate deliberate fires from natural ones.
Fire destroys the evidence that would be used to support such a conclusion.
19. Why are scientists now questioning whetheror not A. robustus was strictly a vegetarian?
the emergence of electron microscopy
the shape of their molars in the back of their mouths
their massive jaw and flat face
the strontium–calcium ratios in their teeth
20. The canines of Sahelanthropus
were sharp and used for carnivorous eating.
were thickly enameled.
were large and flat.
did not extend past the tooth row.
21. Walking on two legs is also called