Dr. Kostelecky - Philosophy 249 - 14

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHIL249
Professor
Matthew Kostelecky
Semester
Fall

Description
PHILOSOPHY 249 ST. THOMAS AQUINAS ON BEING AND ESSENCE taught by Albert the Great aristotle avicenna averroes albet the great bonaventure aquinas scotus ockham picks up important notion from avicenna: the first thing conceived is being and essence. we need to be right about being and essence "a slight error in the beginning is large in the end," he starts by saying if you make a mistake in the beggining you get big mistakes later. it is an epistemological statement: you need to get the very starting point right or later on your knowledge may be very wayward. to start off the right way you must discuss being and essence. BEING AND ESSENCE ARE FIRST CONCEIVED OF IN THE INTELLECT: anything there is can be thought of according to its being and its essence what is it to say that thing that is conveived of first when thinking of highlighter or chair or dog is by making reference back to ether being (act of existence) or essence. FIRST CONCEIVED means absolute reference back to the first condition for conceiving of anything. ESSENTIAL TERMS: • the Philosopher: Aristotle • the Commentator: Averroes • being: the act of the thing. tree without leaves is in the act of not having leaves right now. • essence: the complete mode of the thing's being. the causes of the tree's acts (having, not having leaves). determines a being to be the kind of being that it is. there is no essence of the individual. there is no socrates essence, but socrates fits into the larger essence of humanity. • intention: there is something in my mind that my thought is about. you can't just think without some object in your thought. your thinking is always towards some object. What is it to have thought about things? • first intention: the first thing you abstract: cupness, humanity, dogness, etc. • second intention (logical intention): genus, species. this is what logic does, analyses the relationship between second intentions. how do cups relate to dogs or how does dog relate to dogs. whenever you start sliding around on porphyry's tree. *MORE GLOSSARY BELOW QUESTIONS: how does second intention exist? does it exist? these go back to porphyry's questions he doesn't treat. first conception in the intellect is being and essence. does it not seem like it is being that is first here? ASK YOURSELF WHETHERYOU THINK AQUINAS MAKES BEING AND ESSENCE DISTINCT FROM ONE ANOTHER: is it a real distinction or just conceptual..? intentionality - a historical take. PHENOMENOLOGY: In the 19th Century & 20th Century: Bretano, Husserl, and Heidegger. Bretano trained in Scholastic thought. He wanted to talk about the way the mind is constituted when it has objects of knowledge. That is what they call an INTENTION. - the mind intends some kind of object, so thought always has a relationship towards some kind of object. all thought is intentional. you can't just thi
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