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Midterm

Midterm #1 Review Notes

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCO105
Professor
Blaine Mullins
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 7 Language and ThoughtLanguage system for communicating with others using signals that convey meaningcombined according to rules of grammarPhoneme smallest unit of sound that is recognizable as speech rather than as random noise ieboy has 3 phonemesphonological rules indicate how phonemes can be combined to produce speechmorphemes smallest meaningful units of language ie pat is one morphemegrammar set of rules that specify how the units of language can be combined to producemeaningful messages syntax morphologymorphological rules how morphemes can be combined to form words Content morphemes refer to things and events Functional morphemes grammatical functionsie and but syntactical rules how words an be combined to form phrases and sentences Deep structure meaning of sentencesurface structure how a sentence is wordedAt every stage of language development children understand language better than they speak childrens passive mastery of language develops faster than their active masteryFast mapping children map a word onto an underlying concept after only a singleexposure telegraphic speech devoid of function morphemes and consist mostly of content words twoword sentences spoken around 24 mths Behaviorists learn language through operant conditioning reinforced with smiles and cacklesNativist theory language development is best explained as an innate biological capacityBrain is equipped with language acquisition device LAD collection ofprocesses thatfacilitate language learninggenetic dysphasia syndrome characterized by an inability to learn the grammaticalstructure of language despite having otherwise normal intelligenceaphasia difficulty in producing or comprehending languagelinguistic relativity hypothesis language shapes nature of thoughtconcept mental representation that groupscategorizes shared features of related objects eventsor other stimulicategoryspecific deficit inability to recognize objects that belong to a particular category whileleaving the ability to recognize objects outside the category undisturbed brain is prewired to organize perceptual and sensory inputs into broadbased categories as living and nonliving thingsfamily resemblance features that appear to be characteristic of category members but may not bepossessed by every memberprototype the bestmost typical member of a category exemplar theory we make category judgements by comparing a new instance with storedmemories for other instances of the category
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