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Final

SOC100 Study Guide - Final Guide: Stanford Prison Experiment, Stamp Collecting, Symbolic Interactionism


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC100
Professor
Alison Dunwoody
Study Guide
Final

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Problem Areas -- Chapters 1-10
Chapter 1
Sociological Imagination: the capacity to shift from one perspective to another; to be
!able to shift from the perspective of the personal experience to the grander,
!societal scale that caused or influenced that personal experience
!!-- the ability to view human lives as shaped by social forces; recognize
!relationship between individuals and society; **INDIVIDUALS AND SOCIETY
!ALWAYS EXIST IN RELATION TO ONE ANOTHER
Structural Functionalism: Functionalism: focuses on how social systems operate and
!produce consequences. Structuralism: a way of explaining social forms and their
!contributions to social cohesion. IE: “this is the part of society we call organized
!religion, and this is how it functions..”
!!-- assumption that society functions much like a machine. Examines
!structure and function of systems that make up society.. society needs institutions
!to work properly so there is order, harmony, STABILITY.
!-- 3 different types of functions: 1. manifest: intended. 2. latent: neither intended
!nor recognized(hidden). 3. latent dysfunction: unintended, unrecognized and
!negative in consequences. IE: education system. 1. training young to teach. 2.
!promotion of conservative ideologies; promotes conformity. 3. perpetuation of
!existent social inequalities (race, social class, gender)
Symbolic Interactionism: looks at the meaning(symbolic part) of daily social interactions
!of individuals. IE: two males saying “Yo, whaʼs up?” and bringing their fists
!together represents friendship
!!-- ** concerned with how individuals subjectively respond to objective
!situations (context is everything). People in exact same situations respond
!differently. Key concepts: interaction, interpretation, meaning and symbols(signs
!that have shared meaning for members of a group, which include language,
!facial expressions, social roles, material objects)
Sociology by Audience
1. Professional: generates very specific information; academic world of sociology
departments, scholarly journals, conferences.. etc.
2. Critical: “the conscience of professional sociology”; aims to make sure that
professional sociologists do not become lost in esoteric debates that they lose sight
of the issues of the fundamental importance to the discipline.
3. Policy: generating sociological data for use in the development of social policy for
govʼt -- 3 main areas are education, health, social welfare
4. Public: addresses audience outside of academy (ie: universities/colleges); can be
said to be in it just for the publicity.
Chapter 2
Auguste Comte - 1st positivist, 1st to point out that sociology was more more of a
!science. -- believed that through scientific study you could uncover the ʻlawsʼ that
!govern society and therefore shape and even improve society and social life.
Elements of Scientific Study: Observation, Comparison(of different types of societies),
!Historical Analysis(how things evolve/change).

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Science involves: observation (deliberate and systematic; must follow accepted
!methods and procedures), analysis (identify patterns in observations), and must
!be public (published in various forms b/c it is a cooperative effort)
Quantitative Research: associated with positivism(objective reality ready to be
!discovered); useful for testing hypotheses and generalizing results.. go out
!study, come back and explain to everyone else. All experts should have same
!objective study found. IE: surveys (problem: doesnʼt allow you to clarify your
!experience)
-Dependent variable depends on independent variable. ** Correlation does not
imply causation.
-Valitidity refers to accuracy; authenticity of reserach.. reliability refers to
dependability or consistency; not as important b/c social phenomena change
over time
Qualitative Research: focuses on the subjectivity of both the researcher and the
!researched; very detailed; understand something on its own. IE: open-ended
!interview, which allows people to elaborate on experience, more in-depth.
!!-- Ethnography: understand and explain group of interacting people;
!involves participant-observation(field notes) and interviewing.
!!-- Content Analysis: gathering and analyzing the content of text; search for
!themes and patterns in content of text. IE: in advertising, women- experiential
!knowledge “I tried this and it worked..” vs. men- technical knowledge “this is why
!this product works..”
!!-- Discourse Analysis: analysis of a conversation, speech or written text in
!search for patterns.
Research Ethics -- Key principles: - informed consent, avoidance of harm(physical,
!social, psychological, legal, financial), anonymity and confidentiality.
Cases of Ethical Controversy
Obedience Study: Revealed anyone will do awful things under obedience. Issues:
!deception, caused stress(harm)
Tea-Room Trade: Revealed 50% lived heterosexual lives, but engaged in homosexual
!acts. Issues: consent and deception
Stanford Prison Experiment: Participants got caught up in roles they were assigned.
!Issue: psychological and physical harm
Chapter 3
What Kinds of Cultures are There?
Dominant Culture: In Canada, white, English-speaking, Christian, European stock,
!middle class; Oneʼs who have political and economic power to impose values,
!language and ways of behaving.
Subculture (subordinate culture): groups who feel power of dominant culture and exist in
!opposition to it. There is no significant opposition or challenge to dominant
!culture. IE: lawyers, sociologists, stamp collectors, computer nerds.. etc.
Counterculture: reject selected elements of dominant culture (ie: clothing style, sexual
!norms) IE: goths, biker gangs, hippies in the 60ʼs
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High Culture: the elite, distinct minority VS. Popular Culture: culture of the majority,
!usually do not have power (working class, less educated, women, racialized
!minority)
Mass Culture: similar to popular culture except they believe they can take an active role
!in shaping the culture they consume
Norms: rules/standards of behavior that are expected of a group, society or culture
Positive Sanction: reaction that supports behavior; reward for doing the right thing IE:
!smile, high five, supportive comment, work bonuses
Negative Sanction: reaction designed to tell offenders they have violated a norm. IE:
!rolling eyes, mild joke, fines for overdue books
Types of Norms: (Note: the differences that exist among these norms relate to the
!nature of the reaction their violation produces)
1. Folkways: norms governing day-to-day matters IE: improper etiquette, double-dipping
2. Mores: norms that you MUST not violate; against the law IE: rape, killing, vandalism,
stealing
3. Taboo: norm so deeply ingrained in our social consciousness that the mere thought or
mention of it is enough to arouse disgust or revulsion IE: incest, child pornography,
cannibalism, eating dog
Chapter 4
Family is the first agent of socialization; often powerful. The means of socializing a child
!vary from culture to culture.
Culture and Personality- a school of thought that attempted to identify and describe an
!idealized personality/ “personality type” for different societies.. eventually
!broadened to the studies of national character-- personality type of entire nation.
!!-- IE: swaddling hypothesis: moody behavior is caused by being tightly
!bundled up(swaddled) as children.
Media Violence (George Herbner)
- The more t.v. we watch, the more we believe it reflects reality.
- “Stories of power” - white males in the prime of life(under-represents women and non-
white); involves power struggle, conflict, violence (even though its not a popular
commodity.. its just easy to create, requires little talent and is easy to export).
- “happy violence” - presented as thrilling and entertaining; something we should aspire
to; all our problems can be solved with violence and no serious consequences.
- “accelerating violence” - dosage of violence increases overtime and we become
desensitized to it
- MAIN POINT: “violence as a social relationship”: leads people to identify as either
victims or aggressors IE: women are 50% more likely to be victims than aggressors
- “mean wold syndrome” - the more people watch violence, the more dangerous they
think the world is.
- Many of our problems are caused by too much censorship (inhibits ability to have
meaningful discussions on these issues).. too much power in too few of hands; must
challenge through media reform to have more diverse media, images.. promote media
literacy(critical viewing).
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