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Final

Final Exam Study Notes (Ch. 1-10)

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC100
Professor
Alison Dunwoody
Semester
Fall

Description
Problem Areas -- Chapters 1-10 Chapter 1 Sociological Imagination: the capacity to shift from one perspective to another; to be able to shift from the perspective of the personal experience to the grander, societal scale that caused or inuenced that personal experience -- the ability to view human lives as shaped by social forces; recognize relationship between individuals and society; **INDIVIDUALS AND SOCIETY ALWAYS EXIST IN RELATION TO ONE ANOTHER Structural Functionalism: Functionalism: focuses on how social systems operate and produce consequences. Structuralism: a way of explaining social forms and their contributions to social cohesion. IE: this is the part of society we call organized religion, and this is how it functions.. -- assumption that society functions much like a machine. Examines structure and function of systems that make up society.. society needs institutions to work properly so there is order, harmony, STABILITY. -- 3 different types of functions: 1. manifest: intended. 2. latent: neither intended nor recognized(hidden). 3. latent dysfunction: unintended, unrecognized and negative in consequences. IE: education system. 1. training young to teach. 2. promotion of conservative ideologies; promotes conformity. 3. perpetuation of existent social inequalities (race, social class, gender) Symbolic Interactionism: looks at the meaning(symbolic part) of daily social interactions of individuals. IE: two males saying Yo, whas up? and bringing their sts together represents friendship -- ** concerned with how individuals subjectively respond to objective situations (context is everything). People in exact same situations respond differently. Key concepts: interaction, interpretation, meaning and symbols(signs that have shared meaning for members of a group, which include language, facial expressions, social roles, material objects) Sociology by Audience 1. Professional: generates very specic information; academic world of sociology departments, scholarly journals, conferences.. etc. 2. Critical: the conscience of professional sociology; aims to make sure that professional sociologists do not become lost in esoteric debates that they lose sight of the issues of the fundamental importance to the discipline. 3. Policy: generating sociological data for use in the development of social policy for govt -- 3 main areas are education, health, social welfare 4. Public: addresses audience outside of academy (ie: universities/colleges); can be said to be in it just for the publicity. Chapter 2 Auguste Comte - 1st positivist, 1st to point out that sociology was more more of a science. -- believed that through scientic study you could uncover the laws that govern society and therefore shape and even improve society and social life. Elements of Scientic Study: Observation, Comparison(of different types of societies), Historical Analysis(how things evolve/change). Science involves: observation (deliberate and systematic; must follow accepted methods and procedures), analysis (identify patterns in observations), and must be public (published in various forms b/c it is a cooperative effort) Quantitative Research: associated with positivism(objective reality ready to be discovered); useful for testing hypotheses and generalizing results.. go out study, come back and explain to everyone else. All experts should have same objective study found. IE: surveys (problem: doesnt allow you to clarify your experience) - Dependent variable depends on independent variable. ** Correlation does not imply causation. - Valitidity refers to accuracy; authenticity of reserach.. reliability refers to dependability or consistency; not as important b/c social phenomena change over time Qualitative Research: focuses on the subjectivity of both the researcher and the researched; very detailed; understand something on its own. IE: open-ended interview, which allows people to elaborate on experience, more in-depth. -- Ethnography: understand and explain group of interacting people; involves participant-observation(eld notes) and interviewing. -- Content Analysis: gathering and analyzing the content of text; search for themes and patterns in content of text. IE: in advertising, women- experiential knowledge I tried this and it worked.. vs. men- technical knowledge this is why this product works.. -- Discourse Analysis: analysis of a conversation, speech or written text in search for patterns. Research Ethics -- Key principles: - informed consent, avoidance of harm(physical, social, psychological, legal, nancial), anonymity and condentiality. Cases of Ethical Controversy Obedience Study: Revealed anyone will do awful things under obedience. Issues: deception, caused stress(harm) Tea-Room Trade: Revealed 50% lived heterosexual lives, but engaged in homosexual acts. Issues: consent and deception Stanford Prison Experiment: Participants got caught up in roles they were assigned. Issue: psychological and physical harm Chapter 3 What Kinds of Cultures are There? Dominant Culture: In Canada, white, English-speaking, Christian, European stock, middle class; Ones who have political and economic power to impose values, language and ways of behaving. Subculture (subordinate culture): groups who feel power of dominant culture and exist in opposition to it. There is no signicant opposition or challenge to dominant culture. IE: lawyers, sociologists, stamp collectors, computer nerds.. etc. Counterculture: reject selected elements of dominant culture (ie: clothing style, sexual norms) IE: goths, biker gangs, hippies in the 60sHigh Culture: the elite, distinct minority VS. Popular Culture: culture of the majority, usually do not have power (working class, less educated, women, racialized minority) Mass Culture: similar to popular culture except they believe they can take an active role in shaping the culture they consume Norms: rules/standards of behavior that are expected of a group, society or culture Positive Sanction: reaction that supports behavior; reward for doing the right thing IE: smile, high ve, supportive comment, work bonuses Negative Sanction: reaction designed to tell offenders they have violated a norm. IE: rolling eyes, mild joke, nes for overdue books Types of Norms: (Note: the differences that exist among these norms relate to the nature of the reaction their violation produces) 1. Folkways: norms governing day-to-day matters IE: improper etiquette, double-dipping 2. Mores: norms that you MUST not violate; against the law IE: rape, killing, vandalism, stealing 3. Taboo:norm so deeply ingrained in our social consciousness that the mere thought or mention of it is enough to arouse disgust or revulsion IE: incest, child pornography, cannibalism, eating dog Chapter 4 Family is the rst agent of socialization; often powerful. The means of socializing a child vary from culture to culture. Culture and Personality- a school of thought that attempted to identify and describe an idealiz
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