Study Guides (248,414)
Canada (121,549)
Sociology (208)
SOC100 (86)

Final Exam Study Notes (Ch. 1-10)

8 Pages
Unlock Document

Alison Dunwoody

Problem Areas -- Chapters 1-10 Chapter 1 Sociological Imagination: the capacity to shift from one perspective to another; to be able to shift from the perspective of the personal experience to the grander, societal scale that caused or inuenced that personal experience -- the ability to view human lives as shaped by social forces; recognize relationship between individuals and society; **INDIVIDUALS AND SOCIETY ALWAYS EXIST IN RELATION TO ONE ANOTHER Structural Functionalism: Functionalism: focuses on how social systems operate and produce consequences. Structuralism: a way of explaining social forms and their contributions to social cohesion. IE: this is the part of society we call organized religion, and this is how it functions.. -- assumption that society functions much like a machine. Examines structure and function of systems that make up society.. society needs institutions to work properly so there is order, harmony, STABILITY. -- 3 different types of functions: 1. manifest: intended. 2. latent: neither intended nor recognized(hidden). 3. latent dysfunction: unintended, unrecognized and negative in consequences. IE: education system. 1. training young to teach. 2. promotion of conservative ideologies; promotes conformity. 3. perpetuation of existent social inequalities (race, social class, gender) Symbolic Interactionism: looks at the meaning(symbolic part) of daily social interactions of individuals. IE: two males saying Yo, whas up? and bringing their sts together represents friendship -- ** concerned with how individuals subjectively respond to objective situations (context is everything). People in exact same situations respond differently. Key concepts: interaction, interpretation, meaning and symbols(signs that have shared meaning for members of a group, which include language, facial expressions, social roles, material objects) Sociology by Audience 1. Professional: generates very specic information; academic world of sociology departments, scholarly journals, conferences.. etc. 2. Critical: the conscience of professional sociology; aims to make sure that professional sociologists do not become lost in esoteric debates that they lose sight of the issues of the fundamental importance to the discipline. 3. Policy: generating sociological data for use in the development of social policy for govt -- 3 main areas are education, health, social welfare 4. Public: addresses audience outside of academy (ie: universities/colleges); can be said to be in it just for the publicity. Chapter 2 Auguste Comte - 1st positivist, 1st to point out that sociology was more more of a science. -- believed that through scientic study you could uncover the laws that govern society and therefore shape and even improve society and social life. Elements of Scientic Study: Observation, Comparison(of different types of societies), Historical Analysis(how things evolve/change). Science involves: observation (deliberate and systematic; must follow accepted methods and procedures), analysis (identify patterns in observations), and must be public (published in various forms b/c it is a cooperative effort) Quantitative Research: associated with positivism(objective reality ready to be discovered); useful for testing hypotheses and generalizing results.. go out study, come back and explain to everyone else. All experts should have same objective study found. IE: surveys (problem: doesnt allow you to clarify your experience) - Dependent variable depends on independent variable. ** Correlation does not imply causation. - Valitidity refers to accuracy; authenticity of reserach.. reliability refers to dependability or consistency; not as important b/c social phenomena change over time Qualitative Research: focuses on the subjectivity of both the researcher and the researched; very detailed; understand something on its own. IE: open-ended interview, which allows people to elaborate on experience, more in-depth. -- Ethnography: understand and explain group of interacting people; involves participant-observation(eld notes) and interviewing. -- Content Analysis: gathering and analyzing the content of text; search for themes and patterns in content of text. IE: in advertising, women- experiential knowledge I tried this and it worked.. vs. men- technical knowledge this is why this product works.. -- Discourse Analysis: analysis of a conversation, speech or written text in search for patterns. Research Ethics -- Key principles: - informed consent, avoidance of harm(physical, social, psychological, legal, nancial), anonymity and condentiality. Cases of Ethical Controversy Obedience Study: Revealed anyone will do awful things under obedience. Issues: deception, caused stress(harm) Tea-Room Trade: Revealed 50% lived heterosexual lives, but engaged in homosexual acts. Issues: consent and deception Stanford Prison Experiment: Participants got caught up in roles they were assigned. Issue: psychological and physical harm Chapter 3 What Kinds of Cultures are There? Dominant Culture: In Canada, white, English-speaking, Christian, European stock, middle class; Ones who have political and economic power to impose values, language and ways of behaving. Subculture (subordinate culture): groups who feel power of dominant culture and exist in opposition to it. There is no signicant opposition or challenge to dominant culture. IE: lawyers, sociologists, stamp collectors, computer nerds.. etc. Counterculture: reject selected elements of dominant culture (ie: clothing style, sexual norms) IE: goths, biker gangs, hippies in the 60sHigh Culture: the elite, distinct minority VS. Popular Culture: culture of the majority, usually do not have power (working class, less educated, women, racialized minority) Mass Culture: similar to popular culture except they believe they can take an active role in shaping the culture they consume Norms: rules/standards of behavior that are expected of a group, society or culture Positive Sanction: reaction that supports behavior; reward for doing the right thing IE: smile, high ve, supportive comment, work bonuses Negative Sanction: reaction designed to tell offenders they have violated a norm. IE: rolling eyes, mild joke, nes for overdue books Types of Norms: (Note: the differences that exist among these norms relate to the nature of the reaction their violation produces) 1. Folkways: norms governing day-to-day matters IE: improper etiquette, double-dipping 2. Mores: norms that you MUST not violate; against the law IE: rape, killing, vandalism, stealing 3. Taboo:norm so deeply ingrained in our social consciousness that the mere thought or mention of it is enough to arouse disgust or revulsion IE: incest, child pornography, cannibalism, eating dog Chapter 4 Family is the rst agent of socialization; often powerful. The means of socializing a child vary from culture to culture. Culture and Personality- a school of thought that attempted to identify and describe an idealiz
More Less

Related notes for SOC100

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.