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HROD 321 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Employee Retention, Organizational Commitment, Employee Engagement

Human Resources and Organizational Dynamics
Course Code
HROD 321
Study Guide

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Chapter 1: What is organizational behaviour?
1. Demonstrate the importance of interpersonal skills in the workplace.
Soft skills team working, communicating effectively, leadership and cultural awareness. These
interpersonal skills are essential for managerial effectiveness: easier to hire and keep qualified people.
2. Describe the manager’s functions, roles and skills
Managers get things done through other people. They make decisions, allocate resources and direct
the activities of others to attain goals. Managers do their work in an organization, which is a consciously
coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis
to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
Managers perform four management functions:
1. Planningprocess that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to
coordinate activities.
2. Organizing determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be
grouped, who reports to whom and where decisions are to be made.
3. Leadingfunction that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most
effective communication channels and resolving conflicts.
4. Controlling monitoring activities to ensure that they are being accomplished as planned and
correcting any significant deviations.
Managers perform 10 different, highly interrelated roles. As shown on p. 5, these can be grouped as:
Interpersonal roles
1. Figurehead role performing duties that are ceremonial in nature.
2. Leadership roletraining, motivating and disciplining employees.
3. Liaison rolecontacting outsiders who provide the manager with information.
Informational roles
1. Monitor role collecting information from outside organizations and institutions.
2. Disseminator roletransmitting information to organizational members.
3. Spokesperson rolerepresenting the organization to outsiders.
Decisional roles
1. Entrepreneur roleinitiating and overseeing new projects that will improve their
organization’s performance.
2. Disturbance handlerstaking corrective action in response to unforeseen problems.
3. Resource allocatorsbeing responsible for allocating human, physical and monetary
4. Negotiator rolediscussing issues and bargain with other units to gain advantages for
their own unit.
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Management skills:
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Technical skillsability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise.
Human skills ability to work with, understand and motivate other people, both individually
and in groups.
Conceptual skills mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations.
Managers engage in four managerial activities:
1. Traditional managementdecision making, planning, and controlling
2. Communicationexchanging routine information and processing paperwork
3. Human resource managementmotivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing and training.
4. Networking socializing, politicking and interacting with outsiders.
Managers who are successful (defined in terms of the speed of promotion within their organization have a
very different emphasis from managers who are effective (defined in terms of the quantity and quality of
their performance and the satisfaction and commitment of their employees).
3. Define organizational behavior.
Organizational behavior a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and
structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward
improving an organization’s effectiveness
4. Show the value to OB of systematic study.
There are certain fundamental consistencies underlying the behaviour of all individuals that can be
identified and then modified to reflect individual differences. Behaviour is generally predictable, and the
systematic study of behaviour is a means to making reasonably accurate predictions.
Systematic studycan be time-consuming.
Evidence-based management (EBM) basing managerial decisions on the best available scientific
Intuition gut feeling not necessarily supported by research, often based on inaccurate information.
Core values of science:
Open-mindedness S
Use evidence as much as possible to inform your intuition and experience promise of OB.
5. Identify the major behavioral science disciplines that contribute to OB.
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Psychology science that seeks to measure, explain and sometimes change the behaviour of humans and
other animals. lOMoARcPSD| 2183719
Social psychology area of psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that
focuses on the influence of people on one another. Change has been a major area receiving considerable
investigation how to implement it and how to reduce barriers to its acceptance.
Sociologystudy of people in relation to their social environment or culture.
Anthropology study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. See page 11.
6. Demonstrate why there are few absolutes in OB.
Contingency variablessituational factors: variables that moderate the relationship between two or more
other variables.
7. Identify the challenges and opportunities managers have in applying OB concepts.
Responding to globalization:
Increased foreign assignments manage a workforce that is likely to be very different in needs,
aspirations and attitudes.
Working with people from different cultures to work effectively with people from different
cultures, you need to understand how their culture, geography and religion have shaped them and
how to adapt your management style to their differences.
Coping with ant capitalism backlashmanagement practices need to be modified to reflect the
values of the different countries in which an organization operates.
Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low-cost labor managers must deal with the
difficult task of balancing the interests of their organization with their responsibilities to the
communities in which they operate.
Managing workforce diversity organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender,
age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation and inclusion of other diverse groups.
Embracing diversityreplace melting-pot assumption by one that recognizes and values
Changing European demographicsage and gender.
Implications workforce diversity has implications for management practice they have to shift
their philosophy from treating everyone alike to recognizing differences and responding to those
differences in ways that ensure employee retention and greater productivity, while, at the same
time, not discriminating.
Improving quality and productivityexcess capacity translates into increased competition, and that is
forcing managers to reduce costs and, at the same time, improve their organization’s productivity and the
quality of the products and services they offer.
Improving customer service management needs to create a customer-responsive culture. Improving
people skillsexplain and predict the behaviour of people at work.
Stimulation innovation and changestimulate employees’ creativity and tolerance for change.
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