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KNES 323
Carol Gibbons Kroeker

Review – Cardiovascular Chapter 14 – Cardiovascular - 21 pts Chapter 15 – Circulatory– 7 pts The Highlight Reel (things to focus on): Wigger’s Diagram!!! Label the curves and the time periods – know when the valves are open and when they are closed. Basic anatomy – chambers, valves, pressure ranges of each Myocardial ischemia and infarct Heart Failure The basics of the ECG - conditions that affect the ECG. Valve abnormalities Properties of each of the blood vessel types Blood flow – and what affects it. Vessel conditions – atherosclerosis, varicose veins Cardiovascular Questions: Define Stroke Volume. amount of blood pumped in 1 beat The blood pumped per minute is called. cardiac output Define myocardial ischemia. decreased blood blow to the <3 cause by partial blockage of coronary artery What is a cause of ischemia and heart attack? a blockage of the coronary artery Why does the heart have valves? to keep blood moving in one direction, to ensure proper flow with strong pressure Name the 4 chambers of the heart. r atrium, r ventricle, l atrium, l ventricle What is systole and diastole. systolic pressure is the higher of the two pressures. it occurs during ejection phase. diastole is the weaker of the pressures and occurs during the filling phase (time between isovolumetric relaxation and isovolumetric contraction) Why is high blood pressure dangerous? the higher the bp is the more work the <3 muscle is doing which means it can become fatigued which will lower sv. which will increase hr, which fatigues it more, which lowers it more untill you die In what blood vessel does gas exchange occur? cappillaries What is a characteristic of arterioles? thick muscular layer, vaso constrict/dialate.carry o2 rich blood What is a characteristic of veins? low pressure low resistence, deoxyginated blood back to heart What is a characteristic of arteries? pulsitile, high pressure, lots of elastin and collagen! How do you treat arrhythmias? albation(scrape excitable cells away),anti-arrythnmics, How do you treat a heart attack? angioplasty(baloon), by pass, stents, diet/exercise How do you treat heart failure? remove fluid, increase contractility w/ digitalis, surgery, Name two functions of the cardiovascular system. transport nutrients, o2, and hormones, remove metabolic wastes(co2) protection(wbc) Regulation(temp, ph) What structure initiates contraction in the heart? SA node Name the 3 waves seen in an ECG. pwave, qrs, t wave What occurs in heart rate and stroke volume with heart failure? sv decre
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