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ANTH 1150 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Linguistic Description, Sociolinguistics, Phenotype

Course Code
ANTH 1150
Marta Rohatynskyj
Study Guide

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Anthropology Midterm Notes
Kottak- Chapters: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
Knauft- Chapters: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
Lectures- 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11.
Videos- 1, 2.
Kottak Definitions Chapter one: What is Anthropology?
Adaptation: The process by which organisms cope with environmental stresses.
Anthropology: The study of the human species and its immediate ancestors.
Applied anthropology: The application of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, and
methods to identify, assess, and solve contemporary social problems.
Archaeological anthropology: The branch of anthropology that reconstructs, describes,
and interprets human behavior and cultural patterns through material remains; best
known for the study of prehistory. Also known as "archaeology."
Bio cultural: Referring to the inclusion and combination (to solve a common problem) of
both biological and cultural approaches—one of anthropology's hallmarks.
Biological (or physical) anthropology: The branch of anthropology that studies human
biological diversity in time and space—for instance, hominid evolution, human genetics,
human biological adaptation; also includes primatology (behavior and evolution of
monkeys and apes). Also called physical anthropology.
Cultural anthropology: The study of human society and culture; describes, analyzes,
interprets, and explains social and cultural similarities and differences.
Cultural resource management (CRM): The branch of applied archaeology aimed at
preserving sites threatened by dams, highways, and other projects.
Cultures: Traditions and customs that govern behavior and beliefs; distinctly human;
transmitted through learning.
Ethnography: Fieldwork in a particular culture.
Ethnology: The theoretical, comparative study of society and culture; compares cultures
in time and space.
Food production: Plant cultivation and animal domestication.
General anthropology: The field of anthropology as a whole, consisting of cultural,
archaeological, biological, and linguistic anthropology.
Holistic: Interested in the whole of the human condition past, present, and future; biology,

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society, language, and culture.
Linguistic anthropology: The branch of anthropology that studies linguistic variation in
time and space, including interrelations between language and culture; includes historical
linguistics and sociolinguistics.
Natural selection: Originally formulated by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace;
the process by which nature selects the forms most fit to survive and reproduce in a given
environment, such as the tropics.
Phenotype: An organism's evident traits, its "manifest biology"—anatomy and
Racial Classification: The attempt to assign humans to discrete categories (purportedly)
based on common ancestry.
Science: A systematic field of study or body of knowledge that aims, through experiment,
observation, and deduction, to produce reliable explanations of phenomena, with
reference to the material and physical world.
Sociolinguistics: Study of relationships between social and linguistic variation; study of
language in its social context.
Tropics: Geographic belt extending about 23 degrees north and south of the equator,
between the Tropic of Cancer (north) and the Tropic of Capricorn (south).
Chapter 2 Definitions: Culture
Acculturation: The exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into
continuous firsthand contact; the original cultural patterns of either or both groups may
be altered, but the groups remain distinct.
Core Values: Key, basic, or central values that integrate a culture and help distinguish it
from others.
Cultural Relativism: The position that the values and standards of cultures differ and
deserve respect. Anthropology is characterized by methodological rather than moral
relativism: In order to understand another culture fully, anthropologists try to understand
its members' beliefs and motivations. Methodological relativism does not preclude
making moral judgments or taking action.
Cultural Rights: Doctrine that certain rights are vested not in individuals but in
identifiable groups, such as religious and ethnic minorities and indigenous societies.
Diffusion: Borrowing between cultures either directly or through intermediaries.
Enculturation: The social process by which culture is learned and transmitted across the

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Ethnocentrism: The tendency to view one’s own culture as best and to judge the behavior
and beliefs of culturally different people by one’s own standards.
Generality: Culture pattern or trait that exists in some but not all societies.
Globalization: The accelerating interdependence of nations in a world system linked
economically and through mass media and modern transportation systems.
Hominid: A member of the taxonomic family that includes humans and the African apes
and their immediate ancestors.
Hominins: A member of the human lineage after its split from ancestral chimps; used to
describe all the human species that ever have existed, including the extinct ones, but
excluding chimps and gorillas.
Human rights: Doctrine that invokes a realm of justice and morality beyond and superior
to particular countries, cultures, and religions. Human rights, usually seen as vested in
individuals, would include the right to speak freely, to hold religious beliefs without
persecution, and not to be enslaved.
Independent invention: Development of the same culture trait or pattern in separate
cultures as a result of comparable needs and circumstances.
Intellectual property rights (IPR): Each society’s cultural base its core beliefs and
principles. IPR is claimed as a group right a cultural right, allowing indigenous groups
to control who may known and use their collective knowledge and its applications.
International culture: Cultural traditions that extend beyond national boundaries.
National Culture: Cultural experiences, beliefs, learned behavior patterns, and values
shared by citizens of the same nation.
Particularity: Distinctive or unique culture trait, pattern, or integration.
Subcultures: different cultural symbol-based traditions associated with subgroups in the
same complex society.
Symbol: Something, verbal or non-verbal, that arbitrarily and by convention stands for
something else, with which it has no necessary or natural connection.
Universal: something that exits in every culture.
Chapter 3 Definition: Doing anthropology
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