Study Notes

21 Pages

Hospitality and Tourism Management
Course Code
HTM 2030
Marion Joppe

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CHAPTER 1 Tourism in Perspective Tourism: the process, activities, and outcomes arising from the relationships and the interactions among tourists, tourism suppliers, host governments, host communities, and surrounding environments that are involved in the attracting and hosting of visitors. UNWTO definition of tourism: tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes. Visitor: those persons who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence but outside their usual environment for a period not exceeding twelve months and whose main purpose of visit is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited. - In 2008, the travel and tourism industry accounted for $5.9 trillion of economic activity and 238.3 million jobs. - In 2018 it is estimated to account for $10.9 trillion of economic activity and 296.3 million jobs - Travel and tourism will continue to expand faster than the economy as a whole and faster than comparable industries Worlds Top 5 Tourism Destinations (2006) 1. France 2. Spain 3. US 4. China 5. Italy Worlds Top 5 Tourism Earners (2006) 1. US 2. Spain 3. France 4. Italy 5. China What Tourism means to the US economy - Travel spending in the USrds projected to total $721.9 billion in 2006 - Tourism is the nations 3 largest retail industry - Over 7.5 million Americans employed directly for a total of over 16 million jobs - Tourism provides more than 684,000 executive level positions in each year - Travel industry provides a disproportionate number of jobs for the traditionally disadvantaged Economic Benefits of tourism - Provides employment opportunities - Generates foreign exchange - Increases incomes - Increases GNP - Can be built o n existing infrastructure - Develops an infrastructure that will also help stimulate local commerce and industry - Can be developed with local products and resources - Diversifies the economy - Tends to be compatible with other economic activities - Spreads development - High multiplier impact - Increases governmental revenues Social Benefits of Tourism - Broadens educational and cultural horizons - Improves quality of life higher incomes and improved standards of living - Justifies environmental protection and improvement - Provides tourist and recreational facilities that may be used by a local population Cultural Benefits of Tourism - Reinforces preservation of heritage and tradition - Visitor interest in local culture provides employment for artists, musicians and other performing artists enhancing their cultural heritage - Breaks down language barriers, sociocultural barriers, class barriers, racial barriers, political barriers, and religious barriers - Creates a favorable worldwide image for a destination - Promotes a global community - Promotes international understanding and peace Economic Disadvantages of tourism - Develops excess demand - Results in high leakage - Creates difficulties of seasonality - Causes inflation - Can result in unbalanced economic development - Increases vulnerability to economic and political changes Social disadvantages of tourism - Creates social problems - Degrades the natural physical environment and creates pollution - Degrades the cultural environment - Threatens family structure - Commercializes culture, religion, and the arts - Creates misunderstanding - Creates conflict in the host society - Contributes to disease, economic fluctuation, and transportation problems CHAPTER 2 Tourism though the Ages Seven wonders of the ancient world - Great Pyramids of Egypt - Hanging Gardens of Babylon - Tomb of Mausolus as Halicarnassus - Statue of Zeus at Olympia - Collosus of Rhodes in the Harbour at Rodes - Great Lighthouse in Alexandriea, Egypt - Temple Atremis at Ephesus New Wonders of the World - The Great Wall of China - The Ancient city of Petra in Jordan - The statue of Christ the Redeemer in Rio de Jeneiro - Machu Picchu in Peru - The Maya ruins of Chihn Itza in Mexico - The Colosseum in Rome - Indias Taj Mahal Historic Transportation - Stagecoach Travel - Water Travel - Rail Travel - Automobile and Motor coach travel - Air travel CHAPTER 3 Career Opportunities Career Possibilities - Airlines - Bus companies - Cruise companies - Railroads - Rental car companies - Hotel, motel, resolrts - Travel agencies - Tour companies - Food service - GDS systems - Tourism education - Tourism research - Travel communications - Recreations and leisure - Attractions - Tourist offices and information centers - Convention and visitor bureaus - Meeting planners - Travel publications CHAPTER 4 World, National, Regional, and Other Organizations Tourism organizations can be viewed in the following ways 1. Geographically 2. By ownership 3. By function 4. By industry 5. By motive World Travel and Tourism Council Some goals are: 1. Work with governments to make tourism a strategic economic development and employment priority 2. Move toward and open and competitive markets 3. Pursue sustainable development 4. Eliminate barriers to growth in the industry United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) - Most widely recognized organization in tourism - Serves as a global forum - Transfers tourism know-how - Produces statistics and market research - Develops tourism human resources - Works to facilitate travel - Promotes sustainability - Creates special projects Examples of developmental organizations - World banks - United nations development program - Asian development bank - FONATUR (Mexico) - EMBRATUR (Brazil) Regional International organizations - Organization for economic cooperation and development o Mostly European membership, but US, Canada, Japan and Australia are also members - Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA)
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