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unit 11.chaptersummary.docx

Course Code
MUSC 2140
Howard Spring

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Chapter 16
“New Idioms” (p. 439-448):
Fusion is all music situated on the boundary between jazz and pop.
3 schools of music were emerging in the Swing era: rhythm & blues,
mainstream pop vocals, and Latin jazz.
In the 1940s an offshoot of swing music called “jump” music was made
popular by Louis Jordan, later this type of music is known as R&B (rhythm &
blues). The lyrics in this type of music might be risqué, satirical, serious, or
socially relevant, but always marked with a humorous attitude.
Louis Jordan was an alto saxophonist, signer, and songwriter as well as an
influential bandleader.
o In 1938 he organized a band called “Louis Jordan and His Tympani
o Band was made up of: 2 saxophonists, 1 trumpet player, a three-man
rhythm section
o The band achieved great commercial success
o His music derived much of its appeal and humor from Southern black
o His music humanized blacks and depicted them as no more or lesser
than anyone else
Ray Charles was a blind signer and pianist; he single-handedly represented
a fusion between swing, bop, R&B, gospel, and rock.
o Struggled as a musician for several years before he turned to his
gospel roots
o Born into an impoverished family and orphaned at 14 years old
o Left school and tried to earn a living in jazz and hillbilly bands
o Made his first record in Seattle
o He placed a few hits on the R&B charts
o He perfected an original style that combined blues, advanced bebop
harmonies, and gospel
o Signed with Atlantic Records in 1952
o Nickname: “the Genius Ray Charles”
Soul Jazz new school of jazz
o Employed a strong backbeat, an aggressive urban sound, and gospel-
type chords
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o Preferred basic harmonies, shorter solos, clearly defined dance
Jimmy Smith was an organist who had a direct expression of the fusion
between jazz and R&B
o His music sustained a popular audience for jazz in the black
community in the 1950s and 1960s
o Nickname: “the Incredible Jimmy Smith”
o He launched a new kind of trio centered around the Hammond B3
organ, supported by drums and either guitar or tenor saxophone
o His music was brash, bluesy, lean, and rocking
o At 9 years old he won an amateur contest broadcast on Philadelphia
radio, playing boogie-woogie
o He had been schooled mostly in blues and gospel music
o “The Organ Grinder’s Swing” the leadoff track of an album that
captures Smith at his peak. Released in 1965.
The Hammond B3
o Inventor Laurens Hammond had introduced the first Hammond organ
in 1935
o Idea was to replicate the opulent sound of a pipe organ through
purely electronic means
o Model B3 was introduced in 1955
o Caught Smith’s attention in 1955
“Latin Jazz” (pg. 458-464):
The most famous of all the Latin bandleaders was Xavier Cugat, a Spanish
born violinist whose family moved to Cuba when he was a boy.
o Played with Havana’s Opera Company and the Berlin Symphony
before traveling to LA
o Organized his first band in 1929
o His fame peaked in the 1940s
o His band did not play jazz, but it furthered a vogue for Latin music and
The new Cuban-jazz fusion was known as Cubop or Afro-Cuban jazz, and its
relatively little-known godfather was the trumpet player and arranger Mario
Mario Bauza was born in Havana, came to NY as a teenager and worked with
important big bands, like Chick Webb.
o Attempted to form a an Afro-Cuban band with Frank Grillo (aka
o Their band was forced to fold
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