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NUTR 1010 (148)
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FINAL REVIEW.docx

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Department
Nutrition
Course
NUTR 1010
Professor
Jess Haines
Semester
Fall

Description
Week 8 - consumed worldwide: water, tea, coffee - consumed drug worldwide: caffeine o found in: tea leaves, coffee beans, cocoa beans o what it does: stimulates central nervous system (energized) o Health Canada: 400 mg/day (3 cups) o Downfall: irritability, insomnia, nervousness, headaches Tea Consumption is ^^ in Canada - why? Growing availability, health benefits - 79 L/person/year o black tea: 76% - 78% --Europe, North America, North Africa o green tea: 20% - 22% -- Asia o oolong: <2% -- China and Taiwan - tea comes from: Camellia sinesis o length of time exposed to air determines taste and colour - Catechins o Antioxidant o Highest concentration in green tea o Content depends on:  Geographical location  Growing conditions  How leaves are made  Type of tea  Preparation - Theanine o Amino acid o Mental function o Calmer, relaxed, focused - ** Herbal tea is not tea – no caffeine or catechins - Tea benefits: o Antioxidant o Decrease risk of heart disease o ^^ bone density o ^^ mental performance o prevent dental caries o anti-inflammatory effects - not consistent: “dose” – effects ranges from 1-6 cups/day Coffee - Americans drink more - Cafestol and Kahweol – coffee beans – released through hot water o ^^ heart disease and total cholesterol o Decreased oxidized LDL - More then 100 antioxidants identified in coffee - Caffeine and Antioxidants o ^^ risk of diabetes o Constricts cerebral blood vessels o Bronchial relaxation o Anti-Parkinson (males only) - Health Amounts Conflict o Amount consumed o Preparation o Concentration of constituents (like the bean, growing conditions) o Lifestyle - Caffeine and Bone Health o Too much can lead to bone loss o Younger people can compensate bone loss - Caffeine and Pregnancy o ^^ risk of miscarriage o no more than 300 mg/day (2 cups) o diuretic (fluid loss, pee more) o gets in breast milk (fussy baby) Alcohol - contain hydroxyl group - Ethanol – alcoholic beverages (two C molecules produced by action of yeast on CHO) - Make triglycerides, “glycerol” - One serving of alcohol (pure ethanol) = 15 grams/ ½ oz o 12 oz beer o 5 oz wine - 5% of total energy of N.A. diet comes from alcohol (don’t need it – 7kcal/g) - moderate consumption: o 2 drinks/day for a male o 1 drink/day for a female o no UL - depends on health, body size, etc. o ethanol is consumed:  alcohol dehyrogenase (ADH) in stomach and liver metabolizes  absorbed right from stomach to blood  can reach brain within 1 minute  most absorbed through upper small intestine, then to liver o the good:  decreases risk of CVD  red win contains resveratrol (antioxidant)  better cognitive scores than non-drinkers  small amount of wine before meals helps stimulate appetite - gradual drinking: o liver collects and metabolized alcohol (removes hydrogens)  Acetyl CoA enters TCA cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle, precoess by which we make energy)  ADH – metabolizes 80%  MEOS – metabolizes 10%  Remaining 10% is excreted through lungs and urine - Rapid drinking: o alcohol will not metabolize – straight to brain o if drink a lot before you pass out, alcohol will affect parts of brain that control breathing and heart rate o excess drinking:  acute effects (suicide, car accidents, etc.)  chronic alcohol abuse  cirrhosis (liver disease/damage)  numerous nutrient deficiencies  alcohol crosses placenta and into fetal blood - Functions of Bones o Structural support o Protect vital organs o Attachment o Nutrient reservoir o Production of blood cells - Bones Made of: o 70% mineral  hydroxyapatite  calcium & phosphorus crystals  provides strength and rigidity o other 30%  collagen matrix  flexibility and durability  blood vessels, nerves, cartilage, connective - Nutrients involved in bone health: o Major: calcium, vit D, phosphorus o Minor: vit K, vit A, protein, fluoride, magnesium - Processes of Bone Development o Bone growth  Begins in womb o Bone modeling  Longitudinal growth – stops after puberty o Bone remodeling  Lifetime; bone resorption and bone formation - Bone Resorption o Osteoclasts breakdown bone o Minterals are released to the bloodstream - Bone formation o Osteoclasts build new bone o Hydroxyapitite mineralizes around collagen - Skeletal Maturity o Bones reach final size and shape o Women 18, men 21 - Peak bone mass o Final diameter and density o Influenced by diet and exercise, 30 years old - Bone mineral density o Bone strength and fracture risk (low bone mineral density, high fracture risk) o Decreases with all o Measured using DXA (dual energy x-ray absorptimetry)  Change in bone density  Diagnose osteoporosis  T-score – how does your bone density compare to average peak bone density of healthy 30-year-old? (below one, zero, plus one = good) - Osteoporosis o Low bone density, ^^ bone fragility & ^^ fracture risk o “porous bones” o risk increases with age o women 3x higher risk o modifiable risk factors  nutrient  low body weight  alcohol use and cigarette smoking - Calcium o Most abundant mineral o 99% bones and teeth o Ca bank – maintain blood Ca levels – withdraw or deposit Ca into bones when needed o 1% of Ca in blood and soft tissues  transmit nerve impulses  muscle contraction  healthy blood pressure, regulates hormones and enzymes o normal blood Ca: 2.20-2.58 mmol/L  less than 2.20 = hypocalcemia (convulsions, twitching, spasms)  more than 2.58 = hypercalcemia (loss of appetite, nausea, fatigue, muscle weakness) o ** dietary intake does not influence amount of Ca in blood** o RDA for men and women = 1000 mg/day (neither get enough in Canada) o Bioavailability  Our bodies can absorb and use any given nutrient  Bioavailability of Ca is ~30%  Varies with age, requirements, diet, source  Broccoli is ^^ in Ca while spinach is low o Too much:  Blood Ca stays the same  Supplemental Ca can lead to mineral imbalances o Too little:  Blood Ca stays the same  Long-term osteoporosis – too many withdrawals and deposits o Ca supplements:  Ca carbonate has most Ca/pill  Ca absorbed best with food - Vitamin D o Fat-soluble, excess stored in liver & body fat o Not always from diet o Active form in hormone called “calcitriol” (binds Vit D to receptor on cell surfaces) - Functions: o Regulate blood Ca levels o Process by which Ca & P are crystallized o Sunlight major source o Many Canadians inadequate during the winter o Expose hands, arms & face b
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