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Final

NUTR 1010 Study Guide - Final Guide: Bone Density, Bone Resorption, Herbal Tea


Department
Nutrition
Course Code
NUTR 1010
Professor
Jess Haines
Study Guide
Final

Page:
of 10
Week 8
- consumed worldwide: water, tea, coffee
- consumed drug worldwide: caffeine
o found in: tea leaves, coffee beans, cocoa beans
o what it does: stimulates central nervous system (energized)
o Health Canada: 400 mg/day (3 cups)
o Downfall: irritability, insomnia, nervousness, headaches
Tea Consumption is ^^ in Canada
- why? Growing availability, health benefits
- 79 L/person/year
o black tea: 76% - 78% --Europe, North America, North Africa
o green tea: 20% - 22% -- Asia
o oolong: <2% -- China and Taiwan
- tea comes from: Camellia sinesis
o length of time exposed to air determines taste and colour
- Catechins
o Antioxidant
o Highest concentration in green tea
o Content depends on:
Geographical location
Growing conditions
How leaves are made
Type of tea
Preparation
- Theanine
o Amino acid
o Mental function
o Calmer, relaxed, focused
- ** Herbal tea is not tea no caffeine or catechins
- Tea benefits:
o Antioxidant
o Decrease risk of heart disease
o ^^ bone density
o ^^ mental performance
o prevent dental caries
o anti-inflammatory effects
- not consistent: “dose” – effects ranges from 1-6 cups/day
Coffee
- Americans drink more
- Cafestol and Kahweol coffee beans released through hot water
o ^^ heart disease and total cholesterol
o Decreased oxidized LDL
- More then 100 antioxidants identified in coffee
- Caffeine and Antioxidants
o ^^ risk of diabetes
o Constricts cerebral blood vessels
o Bronchial relaxation
o Anti-Parkinson (males only)
- Health Amounts Conflict
o Amount consumed
o Preparation
o Concentration of constituents (like the bean, growing conditions)
o Lifestyle
- Caffeine and Bone Health
o Too much can lead to bone loss
o Younger people can compensate bone loss
- Caffeine and Pregnancy
o ^^ risk of miscarriage
o no more than 300 mg/day (2 cups)
o diuretic (fluid loss, pee more)
o gets in breast milk (fussy baby)
Alcohol
- contain hydroxyl group
- Ethanol alcoholic beverages (two C molecules produced by action of yeast on CHO)
- Make triglycerides, “glycerol”
- One serving of alcohol (pure ethanol) = 15 grams/ ½ oz
o 12 oz beer
o 5 oz wine
- 5% of total energy of N.A. diet comes from alcohol (don’t need it – 7kcal/g)
- moderate consumption:
o 2 drinks/day for a male
o 1 drink/day for a female
o no UL - depends on health, body size, etc.
o ethanol is consumed:
alcohol dehyrogenase (ADH) in stomach and liver metabolizes
absorbed right from stomach to blood
can reach brain within 1 minute
most absorbed through upper small intestine, then to liver
o the good:
decreases risk of CVD
red win contains resveratrol (antioxidant)
better cognitive scores than non-drinkers
small amount of wine before meals helps stimulate appetite
- gradual drinking:
o liver collects and metabolized alcohol (removes hydrogens)
Acetyl CoA enters TCA cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle, precoess by
which we make energy)
ADH metabolizes 80%
MEOS metabolizes 10%
Remaining 10% is excreted through lungs and urine
- Rapid drinking:
o alcohol will not metabolize straight to brain
o if drink a lot before you pass out, alcohol will affect parts of brain that control
breathing and heart rate
o excess drinking:
acute effects (suicide, car accidents, etc.)
chronic alcohol abuse
cirrhosis (liver disease/damage)
numerous nutrient deficiencies
alcohol crosses placenta and into fetal blood
- Functions of Bones
o Structural support
o Protect vital organs
o Attachment
o Nutrient reservoir
o Production of blood cells
- Bones Made of:
o 70% mineral
hydroxyapatite
calcium & phosphorus crystals
provides strength and rigidity
o other 30%
collagen matrix
flexibility and durability
blood vessels, nerves, cartilage, connective
- Nutrients involved in bone health:
o Major: calcium, vit D, phosphorus
o Minor: vit K, vit A, protein, fluoride, magnesium
- Processes of Bone Development
o Bone growth
Begins in womb
o Bone modeling
Longitudinal growth stops after puberty
o Bone remodeling
Lifetime; bone resorption and bone formation
- Bone Resorption
o Osteoclasts breakdown bone
o Minterals are released to the bloodstream
- Bone formation
o Osteoclasts build new bone
o Hydroxyapitite mineralizes around collagen