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nutrition 1010 lecture review for midterm (1).odt

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University of Guelph
NUTR 1010
Andrea Buchholz

Nutrition Review Midterm (1) Nutrition: is the science that studies food and how food nourishes our bodies and influences our health. Why we eat the foods we do: • culture, religion, beliefs/values, social, convenience, advertising, economy, emotional comfort, habit, personal preference, positive associations, weight/body image, nutritional value, appetite, hunger. Appetite: The psychological desire to eat specific foods. Pleasant sensations associated with food, influenced by: • psychological factors, brain compounds, inborn appetites, some health conditions, medications/drugs. Hunger: The physiological sensation in response to a need for food. Unpleasant/ negative sensation. Hunger is influenced by: • brain (hypothalamus), amount and type of food we eat, blood glucose levels, exercise, hormones. >hormones: neuropeptide Y hunger UP galanin ------------------------------------------------- leptin fullness UP cholecystokinin A Nutritious Diet: • provides proper combo of nutrients and energy • Nutrients: are chemicals found in foods. They are critical to human growth and development. ◦ Nutrients include: -carbohydrate, fat, protein (macronutrients- energy containing) -vitamins, minerals (micronutrients- do not contain or produce energy) -water ◦ Energy: -the amount of energy in food that can be supplied to the body -measured in kilocalories (kcals, calories) -obtained from energy-containing macronutrients -carbohydrate (4 kcals/g), fat (9 kcals/g), protein (4 kcals/g) • is adequate, moderate, varied, balanced ◦ adequate: if it provides enough energy, nutrients, and fibre to maintain health. May be adequate in one area but not in another. ◦ Moderate: if we consume the right amounts. Moderation relates to portion size and frequency, for example consumption of alcohol. ◦ Varied: if we consume a variety of different foods each day. ◦ Balanced: if we consume combinations of foods providing proper balance of nutrients. Even if your diet is adequate in meats, it's not balanced unless it is also adequate in veggies. Health: a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Includes physical activity and occupational, social, emotional, intellectual and spiritual health. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) DRIs for most nutrients DRIs for energy and macronutrients Estimated Recommended Adequate Tolerable Estimated Acceptable average dietary intake upper intake energy macronutrient requirement allowance (AI) level requirement distribution (EAR) (RDA) (UL) (EER) (AMDR) (EAR): represents the average daily nutrient intake level that meets the requirements of half the healthy individuals in a given group. (RDA): average daily nutrient intake level that meets nutrient requirements. (AI): based on educated guesswork, AI is a recommended average nutrient intake level based on observed or experimentally determined estimates of intake by a group of healthy people. Not based on EAR. (UL): highest average nutrient intake level likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in a particular stage and gender group. (EER): average dietary intake predicted to maintain energy balance in healthy adults. (AMDR): is defined as a range of intakes for a particular energy source that is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients. An AMDR is expressed as a percentage of total energy intake. Dental Fluorosis: -can turn into skeletal fluorosis -caused from too much fluoride intake -teeth can only be bleached to fix outer appearance, however the problems lie much deeper -makes bones brittle -(in children) Three Main purposes of food labels: 1. Basic product information • ingredients, product weight, net quantity, expiry date, grade or quality, country of origin, manufacturer, importer. 2. Health safety and nutrition info • amounts and types of fats, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, in a specified serving size. 3. Provide a means for marketing or promoting product by label claims • “low fat” “cholesterol free” “high source of fibre” etc. Main Components of a food label: 1. ingredient list 2. nutrition facts table (1+2=mandatory) 3. nutrient claims 4. health claims (3+4=optional) The 13 core nutrients are: • fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, carbohydrate, fiber, sugar, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, iron. • Because of their health professional and scientist-driven choices. To read and use nutrition facts table: 1. serving size 2. calories 3. % daily value % Daily Value: • how much a serving contributes to your overall intake of various nutrients on label • amounts of fats, sodium, carbohydrate and fibre in 1 serving listed in 1 g or mg, AND %DV • based on recommendations for 2000 kcal diet • foods with <5% DV are low in that nutrient • foods with >20% DV are high in that nutrient Nutrient content claims: claims made about a nutrient in a food. “free” “more” “reduced” “source of” “light/ lite” (light is meaningless) • low fat = reduced risk of heart disease • low salt, high potassium= reduce risk of high blood pressure • adequate calcium and vitamin D= reduce risk of osteoporosis • variety of fruit and veggies= reduce risk of certain cancers Digestion: process by which foods are broken down, either mechanically or chemically. Absorption: process of taking products of digestion from gastrointestinal (GI) tract into the bloodstream or lymph system. Elimination: process by which undigested and unabsorbed products of food and waste products are removed from the body. Digestion begins in the mouth: • chewing initiates mechanical digestion ◦ breaks down food into smaller components, mixes nutrients together • saliva moistens food and initiates chemical digestion ◦ salivary amylase starts carbohydrate digestion • products of this digestion moves down esophagus with help of peristalsis Peristalsis: squeezing and pushing contractions that move food in one direction through the GI tract (much like a snake eating) *stomach has strongest muscles of the digestive tract *protein digestion is one of the stomach's main functions chyme: unrecognizable mush at the bottom of the stomach Role of the Stomach: • mixes, digests, and holds food • secretes gastric juice ◦ hydrochloric acid ( activates pepsin ) ◦ gastric lipase ( begins chemical digestion of dietary fat ) ◦ mucus ( protects stomach
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