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Course Code
PSYC 2310
Saba Safdar
Study Guide

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- 50 Exam Questions
-  Chaptes  Qs fo eah
-  Letues  Qs fo eah letue
Chapters 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, & 14
- Including all the material associated with each chapter in Wiley Plus (Videos at end of
Lecture one
Methods of Investigation
- Controlled Experiment
o Advantage - Provides context for addressing whether an effect is real and which
theoretical account explains it
o Disadvantage - Eliminate other sources of influence
- Participant Observation
o Researcher becomes an observer and participant of the situation and learn the
dynamics of the setting
Persuading other people = you become part of that environment
Politicians are in the business of persuasion (they need our votes)
o Controlled breathing If you can give a full set of information in one breath,
people will have to listen to you you do not give them the chance to stop
listening or ask question as you are constantly throwing out ideas
Six Principles of Social Influence
- Robert Cialdini found that the key to successful influence is what we do before attempting
to influence
1. Reciprocation
- Complying with a request of someone who has previously provided a favor (we say yes to
those people who already said yes to help us, help those who helped us)
- According to Anthro, reciprocation exist in every single society/culture/human
2. Social Validation
- Complying with a request if it is consistent with what similar others are thinking of doing
o Based on Social Comparison Theory (Festinger, 1954)
- Milgram, BIckman & Berkowitz (1969)
o Wanted to see how many people stop and look up
o When there are 6 people 84% of people stop and look up
o When there is one person 47% of people stop and look up
3. Consistency
- After committing to a position, one is more likely to complying with request that are
consistent with that position (Cialdini, 1995)
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o Technique based on consistency is foot-in-the-door technique
Start with small request, then make a second request that is bigger but
still consistent with the first request, same goes for third request, its
bigger but consistent with past 2 request
- Pile, Hat, Kohl & “ais stud o hait doatio
o 30% more people donated simply because the researched knocked on their door
o people who expected the pin wanted to be consistent with past positions
- Legitimization-of-paltry-favours (or even a penny would help) technique
o Considered one of the most effective ways for collecting small amounts from the
most people
- How are you feeling? Technique
o After they say they are doing good, you tell them about poor people and ask for
4. Friendship & Liking
- One is more likely to comply with the requests of friends or other liked individuals
(Cialdini, 1995)
- Increasing friendship/liking:
o Similarity - Is the way to increase the liking towards an individual who is trying to
persuade someone (if you go to a Porsche dealership vs Honda, employees at
Porsche will dress better to be similar to their customers)
o Complements People immediately have positive response to this. However,
you might think of it at a later time and could be dismissive but for the most part
during the moment it is a positive response.
o Cooperation We like people who cooperate with us, not those who contradict
us or our ideas
o Physical attractiveness Tend to be very effective in persuading people. WE
think people who are physically attractive are smarter, kinder, tell the truth,
desee help et… e vote for people who are taller and handsome vis-à-vis
5. Scarcity
- One tries to secure opportunities that are scarce
o Anything that is scare is more valuable, we are motivated to secure our access to
a scare opportunity or item
- Sources of power of scarcity:
o Scarcity means something is valuable or better quality
o Scare interferes with personal freedom and people react against the interference
by wanting to posses the item more (Based on Psychological Reactance Theory;
Brehm, 1966)
- Scarcity of future products
o Limited availability of a product enhances value perceptions and purchase
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o It has been found that consumers may react to the unavailability of a product by
inflating their preference for it
o Advertising for future products is called nextopia
This is popular, amazing but it is not available now
6. Authority
Lecture two
Stages of Competence
Should be able to communicate clearly then persuasively to get people to agree with you
- Effective Communication
o Isomorphic attribution (triandis 1977)
- Four stages of Competence (Howell 1982)
o Unconscious incompetence
ex. Samuri asked to sleep with you and you interpreting it as a sexual
o Conscious incompetence
Now you realize what is happening; realize your own inabilit ut dot
have any framework to process it differently
Bull-fighting in spain; Safdar was aware how incompetent she was to
understand how killing bulls was entertainment when she, grouping up in
Canada, holds her own cultural view of this being considered animal
o Conscious Competence
Engage in behaviour that is different from your own cultural values so
you change your behaviour, but you know it will be received positively
Obama bowing when meeting the royal family in China
o Unconscious competence
Youe so opetet ou dot ealize
Ho ou ehae i lass, at a fueal, the dotos offie…
Source and Structure of Message
In individualistic society we consider someone who is an expert or credible to be the best
source of a message; they are more persuasive than a loser, someone who is not an expert
- Best source of message
o Individualistic credible, smart, expert, winner
o Collectivist older males and famous families
- Structure of message
o Individualist: Linear, conclusionis supported through inductive or deductive
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