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Things to Remember for Cognitive Psych Midterm 2.docx

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PSYC 2650
Dan Meegan

Things to Remember for Cognitive Psych Midterm 2  Retention savings = (study time before – study time after) (study time before)  Measuring study time for 2 perfect recitations  Interested in what you are studying / relevance to you, will decrease rapid loss of information  Forward associations show retention savings for learning forward list greater than random list  Backwards associations show retention savings for learning backward list greater than random list  Strengths: selection of stimuli, independent measure, innovative dependent measure  Problems: some nonsense stimuli have meanings, only used himself to study (Representative? Bias? Expertise?)  Encoding  extended practice, list length  Storage  forward and backward associations (serial order)  Retrieval  retention interval  The more you understand material, the more likely you will remember it in 5, 10, 15 years  Elaborative recalled more than control group (doctor hated lawyer)  Personalizing and reflecting on material (elaboration and deep processing) leads to best recall  Meaningful elaboration (test cues by having same recall word, one is semantically related the other rhymes, find that semantically related cue is more effective, this is because it involves deeper processing  Self reference vs. finding e or g  deeper processing in self reference therefore better recall  Do not need intention to form memory, more important the level of processing  Intention indirectly effects memory, intention is likely to lead to elaboration  Memories are forgotten not lost (test paired associates, those that were not recalled were tested again and found that unchanged paired associates were recalled more than the changed pair associates)  Can have source memory without familiarity (Capgras) and vice versa (I know your face but I can’t remember why you look familiar)  Encoding retrieval correspondence (4 phase experiment, encoding specificity lab  old>new, strong and weak did not really matter, scuba divers, foreground background image, differences in cues [piano], same goes for olfactory environment and mood)  Proactive interference: old info disrupts learning of new info  Retroactive interference: new info disrupts with remembering of old info  TOT right about first letter, syllables, sounds like, in vocabulary  Degree of semantic relatedness in neural network model differs between individuals (based on experiences, different connections, different strengths)  Subthreshold activation – below response threshold, can be added together to reach threshold  If node has been activated recently, can be warmed up therefore need less activation to reach threshold (lexical decision task through semantic priming shows that you are given 2 words and asked if both are string of words, first word is prime word, if second word is in prime word’s network, will be processed faster and thus show faster RTs)  Fan effect says that the more nodes that are connected to the concept that is being activated, the longer it will take to process any one of those concepts o High degree fan vs. low degree fan  Learn sentences (1-1, 2-1, 2-2) and given recognition test if sentence was seen before and show that 1-1 has fastest RTs and 2-2 have slowest RTs (T or F)  Limited ecological validity  experts have many interconnected related nodes  Implicit memory experiments: false fame (misattributing sense of familiarity to fame), illusion of truth (misattribute familiarity to being the truth), sometimes effect how we feel about totally different stimuli (loudness)  Causes of amnesia: head injury, cerebral vascular injury, electroconvulsive therapy, chronic alcohol abuse, AD, neurosurgery, epilepsy, tumours  AA  after, RA  before  7 week coma, 5 months complete AA, RA for 2 years, temporal gradient, 8 months, begin to form new memories, AA 3 months, RA 1 year, 4 years patchy, 16 months no AA, RA 2 weeks, 23 weeks total of no memory  Bilateral medial lobectomy  severe AA and RA for 2 years  Korsakoff’s  melodies, trivia, hand prick  Double dissociations for LTM and STM o STM intact, conversations, IQ, no primacy effect, normal digit o LTM intact, more rare, no recency effect, digit span approx. 2  Double dissociations for episodic and semantic o No, old vs. new not semantic vs. episodic  Double dissociations for implicit / procedural and explicit / declarative o Implicit in tact, have unconscious awareness of words in word stem task o Explicit in tac
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