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Midterm

Sociology 1500 midterm prep.docx

12 Pages
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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 1500
Professor
Michelle Dumas

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Sociology 1500 Midterm Prep 29/10/2013 10:25:00 AM Sociology 1500 midterm prep Consensus crimes – mala en se Conflict crimes – mala prohibita Objectivist approach – consensus crimes, high agreeance on morals, causation, who/why/cause Subjectivist approach – labelling, act determined and then labelled, power – create and enforce law, social reaction, what should and shouldn’t be considering criminal, conflict crimes Crime control – punishment as a deterrence Due process – justice, legal right of the accused Role of prosecutor- burden of proof, prove accused is guilty, screen and disclosure Role of defense attorney - prevent conviction of innocent, rehab Deterrence theory – protect law abiding citizens 10 specific legal defences  mistake  self defense  duress – blackmail  necessity  consent – ie fighting  provocation  intoxication  insanity  automatism – sleepwalking  entrapment – undercover cop type deal mild deviance  loitering, vandalism, anything against social norms medium deviance  assault, breaking & entering, counterfeit, fraud severe deviance  murder, sexual assault, human trafficking, terrorism John Hagan’s pyramid  Severe crimes, consensus crimes, very harmful, high agreeance of wrong behaviour  Conflict crimes, moderate, somewhat harmful, high disagreement of wrong behaviour  Social deviations, moderate, somewhat harmful, confusion of wrong behaviour  Social diversions, relatively harmless, mild, confusion or apathy of wrong behaviour Cultural relativity – different ways of defining crime across different cultures Historical – natures of behaviour and perception of behaviour changes over time Contextual – how a situation is interpreted Gender – some behaviour considered acceptable based on gender Deviance and crime  Deviance behaviour outside of norms – criminal  Criminal – deviance  Legality Occupations  Criminologist. Criminalists (science based), criminal justice professionals – policing, courts, corrections, crime trends, media (how it constructs our view of crime) Approx. 184 police officers for every 100,000 people Most of government spending goes towards policing – dangerous  2 to corrections, then courts, legal aid and prosecutions models of criminal justice  crime control o rights and deterrence – protecting rights, deterring crime, minimum sentencing, mandatory sentencing o community – make it safe, protect, trust officials o punishment – punish guilty persons  due process o rights & convictions – of accused o corrections – errors in system o justice – fairness and equality, avoid power abuse by state, prevent innocent persons being convicted Legal definition  criminal code – all offences considered criminal, consists of sentencing legal defences ect.  Based on criminal codes Civil law – individual Administrative law – business misconduct Criminal law – crimes against state  Indictable – federal prison 2+ years  Summary – misdemeanour -2 years  Hybrid – conflict – indictable or summary Elements of crime  Principles of criminal liability – you are liable for your behaviour  Actus reus – physical element  Mens rea – mental/guilty mind  Intent and action  Commission – doing a prohibited action  Omission – didn’t do something you were required to do  Thoughts into actions Elements of the law  Specificity – criminal code, punishment  Uniformity – same for all people  Penal sanctions – punishment should fit the crime Methods of proof  Trial by ordeal – religious connotation  Trial by battle – whoever wins is righteous person  Trial by jury and law of evidence – modern lawn, criminal code and charter Factual defences – person challenges evidence/investigator Legal defence – written criminal code, reduce charge, lack of criminal intent Research design – exploration, description, explanation  Experiments (variables, pretesting/post testing (cause and effect), experimental and control groups, used to view causation and effect)  Quantitative – empirical evidence, surveys, reliability  Participants may skew results if they know they are being studied  Qualitative – subjective, observation, case studies, interviews, ethnography, undercover operation. Validity, able to observe unwilling/unable, rich detail, natural setting, small sample size, cannot make generalizations, dangerous, researchers not protected by law Content analysis  Media, different mediums  comparisons, manifest (empirical) and latent content (meaning) Milgrim experiment – teacher shocking learned - quantitative Humphreys -do homosexual men prey on children - qualitative Ethics  consent, privacy, deceit, protection from mental/physical harm measuring crime  official statistics – police reports, statistics Canada, UCR (uniform crime reporting) – only crimes that come to attention of police  UCR – able to compare rates across time and areas, consistent, accurate, problems include – crime funnel – many crimes go unreported or police do not press charges (discretion) Organizational practices  Official statistics  Assumptions – that information is correct/accurate  Problems – cause of death (faked suicide), distort statistics Self report surveys  Report of crimes a person has committed  Police more likely to convict poor people  Avoids police bias  Detects unreported crime  Relies on memory  Validity is not strong Victimization surveys  1960’s – personal victims of crime  why do crimes go unreported – police couldn’t do anything, dealt other way, didn’t want police ect.  Relies on memory  Depends how person interpreted situation  Must have willingness to report Social dimensions of crime  Correlate  Correlates of crime – age, gender, race, social class  Young males more likely to be victimized or involved in crime  Age – except white collar crimes, most likely to be convicted are14-25  Youth are over policed, more capable, lack experience to avoid detection Greenberg  Youth have higher opportunity to commit crime  Peer pressure Gottfredson  Index crimes – more frequently committed crimes  Based on demographics – population density Why do males commit more crimes  Biological and psychological – women more passive  Different socialization compared to women  Less social controls  More opportunity Classical schools  Enlightenment – hedonism (pain and pleasure)  Free will  Social contract  Punishment  Utilitarianism – greater good Neo classical  Self control theory – Gottfredson o Calculations of social constraints o risk and benefit o characteristics of self control o gratification – immediate need Deterrence theory  Making behaviours riskier  Absolute deterrence – penalties quick and severe  Relative deterrence – controlled (LCBO)  Cross deterrence – penalties for 1 crime deter further crimes  Restrictive deterrence – avoid punishable acts  General deterrence – demonstration effect  Specific deterrence – person effect of being punished  Capital punishment – typically not a deterrence, risk of innocent being convicted, discriminatory, circumstantial evidence Roper simmons  Reversal to adult status instead of capital punishment (for youths) Individualistic theories  Move towards science  Lombroso – atavism – characteristic of prisoners (physical)  Ferri – born criminals, insane, passion, occasional, habitual  Policy – isolation (remove criminal), eugenics (sterilization)  Criticisms – subjects used were criminals, crime definitions ch
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