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PHSI 208 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Melatonin, Olfactory Nerve, Sympathetic Ganglion

Course Code
PHSI 208
Baillie Landon
Study Guide

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Physiology 208 Course Notes
Physiology The study of the normal functioning of a living organism and its component parts,
including all its chemical and physical processes. The term physiology eas koledge of
Known as an integrative (unifying separate things) science. It is closely tied to anatomy,
the structure or a cell, tissue or organ that must provide a physical base for its function.
Emergent Properties Properties that cannot be predicted to exist based on knowledge of the
sste’s idiidual opoets. Eeget popeties esult fo ople, oliea
interactions of the different components.
Examples include emotion or intelligence in humans that cannot be predicted from
knowing the individual properties of nerve cells.
The Human Genome Project (1990) Scientists thought that by identifying and
sequencing all the genomes in the human DNA, they would understand how the body
Levels of Organization
Cells The smallest unit of structure capable of carrying out life processes. Atoms of elements
link together to form cells.
Tissues Collection of cells carrying out related functions.
Organs Formation of tissues into a structural and functional unit.
Organ Systems Integrated groups of organs.
Integumentary System Responsible for the protection from external environment. Includes
the skin.
Musculoskeletal System Responsible for supporting and movement. Includes skeletal muscles
and bone.
Respiratory (Pulmonary) System Responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
between the internal and external environments.
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Digestive (Gastrointestinal) System Also known as GI System; Responsible for conversion of
food into particles that can be transported into the body; elimination of some wastes. Includes
the stomach, intestine, liver and pancreas.
Urinary (Renal) System Responsible for the maintenance of water and solutes in the internal
environment; as well as waste removal. Includes the kidneys and bladder.
Reproductive System Responsible for the perpetuation of the species. Includes the ovaries
and uterus and testes.
Circulatory (Cardiovascular) System Responsible for transporting materials between ALL cells
of the body. Includes the heart, blood vessels and blood.
Nervous System Responsible for coordination of body function through electrical signals and
release of regulatory molecules that will act on cells and tissues. Includes the brain and spinal
Endocrine System Responsible for coordinating the body function through synthesis and
release of regulatory molecules such as hormones. Includes thyroid gland and adrenal gland.
Immune System Responsible for defense against foreign invaders such as bacteria and
viruses. Includes the thymus, spleen and lymph nodes.
Theme 1: Structure and Function
Function o h is osideed a teleological approach.
E.g. Wh do ed lood ells taspot oge? Beause ells eed oge ad RBC’s
bring it to them.
Teleological Approach Thinking about a physiological event in terms of its adaptive
significance is the teleological approach to science.
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Mechanism o ho is osideed a ehaisti appoah. Phsiolog ofte fouses o a
mechanistic approach.
E.g. How do red blood cells transport oxygen? Oxygen binds to hemoglobin molecules in
the red blood cells.
Mechanistic Approach Examines process.
Textbook Explanations Theme 1:
Molecular Interactions The ability of individual molecules to bind to or react with other
molecules is essential for biological function. A molecules function depends on its structure and
shape. Interactions between proteins, water and other molecules influence cell structure and
the mechanical properties of cells and tissues.
Compartmentation Is the division of space into separate compartments. Compartments allow
a cell, a tissue, or an organ to specialize and isolate functions. Each level of organization is
associated with different types of compartments.
Theme 2: Living Organisms Need Energy
Textbook Explanations Theme 2: Growth, reproduction, movement and homeostasis are all
processes that take place in an organism require the continuous input of energy.
Theme 3: Information Flow Coordinates Body Functions
Textbook Explanations Theme 3: Information flow in living systems range from the transfer of
information stored in DNA from generation to generation (genetics) to the flow of information
within the body of a single organism. At the organismal level, information flow includes
translation of the genetic code into proteins that are responsible for cell structure and function
as well as the many forms of cell-to-cell communication that coordinates the functioning of a
complex organism. In the human body, information flow between cells take the form of either
chemical or electrical signals. This may either be local communication or long-distance
communication. When chemical signals reach their target cells, they must transfer their
information from outside the cell to the inside of the cell.
Theme 4: Homeostasis Maintains Internal Stability
Textbook Explanations Theme 4: Organisms that survive in challenging habitats cope with
external variability by keeping their internal environment relatively stable, an ability known as
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